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Full text of "Abstract of the proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York"

X 






ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINNAEAN SOCIETY 



OF NEW YORK CITY, 



FOR THE OFFICIAL YEAR 1888-89. 



OFFICERS. 



President, George B, Sennett. 

Vice-President, .... Frank M. Chapman. 

Recording Secretary, . . Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Corresponding Sec. and Treasurer, Newbold T. Lawrence. 



The Society meets the first and third Friday evenings of 
each month at the rooms of the Geographical Society, No. n 
West 2Qth Street. 



VI 
[From 'The Auk,' Vol. IV", Xo. 2, pp. 196-204, April, 1SS9.J 

SCIENTIFIC SOCIETIES. 

Linnaean Society of New York. 

The Society has issued no regular publications since August. 1884. 
when Vol. II of the 'Transactions' was published. Many papers read 
before the Society have been printed in 'The Auk,' 'Forest and Stream, 
and elsewhere. The following is a resume of the Proceedings for the 
official year 1S88-89. 

April 13, 18SS. — Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper giving a chronological sketch of the 
life of John James Audubon. 

Mr. William Dutcher reported the capture of a Wilson's Plover (s2?g/al- 
itis -Mihonid) several years ago on Long Island. He read a letter from 
Mr. George Lane, an intelligent and observant gunner from the same 
locality, stating that about two weeks ago he had seen a bunch of these 
birds bound east. 

Mr. Chapman spoke of the immense size of the flocks of Shore-birds 
seen on the west coast of Florida, particularly one of Knots (Tringa 
canutus), which were very tame. 

A number of specimens of Shore-birds were exhibited by Mr. Jonathan 
Dwight, Jr. 

May, 11, iSSS. — Mr. Newbold.T. Lawrence. Treasurer, in the chair. 

An invitation was received from the Linnaean Society of London to 
attend its centennary the present month. 

Mr. L S. Foster read 'Notes upon the migrating birds of the spring 
of 188S as observed near Van Cortlandt. N. Y.. and at Woodside, Long 
Island.' 

(0 



A discussion of the effects of the "blizzard" of March 12 of the present 
year upon avian life developed evidence as to the extensive destruction 
of English Sparrows (Passer domesticus) in this vicinity. Many of these 
sought the protection of out-buildings and henneries, two being actually 
found the next morning under a hen. Many perished from lack of food 
and the severe cold. In New Jersey great numbers of other species 
sought refuge in sheltered ravines. On Staten Island a Blue Jay (Cyano- 
citta cristata) was seen to drop dead from a tree, and near Lawrenceburg, 
Long Island, a Seaside Finch (Ammodramus maritimus) was found dead 
on March 12, this date being also an early record for this species. 

Dr. C. Slover Allen instanced the death of many Bank Swallows (C/t'v- 
icola riparid) after a three days* storm at Grand Menan. He also exhib- 
ited two nestlings of the Black Duck {Anas obscura) and fragments of one 
of the eggs, showing the perforated line around the larger end made by 
the young bird for escaping. This line is always made to the right. 

October 12, 1888. — Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a list of birds noted this summer at Kiskatom, 
Greene Co., N. Y. 

Mr. Ernest E. Thompson stated that he had heard the following birds 
singing throughout the night, viz. : the Golden-crowned Thrush (Se tu- 
rns aurocapillus), the Chipping Sparrow (Spt'zella socialis), and the Song- 
Sparrow (Mclospiza fasciata),a.s well as most of the common songsters. 
Mr. Thompson also remarked upon the effect of wind in repressing the 
songs of birds. 

Mr. William Dutcher remarked that contrary to the usual published 
statements, he believes that Wilson's Petrel (Oceatiites oceanicns) is the 
common one off our coast, as the majority of Long Island records are of 
this species. They were common at Little Gull Island in August, 18S8. 

Novetnber 30, 18S8. — Mr. George B. Sennett. President, in the chair. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman read a paper entitled 'Notes on the Birds of 
Aiken, S. C.,' based on observations made there in November, 1S87. Fif- 
ty-seven species were noted, among them a flock of fifty Crossbills, 
probably the third record for the State, and a single Vireo solitarius alti- 
cola, the second record for the State (see Auk, July, 18S8, p. 324). About 
nine tenths of the birds seen were Sparrows and nine tenths of these 
Spizella socialis. He learned that a Mockingbird (Mt'mus poylglottos) 
had been observed to herald the approach of each shock of the memora- 
ble South Carolina earthquake by peculiar twitterings several moments 
before the rumble became audible. The English Sparrows left Aiken in 
a body after the earthquake. 

A letter from Mr. William M. Wood of San Francisco spoke of the 
great number of Sea-birds that are washed ashore dead on the Pacific 
coast after a storm. 

Mr. George B. Sennett said that Mr. Paul Babcock of New Jersey had 
found in his chicken coop during 'the blizzara' of last March an immense 
number of birds, estimated at fully twenty-five hundred, that had taken 
refuge there. Of these nearly one half were Bluebirds (Sialia sta/t's). 



the remainder being English Sparrows. Mr. Sennett spoke also of hav- 
ing- obtained at Erie, Pa., a few birds interesting as found in that locality. 
Among them a Caspian Tern {Sterna tschegravd) ; Horned Larks (Octo- 
cori's alpestris praticola), breeding; Shrikes {Lanius ludovicianus), 
breeding, and Grasshopper Sparrows {Ammodramtis savannarum passeri- 
nus) , breeding. 

Mr. John N. Drake mentioned finding parasites resembling grains of 
rice among the feathers of eight specimens of Red-headed Woodpecker 
(Melanerpes erythrocephalus) taken by him in Sullivan Co., N, Y., last 
summer. 

December 7, 1888. — Mr. George B. Sennett, President, in the chair. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper entitled 'Notes on the 
Mniotiltidae of Englewood, New Jersey.' Dendroica discolor is the only 
species lacking of the thirty-two which naturally should be found there. 
Dendroica tigrina and Geothlypis Philadelphia have been taken each 
once; Dendroica vigorsii and De?idroica castanea each twice. The three 
Helminthophila leiccobro?ichialis captured have been recorded in ' The 
Auk.' Twelve species are summer residents. Careful observations made 
upon Geothlypis formosa, a rather uncommon species at Englewood, 
show it to be a bird of peculiar song habits. A male was watched for 
several hours and during this period he was never silent more than three 
quarters of a minute at a time, uttering his marked five, six, or seven 
rapid notes every twelve seconds with wonderful regularity. This was 
early in June, 1886. A week later the same bird was in his usual haunts ; 
but at a later visit he was doubtless oppressed by family cares, and sang 
very little. The nest with young of another pair of these birds was found 
in a bush near the ground by Mr. Chapman and Mr. C. B. Riker and was 
exhibited. Of special note is the capture of a breeding female Helmin- 
thophila rnficapilla on June 16. It was not known to nest so far south. 
Commenting upon this paper Mr. Dutcher said that Dendroica discolor 
was a common bird on the north shore of Long Island; Dendroica vig- 
orsii fairly common there and restricted to the pines. 

Thei-e was some discussion about ants annoying birds, but whether 
they caused the birds to desert their nests and then attacked their eggs 
and young or only attacked them after they had been deserted, was not 
demonstrated. 

Mr. Foster spoke of a "barrel-ful" of birds killed by striking the Statue 
of Liberty on Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, the night of October 
S. 18S8. He saw but a small portion of them. 

Dr. C. Slover Allen showed photographs of the nest of a Purple Galli- 
nule {Ionornis martinica) and its surroundings taken by him at Lake Har- 
ris, Florida. 

December 21, 1888. — Mr. George B. Sennett, President, in the chair. 

Mr. J. A. Allen spoke upon the Tyrannidae and exhibited numerous 
specimens, largely from South America and the West Indies. This group 
is a very difficult one to study and its literature is scattered and unsatisfac- 
tory, although Sclater's 'Catalogue' of the familv, recently issued, is in 



mo*t respects excellent. There are upwards of four hundred species, 
which Mr. Sclater divides into four sub-families, as follows; 
i, Taeniopterinae ; 2, Platyrrhynchinae ; 3, Elaineinae; 4, Tyranninae. 
Specimens illustrating the great variation in the appearance of the Fly- 
catchers were shown and their peculiarities and relation to one another 
explained by Mr. Allen. Some of Taeniopterinae resemble Thrushes, 
Wagtails, and some of the Wood Warhlers, while some of the Elaineinae 
show wonderful variation in the length of wing of the same species 
and also in the form and size of the bill. Why Mr. Sclater has removed 
Sayomis ■phoebeU'ova among its relations, 6". nigricans and S. sayi, among 
the Taeniopterinae, and placed it in a genus by itself among the Tyranninae, 
is not clear to American students. 

January 4, 1889. — Mr. George B. Sennett, President, in the chair. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman read a paper entitled 'Remarks on the Northern 
Limit of the Carolinian Fauna on the Atlantic Coast.' Selecting nine spe- 
cies representative of Carolinian birds regularly occurring in or near the 
valley of the Hudson, the various northern records of these species were 
taken as a basis for some generalizations fully supported by the facts. 
The species selected were : 1, Empido?iax acadicus ; 2, Corvus ossifra- 
gus ; 3, Stelgidopteryx serripennis ; 4, Helmitherus vermivorus ; 5, Hel- 
miut/iopkila pinus ; 6, Geothlypis formosa ; 7, Icteria virens ; 8, Seiurus 
tnotacilla; 9, Sylvania mitrata. One of them, Seiurus ynotacilla, occurs 
as far up the Hudson as Albany, while most of the others have not been 
noted beyond Sing Sing. Most of them are found to be more or less 
common in Connecticut, while on Long Island they are with a few 
exceptions rare; thus indicating that while the Hudson Valley and 
southern Connecticut are distinctly tinged with the Carolinian fauna, 
Long Island has but little claim to such relationship. Mr. William 
Dutcher's evidence on this point supported Mr. Chapman's remarks, 
which were freely discussed by members of the society. Dr. L. B. 
Bishop supplied information bearing upon Carolinian species in Connecti- 
cut. He also spoke of a specimen of Ammodramus princeps taken in 
Connecticut ten miles from the sea. 

Mr. Dutcher spoke of the great scarcity cf birds this winter as noticed 
by his correspondents on Long Island. 

Mr. Chapman knew of several Tachycineta bicolor seen and killed by a 
gunner near Englewood on ., December 31, about 1881. The day was 
warm. He referred to the habit this species has of feeding upon bayberries. 
Dendroica coronata also feeds upon them, and last winter, when the ber- 
ries were abundant, this species was seen by him throughout the whole 
season independent of the weather, while this year none were to be 
found, and on examining the locality frequented last year by the birds he 
noticed that the crop of berries was small and the berries themselves bad. 
From this he was led to infer that the past unusually wet season may have 
rotted the seeds of the weeds upon which winter birds largely feed, and 
that this would account for their scarcity now. 

Mr. L. S. Foster spoke of an unusual flight of Killdeer Plover (sEgial- 



itis vocifera) along the New England coast after the storm of November 
27. Mr. Dutcher said that his men at the east end of Long Island re- 
ported large numbers of these birds early in December. 

January iS, 18S9. — Mr. William Dutcher in the chair. 

Mr. John Tatlock, Jr., upon being introduced, made some remarks about 
Prof. W. W. Cooke's recently published report upon 'Bird Migration in 
the Mississippi Valley.' In regard to the chapter on 'The Relation of 
Migration to Barometric Pressure and Temperature,' the speaker criti- 
cised Prof. Cooke's conclusions as being based upon insufficient data. 
Mr. Tatlock finds ground for believing that temperature alone influences 
bird migration, and differs further from Prof. Cooke, who thinks migra- 
tion occurs simultaneously over a wide area, in deeming it largely local. 
In the discussion which followed. Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., mentioned 
the necessity of the use of very full data in reaching conclusions. Mr. 
William Dutcher said that not very much regarding migration could be 
deduced from birds striking light-houses, for the reason that birds do not 
strike on clear nights. A single exception is that of a Greater Yellow- 
legs (Tota?ius melanoleucus) which struck a Long Island light-house one 
moonlight night. An unexplained fact is that where one bird strikes in 
the spring, twenty strike in the fall. 

Mr. Dutcher read extracts from a letter written by Mr. Austin F. Park, 
Troy, N. Y. , regarding Octocoris alpestris praticola breeding there on 
Green Island. Six, including three young, were taken July 21, 1888, and 
six others, one young just from the nest, on July 28. This is of special 
interest in comparison with the early breeding of the species in the 
western part of the State, as has been repeatedly recorded, as it doubtless 
indicates that the birds rear more than one brood each season. Mr. Dutcher 
also read extracts from the journal of the keeper of Little Gull Island 
light-house, Long Island, which related to the birds seen there from Au- 
gust 16, 1888, to the end of the year. The first Cormorants were noted Sep- 
tember 1. One third of those seen on Novembers were "the large kind," 
supposed to be Pkalacrocorax carbo. 

Mr. A. H. Hawley read a paper on the birds observed by him in Santa 
Clara and Santa Cruz Counties, California, during the year 1888, and 
exhibited a large number of specimens. 

February 1, 1889. — Mr. Geoi-ge B. Sennett, President, in the chair. 

Mr. Dutcher read a paper by Mr. Newbold T. Lawrence, entitled 'Long 
Tsland Bird Notes,' which will be published later in 'The Auk' : he also 
exhibited a singular looking mollusk {^Solus papulosa), in alcohol, from 
Long Island. 

Dr. George Bird Grinnell presented a paper upon the Rocky Mountain 
Goat (Maza?na montdna), which will be published in 'Forest and Sti-eam.' 
The limits of the range of this animal have never been fully defined by 
any one writer. It is a mammal belonging to the Arctic fauna and only 
found among the high and rugged mountains of the Rockies and Coast 
Range, where the snow lies all the year. The center of its abundance 
seems to be in Western Montana, Idaho and Washington Territories, and 



British Columbia, and it has been found from about latitude 44° to about 
latitude 65°; its southernmost records being on the highest peaks of the 
Sierra Nevada, near Mt. Whitney ('Forest and Stream,' Feb. 26, 1885). 
This Goat is in no immediate danger of extermination, as it inhabits the 
most inaccessible localities and has few natural enemies. 

Papers were read from the following persons : Mr. E. S. Gilbert, on 
Crow Roosts and Crows'; Dr. F. W. Langdon, 'On the Occurrence in 
large numbers of Sixteen Species of Birds in Ohio,' as follows : Fuhca 
amertcana, Ectopistes migratorius, Asio accipitrinus, Conurns carolinen- 
si's, Chordeiles virgiuiauus, Corvus americanus, Molothrus ater, Qi/isca- 
lus quiscula ceneus, Loxia curvirostra minor, Loxia leucoptera, Habia 
ludoviciana, Progne sub is, Clivicola riparia, Stelgidopteryx serripennis, 
Amfelis cedrorum, and Hehninthophila -peregrina ; Mr. George N. 
Lawrence, 'An Account of the Former Abundance of some species of 
Birds on New York Island at the time of their Migration to the South; 
Mr. C. J. Pennock, 'Thousands of Turkey Buzzards, and a Flight of 
Hawks;' Mr. John K. Sage. 'A Flight of Hawks;' and Mr. E. E. Thomp- 
son, on 'Bird Hosts in Manitoba.' Mr. John N. Drake also gave a verbal 
account of Grackles roosting in great numbers in a Maine swamp. Mr. 
Lawrence's paper having a peculiar personal and local interest is here 
given in full. 

An Account of the Former Abundance of some species of Birds o?i New 
York Island, at the time of their Migration to the South. By George N. 
Lawrence. 

At our country place (Forest Hill), eight miles from the City Hall, 
situated on the high ground immediately north of the valley of Manhattan- 
ville and fronting on the Hudson River, the opportunity to observe the 
movements of migratory birds was an excellent one, as they generally 
followed the course of the river in their line of flight. Here our family 
lived, during the summer, until about 1850, when the place was sold. 

From my earliest recollection I had a fondness for birds, and before I 
could use a gun, watched the great numbers passing with much interest. 
I was allowed to have a gun about the year 1820, and from that time until 
leaving our old homestead, I paid more strict attention to their movements 
and the times of their appearance. 

The first birds flying south were the Red-winged Blackbirds (Ageldius 
phocniceus) ; from the middle of July, for some weeks, there would be a 
flight of this species every afternoon, coming in flocks of from twenty-five 
to fifty or more individuals. 

During most of August and September, in the afternoon of each day 
there would be a continuous flight of the White-bellied Swallow {•Tachy- 
cineta bicolor), accompanied by a few Barn Swallows {Chelidon erythro- 
gaster) ; the number that passed was very great. 

About the first of September, when there was a strong northwest wind, 
Passenger Pigeons {Ectopistes migratorius) were sure to appear in great 



numbers, flying more abundantly in the morning, though there were oc- 
casional flocks all day. From our place north to Fort Washington Point, 
three miles distant, the view was unobstructed, and for the entire distance 
it was almost an unbroken forest. We could see the flocks make their 
appearance over the Point, consisting of from twenty-five to over a hun- 
dred Pigeons, and come sweeping down over the tree tops seemingly at a 
speed of about 75 miles an hour, and consequently they soon reached the 
position where we were awaiting them. The flocks followed each other 
in quick succession, and as they dashed by before a strong northwester — 
sometimes quite close to the ground — they did not offer an easy mark for 
even an expert gunner. I never succeeded in killing more than four 
with one shot, from a passing flock. 

On the south side of Manhattanville Valley the ground is elevated, 
much the same as it is on the north side. Here is one of the old country 
seats on the Hudson River, known as 'Claremont,' and this place "was 
fixed upon as the most eligible sight for General Grant's Tomb. The 
original fine dwelling house is still in good condition. During one of 
these great flights of Pigeons, the house was occupied by some gentleman, 
whose name I cannot recall, but I remember that from the top of the 
house, in one morning, a hundred or more were shot by him. These 
flights continued as long as I lived at Manhattanville, and Pigeons were 
quite abundant, I was informed, for some years after, but at the present 
time a single one would be a rarity. Even into October there would be 
a flight when the wind was favorable, but in the earlier flights they were 
the most abundant. 

In September Kingbirds (Tyrannus tyrannies') flew south in considerable 
numbers. They were much prized as game, by our foreign citizens with 
shooting proclivities. 

About the first of October, on the occurrence of a few cold days, there 
would be a flight of Golden-winged Woodpeckers (Colafttes auratus) and 
some Red-headed Woodpeckers (Mela tier fies erythrocefhalus). They 
did not come in flocks, but singly in large numbers. 

At the same time Blue Jays (Cyanocitta cristatd) passed south in large 
flocks. 

On favorable days in October there would be large flights of Crows 
( Corvus americanus ) winging their way south to a more congenial 
climate. 

In October flocks of Cedar birds ( Amfielis cedrornm) migrated south 
very regularly. During the same month the plaintive melody of the note 
of the Bluebird (Sialia stall's) would be heard overhead from passing- 
flocks. This favorite species was much sought after by young gunners : 
I have seen boys with long strings of them, carried in that way for the 
want of a game bag. 

By the middle of October, Robins (Merula migratoria) were abundant, 
sometimes flying in flocks, but at other times they came in such numbers 
that they could be seen almost everywhere. They continued to be 
numerous for about two weeks, when the majority went south, though 



some would remain even into the winter. The flight was usually from 
the north, but on one occasion, the first great flight of that year, was from 
the south at the point where I was, and I never saw them in greater num- 
bers. This was a movement that much surprised me. 

When I was a schoolboy a favorite skating place was Stuyvesant's 
Creek, a considerable body of water, which had its head quite close to the 
Third Avenue, about 20th Street, and it emptied into East River — I think 
about 1 2th Street. On the north side of it, there were high woods, where 
I have seen Robins pursued by gunners, when the ground was covered 
with snow and the creek frozen. 

Speaking of skating, reminds me of an experience I had when a boy; 
it was one that probably but few persons have had who are now living. 
I skated from the 'Collect,'* (quite a large pond so called, which existed 
near where the 'Toombs' now stands in Centre Street) down the Canal 
t hat ran through the middle of Canal Street and was the outlet of the 
Collect, I passed under the wooden bridge, that crossed the canal at 
Broadway, and on to Lispenard's Meadows, some distance west of Broad- 
way. These meadows occupied a large area, and extended to the Hudson 
River. 

At the time the Robins were migrating, there would be frequently 
flocks of Meadow Larks {Sturnella magna) going south. I recollect in 
my younger days, that about three miles from the City Hall, on the east 
side of the Bloomingdale Road, were extensive pasture fields — about 
where 40th Street now is; in these the Larks accumulated in large num- 
bers in October, and of course were much hunted by city gunners. 

March 1, 1SS9. — Annual Meeting. Mr. George B. Sennett, President, 
in the chair. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year. President, 
Mr. J. A. Allen; Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman; Secre- 



[* Concerning this pond, DeWitt Clinton says, in his paper read before the N. Y. 
Lyceum of Natural History, August 9, 1824, 'On the Hirimdo fulva of Vieillot* : 
"Reputable men, laboring under optical delusion, have declared that they have wit- 
nessed the descent of the swallow into the Hudson, and the pond on Manhattan Island 
called the Collect." 

"North of this lay the Fresh Water Pond, with its neighboring district of the Collect 
or Katch-Hook. This name, which finally came to be applied to the pond itself, was 
originally given by the Dutch settlers to a point of land on the shores of the pond of 
about forty-eight acres in extent, the site of an old Indian village. The Fresh Water 
Pond was one of those traditional ponds which are found in every village, reputed to 
have no bottom — a reputation which it failed to sustain against the researches of 
modern times. The pond was indeed, very deep ; deep enough, in fact, to have floated 
the largest ships in the navy. Its waters were filled with roach and sunfi^h, and to 
preserve these, the city authorities passed an ordinance in 1734, forbidding any person 
to fish in it with nets, or in any other way than angling. But the beautiful pond has passed 
away, and the spot where its sparkling waters once played is now filled by the 'Halls of 
Justice' with its gloomy prison cells.''— Mary L. BOOTH, Hist. City of New York, 
1st. ed., 1859, pp. 322, 323.— L. S. F.] 



tary, Mr. Jonathan Dvvight, Jr. ; Treasurer, Dr. C. Slover Allen. Reso- 
lutions were adopted relative to the death of Mr. S. Lowell Elliott, a Resi- 
dent Member. Mr. Ernest E. Thompson made some remarks upon the 
'Zoographical Areas of the Province of Ontario, Canada,' in substance as 
follows : A line drawn from the southern end of Georgian Bay to the east- 
ern end of Lake Ontario seems to divide the Canadian from the Allegha- 
nian fauna, and this same line is the dividing line between the Laurentian 
and Silurian geological formations. North of it is a region of rocks and 
fresh water lakes, where are found such species of birds as the Spruce Par- 
tridge (Deudragapus c?inade?isis) , Hudsonian Chickadee (Parus hudso?ii- 
cus), and Three-toed Woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus and/ 5 , americanus) ; 
while south of it is found an alluvial soil and a fine farming country, where 
such species as the Black Squirrel (Sciurus caroline7isis leitcotis), Fox 
Squirrel (S. niger ludovicianus) , Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila ccerti- 
lea), Wood Thrush (Tardus mustelinus) , and Red-bellied Woodpecker 
(Melanerpes carolinus) are found. Along the shores of Lake Erie grow 
liriodendron, walnut, chestnut and peach. North of this is a region of 
tamarack swamp, although in elevation 250 feet higher. At Ottawa there 
is an area of depression, characterized by many forms of life usually confined 
to more southern latitudes. Such species as Polioptila ccerulea, Tardus 
mustelinus, Harporhynchus rufus, Am mod ramus passerinus, and Ammo- 
dramus caudacutus are among those recorded from this region. Near Lake 
Nipissing is another area of depression where some oak and beach are 
found. A curious fact is that during the spring migration the Plovers 
and Shore-birds. approach Toronto from the east and then turn abruptly 
northward, while the Warblers come from the southwest. Fifty years 
ago the Skunk (Mephitis mephitica) was not found at Toronto, where it 
is now established. A strange record is that of a Franklin's Spermo- 
phile (Spermophilus franklini) killed near Gravenhurst, about 120 miles 
north of Toronto. 

Mr. George B. Sennett exhibited, from his collection from Tamaulipas, 
Mexico, many species of birds given in Mr. Ridgway's 'ManuaF as found 
in the region contiguous to the United States, and liable to occur within 
oar limits. — Jonathan Dwight, Jr. , Recording Secretary. 



A List of Members of the Linnaern Society 



HONORARY MEMBERS. 
Dr. Elliott Coues. George N. Lawrence. Daniel G.Elliot 

RESIDENT MEMBERS. 



Dr. C. Slover Allen. 
J. A. Allen. 
S. T. Barker. 
Eugene P. Bicknell. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Wm. M. Conklin. 
John N. Drake. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
William Dutcher. 
L. S. Foster. 
Dr. A. K. Fisher. 
Langdon Gibson. 
George Bird Grinnell. 
H. S. Harbeck. 



A. S. Higgins, Jr. 
Dr. F. H. Hoadley. 
Frank E. Johnson. 
Newbold T. Lawrence, 
Alfred Marshall. 
Dr. C. B. McQuesten. 
Dr. Edgar A. Mearns. 
Dr. C. Hart Merriam. 
Dr. Robert T. Morris. 
Wm. C. Osborne. 
Jenness Richardson. 
C. B. Ridker. 
George B. Sennett. 
Louis A. Zerega. 



CORRESPONDING MEMBERS- 



Dr. C. C. Abbott. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Charles Dury. 
Dr. Wm. H. Fox. 
E. S. Gilbert. 
B. F. Goss. 
Dr. W. H. Gregg. 
Dr. Juan Gundlach. 
C L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 
Dr. F. W. Langdon. 



William K. Lente. 

H. W. Mason. 

Thro. L. Mead. 

Dr. James C. Merrill. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Dr. Thos. S. Roberts. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

Dr. R. W. Shufeldt. 

E. Carleton Thurber. 

Ernest E. Thompson. 

Dr. Spencer Trotter. 

Dr. B. H. Warren. 

Dr. Samuel W. Williston. 

Thos. W. Wilson. 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^AN SOCIETY 



OF 



NK W YORK 



For the Year Ending March 7, 1890. 



OFFICERS. 



President, . . . . . . J- A. Allen. 

Vice-President, ..... Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, ..... Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Treasurer, L. S. Foster. 



The Society meets on the first and third Friday evenings of 
each month at the rooms of the American Geographical Society, 
No. ii West 29th Street, New York City. 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^EAN SOCIETY 



nsris-vsr ttozflik: 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 7, 1890. 



A large proportion of the papers read before the Society have been published 
in full in ' The Auk,' ' Forest and Stream ', and the * Bulletin of the American 
Museum of Natural History '. Consequently only the titles, with reference to 
the place of publication, are given in the abstract which now follows, showing in 
outline the work of the Society during the year ending with the meeting of March 
7, 1890. 

March 15, 1889. — The President in the chair. Twelve persons present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper ' On the Breeding Habits of the Swifts of 
the World. ' Many authorities were cited, and the twenty known species were 
treated at length. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett stated that a nest with four eggs of the Great Horned Owl 
[Bubo virginianus) had been found by one of his collectors at Corpus Christi, 
Texas, Feb. 22, 1889. Its site was unusual,-— a hole, in the low bluff of a river 
bank, such as the Barn Owl {Strix pratincold) regularly selects in Texas, — and, 
stranger still, it contained three live rattlesnakes. He had also received a set of 
eggs of the Bald Eagle (Haliieetecs leucocephalus), taken Nov. 6, 1888, — "a case 
of beginning to lay the year before." 

Dr. Robert T. Morris mentioned that the chrysalids of the Cecropia moth (also 
of the Prometheus moth) were unusually abundant this year in the vicinity of New 
York City, nearly every deciduous tree being covered with them. Those on 
Long Island that he had examined had been destroyed by the ichneumon, which 



is known to be a check upon the increase of the Cecropia, and he thought it would 
probably attack the chrysalids in New Jersey next year. Other members had 
noted their abundance. 

Mr. Jenness Richardson reported the capture at Sing Sing, Jan. 19, 1889, of a 
Glaucus Gull (Lar us glaucus), the second record of this species for New York. 

April 19, 1889. — The Vice-President in the chair. Nine persons present. 

A newspaper clipping was read by Mr. Jonathan D wight, Jr., wherein Lieut. 
Gibbons of the Navy states it as his opinion " that fish-eating birds, cape pigeons, 
petrels, etc., eject oil from the mouth for the purpose of stilling the waves about 
them when floating on the water. " A later admission -that the oil may be de- 
posited involuntarily, or at least without such purpose, seemed more plausible. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman outlined his recent trip to Brevard Co., Florida, de- 
scribing the nature of the country, and the interesting specimens obtained there. 
Among them were some Round-tailed Muskrats (Neofiber alleni), hitherto known 
from four specimens only [see Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., June, 1889, Vol. II, 
No. 3] ; also two Bachman's Warblers {Helminthophila bachmani) [see Auk, 
Vol. VI, 1889, p. 278], not taken on the Atlantic coast since the types were ob- 
tained in South Carolina, in 1840 ; and fifteen Paroquets (Conurus carolinensis), 
the rarity of which well-nigh exterminated bird does not need comment. Mr. 
Chapman had good opportunity of observing several small flocks in the wild 
region they inhabited on the Sebastian River. In this region Florida Ducks 
[Anas fulvigula), and typical Florida Red-shouldered Hawks {Buteo lineatus 
alleni) were resident, and a Great White Heron (Ardea occidentalis) was seen. 

Mr. Jonathan D wight, Jr., illustrated with specimens the changes of plumage 
through which several species pass before attaining adult dress, e.g., Chickadee 
(Parus atricapillus), Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis), Golden-crowned 
Kinglet {Kegulus satrapd), and Black-throated Green Warbler {Dendroica virens). 
The young of the first two species are brighter and deeper colored in the fall and 
winter than are the adults, a fact first noticed by Mr. Wm. Brewster [see Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. Ill, 1878, pp. 17-21]. 

Mr. John N. Drake exhibited, in alcohol, a worm he had found embedded in 
the liver of a Wilson's Thrash ( Tardus fuscescens). 

May 3, 1889. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven persons present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read notes on birds seen by him April 30, 1889, near Van 
Cortlandt Lake, N. Y. 

Mr. Ernest E. Thompson stated that in England the Pheasant {Phasianus col- 
chicus) had to be artificially hatched and reared to prevent the species dying out. 
According to Dr. C. S. Allen this bird was successfully introduced on Jekyll 
Island, off the Georgia coast, and raised its own broods. The Wild Turkey 
(Meleagris gallopavo) still breeds on this island. 

May 17, 1889. — The President in the chair. Ten persons present. 

Mr. Arthur H. Howell read a list, with notes, of the birds he had found breed- 
ing on Long Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman stated that he had seen eggs of the Song Sparrow 
{Melospiza fasciatd) as late as Aug. 3, and eggs of the Cedar Bird (A?npelis 
cedrorum) on Sept. 13, in northern New Jersey. Mr. Chapman also related his 
experience, the night of May 15, 1889, fiom 8.10 to 11.05 P- M., watching 



migrating birds through a telescope at Columbia College, N. Y. The East River 
is probably a great highway of migration like the Hudson, upon which similar 
observations have been made and already recorded [see Auk, Vol. V, 1888, 
p. 32]. At times as many as three birds were in the field of view, and they 
straggled along much as flocks of swallows do. 

Some spring arrivals were reported at this meeting, among them a large flight 
of Yellow-bellied Woodpeckers {Sphyrapicus varius), after the warm days of 
April 11-12. 

Mr. Jenness Richardson gave an account of a recent visit to Amagansett and 
Gardiner's Island, Long Island. At the latter place, three nests of the Black 
Duck {Anas obscurd) were found early in May, one with young. The Carolina 
Wren ( Thryothorus hidovicianus) was met with twice. 

The absence of the Myrtle Warbler {Dendroica coronata) from the vicinity of 
New York City, the past winter was spoken of by several members. 

October 4, 1889. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven persons present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented some notes on birds observed by him at Kiskatom, 
N. Y., in August and September, 1889. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher reported the recent capture of an albino White-bellied Swallow 
(Tachycineta bicolor) at Good Ground, Long Island ; and also spoke of a migra- 
tion of hawks on Sept. 21-22. Those along the south shore of Long Island were 
largely Sparrow and Pigeon Hawks {Falco sparverius et cohimbarius) with 
numbers of Fish Hawks {Pandion halidetus carolinensis) and Marsh Hawks 
{Circus hudsonius), while those along the noi-th shore were mostly Sharp-shinned 
and Cooper's Hawks {Accipiter velox et cooperi). 

Mr. F. M. Chapman made some remarks upon the meadow mice of Little Gull 
Island, L. I., visited last summer by Mr. Dutcher and himself. They do not 
differ materially from the common Arvicola riparius and apparently show no ap- 
proach to the pale form inhabiting Muskeget Island. The immense number of 
toads on this island, where there are no snakes to destroy them, was striking. 

The migration of the brown butterfly {Danais arc/iipptts), as observed in the 
vicinity of New York and on Long Island, was discussed at length. During some 
days in the autumn the air is often filled with them passing southward. 

October 18, 1889. — The President in the chair. Nine persons present. 

Mr. J. A. Allen presented extended remarks, illustrated by specimens, upon a 
collection of mammals recently made by Dr. A. Buller in Zacatecas, Mexico. 
[This paper has been published in Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. II, No. 3, 
1 889 J Mr. Allen also gave a brief summary of recent progress in North Ameri- 
can mammalogy, referring especially to the impetus recently given through the 
excellent work of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, whose collection of the smaller North 
American .mammals is at present unrivalled in extent and in quality of the 
material. 

November 1, 1 889. — The President in the chair. Ten persons present. 
Mr. Frank M. Chapman read the following paper. 



Notes on the Carolina Paroquet {Conurus carolinensis) in Florida. By Frank 

M. Chapman. 

Fifteen years ago, Paroquets were more or less generally distributed throughout 
Florida and in many places were extremely abundant, and even at a more recent 
date they were not uncommon in numerous localities, but to-day they have entirely 
disappeared from the more settled portions of the state, and we may look for them 
only beyond the bounds of civilization, indeed in regions which are practically 
uninhabitable. In just what numbers they still exist it is impossible for us to say. 

Florida with its 58,000 square miles almost equals in area the whole of New 
England, and contains immense tracts of land still terra incognita to the naturalist 
so far as actual exploration goes, but the reports which we have received from 
these regions through 'plunders' (men who shoot birds for the milliners) and hunters 
who have visited them lead us to suppose that Paroquets may still be found in con- 
siderable numbers. I refer to the immense hummocks and swamps bordering the 
Gulf in western Florida, but more especially to that country known in part as 
' St. Johns Prairie ', a vast tract of totally uninhabited land lying south and 
west of the headwaters of the St. Johns, north of the headwaters of the St. Lucie, 
and between the Indian and Kissimmee Rivers, a country composed largely of 
open saw-grass prairies, more or less under water, dotted with occasional clumps 
of cypresses, pines or cabbage palms. Of the first named region, I have no personal 
knowledge, but from it we receive information which is undoubtedly accurate con- 
cerning the presence of Conurus in greater or less numbers (cf. Brewster, Auk, VI, 
Oct., 1889, p. 336) ; of the latter place, I have been told, a visiting hunter found 
Paroquets north of the north fork of the Sebastian River in large numbers no later 
than last Spring (1888), a report in which I think we may place some confidence, 
and my friend, Mr. George M. Field, found a small flock in the winter of 1887-88 
in the vicinity of the headwaters of the St. Lucie. 

During two winters, 1886-87 and 1887-88, I had endeavored to obtain some 
definite knowledge of the presence of Paroquets at any given locality, and although 
making diligent inquiry while travelling or collecting, not once did I find a person 
who could give me the positive information I desired. At Fort Myers, on the 
Caloosahatchie, I interviewed several plume hunters familiar with the Okeechobee 
region, but beyond two or three small flocks said to have been seen in the cy- 
presses at the northeastern part of the lake they had no knowledge of them ; 
however, from a dealer at Fort Myers, Mr. C. B. Cory obtained two skins taken 
the preceding year (1887) on the Kissimmee, by a hunter who, the dealer in- 
formed us, had nearly a hundred in his possession, all of which, except the two 
procured, in too poor condition to be marketable. This is simply additional testi- 
mony in support of the report I have since received from the St. Johns region, and 
returning to Florida, the following year (1889), I determined to visit the east 
coast and continue the hunt so far as circumstances would permit. 

Reaching the east peninsula opposite Micco, February 14, I heard here vague 
rumors of Paroquets being found near the headwaters of the Sebastian River, a 
small stream flowing from the interior into the Indian River at a point six miles 
from our home. In less than a month these rumors assumed definite form in the 
shape of three specimens shown me from the region in question, and securing a 
boat I at once started with their captor for the scene of his success. 



5 

The Sebastian is a beautiful river ; no words of mine can adequately describe 
it. Half a mile wide at its mouth, it narrows rapidly, and three miles above 
appears as a mere stream which at our camp, eight miles up, was not more than 
fifty feet in width and about fifteen in depth. Its course is exceedingly irregular 
and winding ; the banks as we found them are high and for some distance from 
the water densely grown with palms and cypresses which, arching, meet overhead, 
forming most enchanting vistas, and in many places there was a wild profusion 
of blooming convolvulus and moon-flower. Immediately back of this semi-trop- 
ical growth appeared the pines, which extended as far as the eye could reach, 
with occasional openings termed • prairies ', varying in extent from two or three 
to as many hundred acres, where the trees were replaced by a species of tall grass 
growing scantily in the shallow water which flooded these meadows. Such local- 
ities were frequented by occasional Sand-hill Cranes, and perhaps here also 
herons once abounded ; now the survivors have retreated to the more inaccessible 
prairies of the interior, and we heard rumors of rookeries to be attacked by parties 
organized expressly for the purpose. About these ' prairies ' and at the borders 
of small streams or low ground grew in abundance a species of thistle (Cirsium 
Lecontei, T. & G.) the seeds of which, so far as I could learn, constituted at this 
season the entire food of Coniims. Not a patch of thistles did we find which had 
not been visited by them, the headless stalks showing clearly where the thistles had 
been neatly severed by the sharp chisel-like bill, while the ground beneath favorite 
trees would be strewn with the scattered down. 

From a favorite and productive patch, late on the night of our arrival, we 
started a flock of seven birds. Evidently their meal was finished and they were 
ready to retire, for they darted like startled doves through the pines, twisting and 
turning in every direction, and flying with such rapidity they were soon lost to 
view, the ring of their sharp rolling call alone furnishing proof it was not all a 
vision. Two days passed before I again met Conurus, and this time to better ad- 
vantage. It was a wet and drizzling morning when we found a flock of six birds 
feeding on thistles at the edge of a ' prairie \ Perched on the leafless branches 
of the tree before us, their brilliant green plumage showed to the best advantage, 
as we approached through the pines without difficulty. Several were skillfully 
dissecting the thistles they held in their feet, biting out the milky seed while the 
released fluffy down floated away beneath them. There was a sound of sup- 
pressed conversation ; half articulate calls. We were only partially concealed 
behind a neighboring tree, still they showed no great alarm at our presence ; 
curiosity was apparently the dominant feeling. One of the three birds which fell 
at our fire was but slightly wounded, a single shot passing through the elbow, 
and his loud outcries soon recalled his companions, — a habit which has cost thou- 
sands of them their lives, and in part at least accounts for the rapidity of their 
extermination, — and one alone of this flock escaped. 

There was an evident regularity in the habits of the birds we afterwards ob- 
served, — in all about fifty, in flocks of from six to twenty. At an early hour they 
left their roost in the hummock bordering the river and passed out into the pines 
to feed, always, so far as I observed, selecting thistle patches, and eating the seeds 
only when in the milky stage. At about ten o'clock they returned to the hum- 
mock and apparently to some favorite tree, here to pass the rest of the morning 



and early afternoon, when they again started out to feed, returning to the roost 
just before sunset. A flock of these birds feeding among the thistles is a most 
beautiful and animated sight ; one is almost persuaded not to disturb them. 
There is constant movement as they fly from plant to plant, or when securing 
thistles they fly with them in their bills to a neighboring tree, there to dissect them 
at their leisure. The loud rolling call was apparently uttered only when on the 
wing, but when at rest, or feeding, there was a loud conversational murmur of half 
articulate, querulous notes and calls. 

Of their roosting habits I can say little or nothing. Late one morning 
(March 15} we found a flock of eight birds resting on a tall, dead cypress near 
the centre of the hummock on the river's bank. On a previous expedition my 
guide had observed them in this same tree, which was evidently a favorite midday 
haunt, and it is not impossible they may have roosted in the hole we discovered 
up above. These birds took flight as we approached, but twice returned while we 
waited below, leaving five of their number with us. We secured in all, during 
our stay of one week, fifteen specimens, only one of which was immature and 
none of which showed signs of breeding. 

'Con,' the individual captured alive on the first day, proved an interesting 
but perfectly intractable pet. From the moment of his capture he exhibited 
not the slightest fear, and sat on his perch as sedately and with as much confi- 
dence in his own undoubted powers of self-defense as though he had been born in 
captivity. Thistles, he eagerly accepted from our hands, refusing unripe or 
imperfect ones and calling for more till his hunger was satisfied. In May he 
was brought north, and his food now consisted of hard kernels of corn, the cus- 
tomary cracker and various other kinds of parrot food, except an occasional bit of 
apple, having apparently no charms for him. He resisted every approach at 
intimacy and passed the greater part of the day, and frequently also the night, 
hanging by bill and claws from the top of his cage. In September he commenced 
to moult, and by November had acquired an entirely new plumage. This fact 
in connection with the undeveloped condition of the sexual organs in the individ- 
uals captured, would lead us to suppose they nest late in the summer. Whether 
constant association with mankind would in time have improved his disposition is 
a question which will never be settled, for in the following December poor ' Con ' 
met his death in the American Museum of Natural History by a midnight attack 
from rats. 

Mr. J. A. Allen read extracts from, and commented upon a Report by Dr, 
R. Blanchard, entitled ' De la Nomenclature des Etres Organises" presented 
at the Congres International de Zoologie, Paris, August, 1889. [A review of 
this 'Report' maybe found in Auk, Vol. VII, 1890, p. 73.] 

November 15, 1889. — The Vice-President in the chair. Fifteen persons pres- 
ent, including Mr. William Brewster of Cambridge, Mass. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman read a paper by Mrs. F. E. B. Latham of Micco, Brevard 
Co., Florida, 'On the nesting habits of the Loggerhead Turtle ' . It was ac- 
companied by a large series of embryos in different stages and occasioned con- 
siderable discussion. [Printed in ' Forest and Stream,' Jan. 9, 1890, p. 496.] 

Dr. Edgar A. Mearns presented an extended paper giving in much detail the life 
history of the squirrels of Arizona. In the discussion following, Mr. Sissenere 



made a few remarks upon the food habits of the squirrels of northern Europe ; 
Mr. Thompson stated that he had seen the Red Squirrel [Sciurus hudsonius) eat- 
ing fungus supposed to be poisonous ; Mr. Brewster had seen this animal eating 
mushrooms ; and Dr. Morris and Mr. Higgins had seen the Gray Squirrel 
{Sciurus carolinensis) do the same. Mr. Brewster also related how he had known 
both the Red Squirrel and the Chipmunk ( Tamias striatus) to occasionally pounce 
upon and carry off wounded birds. 

December 6, 18S9. — The Vice-President in the chair. Twenty-one persons 
present. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher exhibited a fine specimen of the Red-billed Hill Tit [Liothrix 
lute a) of India, recently shot on Long Island, N. Y. Its appearance did not in- 
dicate a cage bird, and it might have been added to the list of recorded extra- 
limital species if Mr. Jenness Richardson had not recollected that a lot of forty 
of this species had been imported last spring by a New York bird-fancier. Most 
likely this bird escaped, and has been enjoying its freedom all summer, which 
would account for its fresh appearance. This is a good illustration of how other 
strange captures might be accounted for. 

Mr. E. T. Adney presented a paper on ' Bird Names of the Milicetes.' As he 
had spent eighteen months in contact with this Indian tribe, he was well qualified 
to do justice to the pronunciation and derivation of names applied to familiar 
birds. The Milicetes live in New Brunswick, Canada, and have names for about 
eighty species of birds, distinguishing, as might be expected, only those that are 
prominent by habit, by color, or more particularly perhaps by song. Large 
birds, especially water-fowl, are known by the general name of ' seeps,' and 
small ones are called 'seepsis. ' Some species have several names applied to them, 
and when in imitation of their notes, the Indian representation is excellent. In 
some cases the original name has been replaced by one imitating the English or 
French word in use by the white settlers of the region. No work has ever been 
published on the dialect spoken by the Milicetes, so that when Mr. Adney pub- 
lishes his paper in full, as it is his purpose to do, it will be of interest not only to 
the ornithologist, but to the philologist as well. 

Mr. Alfred Marshall read a paper on the nests and eggs secured by him on 
Long Island, N. Y., during several past seasons. The list includes forty-eight 
species with full data of each set taken. 

Mr. Oscar Sissenere read an interesting paper on the Lemming (A/yodes lem- 
mus) of Norway. 

It is much to be regretted that the manuscript of this paper has been acci- 
dentally destroyed, as it was the purpose of the Society to publish it in full. 
It was descriptive of a collecting trip made in 1879 by the writer and four 
others to one of the snow peaks of the central plateau region of Norway . The 
party met with a number of species of birds, a herd of reindeer, and a colony of 
lemmings, and the account of the excursion was both instructive and entertaining. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher read an extended paper entitled 'A Winter Trip to Mon- 
tauk.' [Published in abstract in ' Forest and Stream,' April 3, 1890, p. 206.] 

December 20, 1889. — The Vice-President in the chair. Eight persons present. 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., made extended remarks upon fifty-five species of 
birds observed by him at Digby, Nova Scotia, during the latter part of August, 1886. 



Mr. Chapman stated that the Myrtle Warbler (Dendroica coronala) was now- 
abundant at Englewood, N. J., and this seems to be the case each winter when 
the crop of bay-berries has been a good one. 

Mr. Arthur H. Howell read a paper on birds observed at Lake Grove, Long 
Island, N. Y., during July, August and September, 1889. Sixty-two species 
were enumerated with full notes upon each. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a newspaper clipping showing the number of animals on 
which bounties had been paid in Suffolk Co., Long Island, during eleven months 
of 1889. The figures are, woodchucks 3,427, opossums 4,673, raccoons 123, 
minks 165, and weasels 354. 

In discussing the incubation of eggs, Mr. Thompson stated that the covering up 
with vegetable matter of the eggs of grebes did not, as is popularly supposed, 
produce heat. 

January 3, 1890. — The President in the chair. Eleven persons present. 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., commented upon a list of 119 species of birds 
observed near the Strait of Mackinaw, Michigan, during a trip made in May, 

1888, with Mr. Wm. Brewster. The first portion of this paper was read at the 
last meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union, the annotated part of the list 
having been then omitted. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented some facts about the Snowy Owl [Nyctea nyctea), 
as well as other owls, hawks, etc., derived from letters recently received. One 
from Mr. Thomas Mc II wraith of Hamilton, Canada, under date of December 30, 

1889, is of interest, taken in connection with the numerous later records of the 
Evening Grosbeak [Coccothraustes vespertind), in New England the past winter, 
and is here quoted in part. 

' On the 19th of the present month (December 1889), a friend sent me two female 
Evening Grosbeaks which he had shot on the north shore of Hamilton Bay. The 
banks there are steep and rise fifty feet above the water; they are much cut up 
with gullies, and grown over with sumachs, wild vines and stunted red cedars. I 
visited the place in the afternoon but failed to see birds of any kind save ducks. 
On the 23rd, a junior member of my family came home for his holidays and 
readily took up the trail of the grosbeaks. Taking a canoe he started at the 
west end of the bay and carefully examined the north shore till he finally came on 
the flock, about twenty in number, in one of the sheltered gullies, feeding on the 
berries of the red cedar, the crop of which this season is unusually large. Males 
and females were there in about equal numbers, the former being very handsome 
birds, richer and darker in plumage than some summer specimens which I have 
seen. Whether there has been a general migration of this species to this part of 
Ontario remains to be seen, but most likely, I think, this is an isolated flock car- 
ried hither by the recent gales from the northwest, or led on by a daring leader 
ambitious of exploring new territory. I saw them last on the 25 th feeding as 
usual on the cedar berries, ejecting the pulpy part and using only the little white 
seeds.' 

In another part of his letter Mr. Mcllwraith suggests the theory that when a fall 
is open and mild, the birds stay later than usual and eat up the food that the 
winter birds depend upon, and in consequence the latter are obliged to go farther 
south than is their custom. 



A letter from Dr. F. W. Langdon of Cincinnati, Ohio, told of the remarkable 
find of three Cat Bird's [Galeoscoptes carolinensis) eggs in the stomach of a Swal- 
low-tailed Kite {Elanoides forficalus), two of them unbroken. 

Mr. J. A. Allen read from a letter by Mr. Geo. K. Cherrie of the early ap- 
pearance of North American migrants at San Jose, Costa Rica ; also from a paper 
giving an account of the nesting in Costa Rica of several little known species, 
among them Myiozetetes texensis and Elcenea pagana. A photograph of a nest 
of Todirostrum cinereitm was exhibited. This species suspends its nest upon some 
dead branch a few feet above a stream, constructing it so that it looks like a bit of 
drift caught when the water was high. [This paper will appear in full in The Auk. ] 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., exhibited a typical series of the races of the Horned 
Larks of North America (Otocoris), selected from about 1,200 skins sent to the 
last meeting of the A. O. U., and pointed out their differences, showing at the 
same time, by means of a map their geographical distribution. [For later studies 
on the group, see Auk, Vol. VII, 1890, pp. 138-158.] 

January 17, 1890. — Dr. Edgar A. Mearns in the chair. Nine person present, 
including Prof. John M. Stedman, of Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a translation of a communication from Senor Don F. 
Gonzales Rubio of La Paz, Lower California. It was dated April 9, 1885, and 
though the work of an untrained observer, it contained much information con- 
cerning the birds of La Paz_and vicinity. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher reported the capture of a Varied Thrush {Hesperocichla 
ncevid) in a rabbit-trap, near Port Jefferson, Long Island, N. Y.,on Dec. 20, 1889. 

Mr. Dutcher also read a report, prepared at his request by Mr. M. B. Griffing 
of Shelter Island, on the breeding of the Fish Hawk {Pandion haliattus carolin- 
ensis) at the eastern end of Long Island. This report goes to Capt. Chas. E. 
Bendire to be used in his forthcoming work on North American oology. Mr. 
Griffing stated that this bird arrived about March 29, and left for the south about 
October 25. Dr. Mearns said he had found the species breeding on pinnacles 
of rock in Yellowstone Park. 

Mr. L. S. Foster spoke of the capture by Mr. W. W. Worthington, of an 
Ipswich Sparrow (Ammodramus princeps), January 8, 1890, on the coast of 
Georgia [recorded in Auk, Vol. VII, 1890, p. 211]. 

Prof. John M. Stedman, department of entomology, Cornell University, made a 
few remarks upon the methods of study followed there, and gave some account of 
the wire worm, and the life history of the vinegar eel. 

February 7. 1890. — The President in the chair. Eleven persons present. 

A letter from Dr. A. Girtanner of Switzerland to Mr. Foster mentioned the 
occurrence there this winter of a Hawk Owl (Stirnia ulula), — a very rare visitor. 

Dr. Edgar A. Mearns read field notes from his journal kept in November, 1884, 
during a trip of 600 miles in central Arizona, containing much of interest concern- 
ing the birds and mammals of the region. 

A letter from Mr. E. E. Thompson reported Evening Grosbeaks {Coccothraustes 
vespertind) at Toronto. 

Mr. J. A. Allen had recently examined the collection of the late John G. Bell. 
It contained some 6000 bird skins and among them some taken on Audubon's 
expedition up the Missouri River, in 1843, which Mr. Bell accompanied. 



IO 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett stated that a flock of King Eiders (Somateria spectabilis) 
had been seen at Erie, Pa., in January. This species has been recorded there in 
the autumn, but only once before in winter, the lake usually being frozen over at 
this season. He also spoke of how difficult it was to record birds taken on the 
plains along the Rio Grande, Texas, for the reason that the river every now and 
then shifts its course ten miles or so, and what is Mexico one week may be 
United States the next. 

February 21, 1890. — The President in the chair. Seven persons present. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett read extracts from his address to the Pennsylvania State 
Board of Agriculture upon the subject of bird protection, read before the Board a 
year ago and now in press as a part of the Annual Report of the Board for 1889. 
Mr. Sennett also recorded the capture of a Derby Fly-catcher (Pitangus 
derbianus), at Devil's Lake, Texas, in January, 1888. Its toes had been frozen off 
during a cold spell, but had healed before it was secured. 

Mr. J. A. Allen showed, with a series of specimens, the changes of pelage 
through which the Red Squirrel (Sciurus hudsonius) passes. [The paper will 
soon be published in Vol. Ill, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.] 

Mr. Sennett read a newspaper clipping telling of a novel way by which English 
Sparrows were caught in large numbers in the coal regions of Pennsylvania and 
afterwards sold for trap-shooting. Flocks of them roost among the rafters of the 
engine houses. Hot coals are taken from the furnaces, and when water is poured 
upon them, sulphurous fumes arise that stupefy the sparrows so that they fall 
to the ground, but revive when taken into the open air. 

March 7, 1890. — Annual Meeting. The President in the chair. Eleven per- 
sons present. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year. President, Mr. J. A. 
Allen ; Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman ; Secretary, Mr. Jonathan 
Dwight, Jr. ; Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. J. A. Allen made extended remarks on the Chipmunks {Tamias) of North 
America, illustrated by specimens selected from a series of six or seven hundred 
now in his hands. [The paper will appear in Vol. Ill, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat Hist. ] 

Mr. William Dutcher stated that a Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris crepitans) 
had been heard on Long Island, March I, by Mr. N, T. Lawrence. Mr. Dutcher 
thought it probable that this bird had remained through the winter, as it seems to 
do sometimes, for once before, in February, he and Mr. Foster had found the re- 
mains of one not long killed. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a newspaper clipping stating that bounty had been paid 
in Maine on 20,032 crows, during 1889-90, and that the appropriation was already 
exhausted for 1890. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett said he had come into possession recently of a well- 
marked hybrid between the Scaled Partridge (Callipepla squamata) and the 
Bob-white {Colinus virginianus). 

Mr. J. A. Allen had recently seen a hybrid between the Purple Finch [Car- 
podacus purpuretts), and the Pine Grosbeak [Pinicola enuclealor), shot at 
Toronto, Ont., in a flock of the latter. 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 

Secretary. 



Members of the Linn^an Society 



Or Nrw York. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M. D., Ph. D. George N. Lawrence. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. 



C. Slover Allen, M. D. 
J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 
Eugene P. Bicknell. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Wm. A. Conklin, Ph. D 
H. C. Denslow. 
John N. Drake. 
William Dutcher. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
L. S. Foster. 
Langdon Gibson. 
George Bird Grinnell, 
H. S. Harbeck. 
Wm. F. Hendrickson. 
A. S. Higgins, Jr. 
F. H. Hoadley, M. D. 



RESIDENT. 

Arthur H. Howell. 
Frank E. Johnson. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Alfred Marshall. 
C. , B. McQuesten, M. D. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M. D. 
Robert T. Morris, M. D. 
Wm. C. Osborn. 
Jenness Richardson. 
Wm. M. Richardson. 
C. B, Riker. 
Ph. D. John Rowley, Jr. 

George B. Sennett. 

Oscar Sissenere. 

J. C. Sprague. 

Louis A. Zerega, M. D. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Charles Dury. 

A. K. Fisher, M. D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M. D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

B. F. Goss. 
W. H. Gregg, M. D, 
Juan Gundlach, Ph. 

C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Wm. K. Lente. 

Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 

H. W. Mason. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M. D, 

James C. Merrill, M. D. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. 

Ernest E. Thompson. 
D. E. Carleton Thurber. 

Spencer Trotter, M. D. 

B. H. Warren, M. D. 

S. W. Williston, M. D., Ph. D. 
D. Thos. W. Wilson. 



L. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^AN SOCIETY 



OF 



NEW YORK 



For the Year Ending March 6, 1891. 



officers. 



President, J. A. Allen. 

Vice-President, Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, . . . . Jonathan Dwight, Jr 

Treasurer, L. S. Foster. 



The Society meets on the first and third Wednesday evenings of 
each month at the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 
New York City. 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINNJAN SOCIETY 

OF 

nxr is "w ■ Y" o flj^l , 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 6, 1891. 



This is the third year that an ' Abstract ' has been published and 
it has been deemed advisable to append an index covering the three 
years. The purpose of the ' Abstracts ' is to furnish members of the 
Society with a brief review of the year's work, most of the papers read 
before it finding prompt publication elsewhere in well-known scientific 
journals. To such due reference is made in the text. 

March 21, 1890. — The President in the chair. Ten persons 
present. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher read an extended paper on ' Birds observed at 
Little Gull Island.' [Forest and Stream, Vol. xxxiv, pp. 246-7 and 267.] 

Dr, G. L. Nicholas suggested a method of skinning young birds 
still in the downy stage. An incision may be made from the back of 
the skull to a point between the shoulders and the body turned out 
through it. The skin is then inflated by the breath and kept in 
shape while drying by a bit of cotton. 

Mr. Sennett in speaking of the breeding of Terns in Texas, stated 
that the Least Terns {Sterna antillarum) lay their eggs on sand-bars 
in the Rio Grande where the constantly recurring rises in the river 



wash them away as many as twenty or thirty times in a single 
season and yet the Terns fail to learn wisdom by experience. Several 
present spoke of the diminished numbers of Terns now found along 
our coast, owing chiefly to their merciless persecution by persons who 
shoot them for the milliners. 

Mr. Dutcher exhibited a number of Marsh Wrens from Georgia, 
the majority being Cistothorus mariance. This species had never been 
taken before north of Tarpon Springs, Fla. .[See a record for South 
Carolina, Auk, VIII, 1891, p. 239.J 

April 4, 1890. — Mr. Geo. B. Sennett in the chair. Six persons 
present. 

Mr. Foster recorded the capture of the European Widgeon (A?ias 
penelope) at Carroll's Island, Md., Feb. 25, 1890. [Auk, VII, 1890, 
p. 283.I 

Mr. Dutcher exhibited a Cedar Bird {Ampelis cedrorum) remarkable 
in having part of an extra tail. Two rectrices inserted upside down 
grew from the back just anterior to the insertion of the normal tail. 

May 2, 1890. — The president in the chair. Ten persons present. 

Mr. J. Dwight,Jr., presented an extended paper entitled 'Some im- 
pressions of Birds of the New Jersey Coast.'" It comprised a list of 
103 species, largely ' Shore Birds/ seen mostly during the summer 
of 1878 at a once famous gunning resort on Barnegat Bay. A rail- 
road and summer cottages have since invaded the sandy and marshy 
wastes where formerly large colonies of Terns bred, and many species 
of waterfowl resorted, unmolested save by the enterprising sports- 
man. 

May 16, 1890. — The President in the chair. Ten persons present. 

Mr. W. E. D. Scott gave an informal account of his recent trip to 
the region east of Cape Sable, Florida, and to the Dry Tortugas. 
His, notes have since been published. [Auk, VII, 1890, pp. 221-226 
and pp. 301-314.] 

Mr. Chapman related some of his observations made at Gainesville, 
Fla., chiefly on the mammals inhabiting floating islands. These 
islands are formed first of lily stalks torn up by alligators. Seeds 
falling upon the floating bunches of stalks soon sprout and form a 
tangle of roots that increases in size from year to year. They are 
frequented by Marsh Hares and form the resorts of the rare Neofiber 
alleni. 

Dr. C. S. Allen gave a brief outline of a recent trip down the 



Suwance River, Fla., in company with Mr. Wm. Brewster and Mr. 
F. M. Chapman. Birds were comparatively scarce but an Ivory- 
billed Woodpecker {Campephilus principalis) and about forty 
Bachman's Warblers {Helminthophila bachmani) were obtained. One 
night in March ice formed and all the budding shoots were killed. 
[See Auk, VIII, 1891, pp. 125-138 and pp. 149-157.] 

Mr. Chapman had recently watched a specimen of Helminthophila 
leucobronchialis and heard it sing repeatedly. Its song hardly 
differed from that of H. pinus [Auk, VII, 1890, p. 291]. 

Mr. Scott stated that he had observed a difference of two months 
in the leafing of a particular water oak at his home in Florida. 

It was the opinion of those members who had been in the field 
this season that the spring migration had been unusually early and 
was already over. 

October 3, 1890. — The President in the chair. Six persons present. 

Mr. Dwight read from his note-book an account of a night (Sept. 
18-19, 1890) spent on Bedloes Island, New York Harbor, with 
Messrs. Dutcber and Foster observing the migrating birds attracted 
within the rays of light from the brilliantly illuminated Statue of 
Liberty. About twenty species were noted among the several 
hundred birds seen. Few struck with force enough to be killed, 
the majority fluttering up and down the masonry so confused as to 
allow themselves to be caught in the hand. 

October 17, 1890. — The President in the chair. Seven persons 
present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper, on ' The North American 
element in the West Indian Avifauna and the West Indian element 
in the North American Avifauna.' Certain North American species 
through a continued residence in the West Indies have become 
differentiated from the parent forms ; the West Indian species which 
visit North America, however, being migratory, show little or no 
change from the island forms. 

November 7, 1890. — -The President in the chair. Eleven persons 
present. 

Mr. Arthur H. Howell read a paper on the 'Birds of Eliot, Maine.' 
The time covered was from August 4-14, 1890. 

Mr. Basil H. Dutcher, who had recently returned from the 
Government Biological reconnaissance, under Dr. C. Hart Merriam, 
to Idaho, gave a summary of what the expedition accomplished. A 



full account may be expected in a forth-coming number ['No. 5 '] of 
the 'North American Fauna.' 

Dr. C. S. Allen exhibited two Ground Rattlesnakes, a Moccasin, 
and a Hog-nosed Snake, all alive. 

November 28, 1890. — The President in the chair. Seven members 
present. 

Mr. J. Dwight, Jr., read a paper entitled, 'The Crest of the Alle- 
ghanies of Pennsylvania and Birds found there in Summer.' It was 
the record of a week spent during the latter part of June, 1890, at an 
elevation of about 2,000 feet, where a number of species of the 
Canadian avifauna were found breeding, such as Hermit Thrushes, 
Juncos, Black-and- Yellow Warblers, Water Thrushes (Seiurus nove- 
boracensis), and others. The sixty-six species noted are chiefly 
Alleghanian, and none of the numerous Carolinian species found 
at Carlisle in 1844 by Baird, were seen. Carlisle is, however, at a 
much lower altitude and lies near the eastern base of the mountains. 
Comparison was made with Baird's list. 

Regarding a trip made with Mr. Dwight in June to High Knob, 
New Jersey, the highest point in the State, Mr. Chapman remarked 
that the avifauna there was Alleghanian with a strong tinge of the 
Carolinian. The only suggestion even of the Canadian was the 
presence of Vireo solitarius. 

December 5, 1890. — The Vice-President in the chair. Six persons 
present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper upon ' The Snowy Owl.' It 
treated of the species from various points of view, giving in detail its 
history arranged under heads such as its names, its nest, its cry, its 
weight, its natural food, its migrations, etc. 

Mr. Dutcher reported a second instance of the Barn Owl (S/n'x 
pratincola) breeding on Long Island. [For the first record see Auk, 

III, 1886, p. 439-] 

Mr. Chapman quoted from an article in ' Blackwood's Magazine ' 
deploring the destruction of birds by milliners' agents on the island 
of Jamaica and of the eggs of ground-nesting species by the 
Mongoose, imported into the island to protect the plantations from 
the ravages of rats. As a result the insect pests are said to have 
become well-nigh insufferable. 

Mr. Chapman also made some critical remarks upon a recent list 
of the Birds of New Jersey. [Auk, VIII, 1891, p. 104.] 



December 19, 1890. — The President in the chair. Ten persons 
present. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sermett occupied the evening with a paper on 'Water 
Birds that live in the Woods/ About a dozen species were dealt 
with, the most interesting of them perhaps being the Tree Ducks 
(Dendrocygna autumnalis el fulvd). The former is found in the 
heaviest timber along the Rio Grande of Texas, at Lomita, and as this 
river furnishes no sort of food, it adapts itself to circumstances and 
feeds upon seeds or grain. These ducks will alight upon a stalk of 
growing corn with the ease of a blackbird and are quite at home 
among the lofty trees where they make their nests. They do not 
resort to the river which is so cold and muddy, from the melting 
snows of the mountains whence it flows, that all vegetable and 
animal life save the garpike is wanting. No ducks of any kind 
are found upon it. 

A flock of Cormorants, about four miles long and one and one-half 
a mile wide, was once seen by Mr. Sennett in Minnesota. 

Mr. Sennett reported the capture of a Limpkin {Aramus giganteus) 
near Brownsville, Tex., May 29, 1889, tne ^ rst record for the west 
Gulf coast. It was a fine adult male and the bird was not 
known to the natives or gunners' who saw it when shot. 

Mr. Chapman presented some remarks upon the Gopher or Sala- 
mander {Geomys tuzd) of Florida, illustrated with specimens of this 
as well as allied species. Their retiring habits, burrowing beneath 
the ground as they do, render them far less well known than they 
should be, considering how abundant they are in many parts of the 
peninsula. There is no more familiar sight in the pine woods than 
the mounds of earth they throw up, in forming their burrows. They 
have pouches on either side of their mouths opening externally instead 
of internally as some people suppose. 

Dr. J. A. Allen gave an interesting explanation of how traces of 
Sonoran life might be geologically accounted for in Florida, the 
Gopher being a case in point. 

January 9, 1891. — The Vice-President in the chair. Eleven per- 
sons present. 

A letter from Mr. Arthur H. Norton furnishes a record (the 6th) 
of the Leather-backed Turtle (Sphargis coriacea) in New England 
waters, — a specimen secured August, 1890, in Penobscot Bay, Maine. 

The capture of a Glaucous Gull (Larus glaucus) at Far Rockaway, 



Jan. r, 1 89 1, by Messrs. A. H. Howell and L. S. Foster, the third 
record for New York State, was reported. [Ornith. and Oologist, XVI, 
1891, p. 61.] Mr. Foster stated that the food of the immense flocks 
of Herring Gulls seen on Long Island in winter seemed to consist 
mainly of the quahog clam. He also spoke of the unusual abund- 
ance of the Snowy Owl {Nyctea nyctea) this winter all along the 
coast as far south even as Delaware. One was seen in Central Park, 
New York City, about the middle of December. 

Dr. Morris called attention to a habit he had noticed of the 
Ruffed Grouse (Bonasa umbellus) feeding in winter upon the leaves 
of Bishop's Cap {Tiarelld). They seem to prefer these leaves, which 
persist green, to any other food, and in western swamps feed exclu- 
sively upon them, as proved by examination of their crops. 

Mr. Chapman described the notes of the Virginia and Sora Rails, 
and the Florida Gallinule, as recently observed by him in the Fresh 
Pond marshes, Cambridge, Mass. [Mr. Wm. Brewster's article on 
the Florida Gallinule, Auk, VIII, 1891, pp. 1-7, is of interest in 
this connection.] 

Dr. C. S. Allen occupied the evening with an informal paper upon 
the habits of some rattlesnakes and other snakes that he had in con- 
finement. He showed specimens of the venom, fangs, etc., and also 
introduced a King Snake and a Hoop Snake alive, both harmless spe- 
cies, to show how they had acquired, by living in bad company, the 
habit of striking in imitation of their poisonous associates. 

January 16, 1891. — The President in the chair. Twelve persons 
present. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented an extended paper entitled, ' Geographical 
Distribution of North American Mammals ', illustrated with maps and 
charts. The mammalian fauna of North America was first compared 
with that of northern Europe and Asia and then discussed in detail 
in respect to the lesser faunal areas of the continent. Colored maps 
were shown illustrating the distribution of the North American 
Hares. 

February 6, 1891. — The President in the chair. Sixteen persons 
present. 

Mr. Leverett M. Loomis read a paper entitled 'An Historical 
sketch of South Carolinian Ornithology '. [This has been published 
by the author as a separate pamphlet.] 

A letter from Mr. H. A. Cash of Pawtucket, R. I., was read giving 



the contents of the stomachs of 74 owls and 10 hawks. Their food 
had consisted chiefly of small mammals. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman read a paper on 'The Mammals of the East 
Coast of Florida.' Remarks were made upon the habits and dis- 
tribution of most of the species hitherto found at Micco on the 
East peninsula. Specimens were shown illustrating many of the 
species. 

Mr. Loomis exhibited a copy of the first volume of Audubon's 
' Ornithological Biography' printed in Philadelphia but differing from 
the usual Philadelphia edition in important particulars. [Further 
details may be found in Auk, VIII, 1891, p. 230.] 

Mr. Dutcher exhibited a skin of the Blue-striped Trigger Fish, 
captured in November, 1890, at the Ditch Plain Life Saving Station, 
Long Island, N. Y.,.by Mr. Wm. L. Baker, one of the crew. He 
spoke of one taken at Woods Holl, Mass., described and figured in 
* Forest and Stream ', January 29, 1891. Dr. John I. Northrop, stated 
that this was a common fish in the Bahamas, and that when the 
second or rear dorsal spine was erected, the first was locked firmly 
in its raised position. 

February 20, 1891. — The Vice-President in the chair. Nineteen 
persons present. 

Mr. Leverett M. Loomis presented a paper entitled " Remarks on 
the Song Seasons of some South Carolina Birds." The resident song 
birds were divided into three classes, those having a single song 
season, those having a second song season after the breeding season, 
and those singing all the year round. The Field Sparrow {Spizella 
pusilld) is the type of the first, the Mocking-bird {Mi??ius polyglottos) 
that of the second, and the Carolina Wren {Thryothorus ludovicianus) 
that of the third class. Mr. Loomis will incorporate this paper in a 
more extended one upon which he is working. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher presented a paper entitled 'The Labrador Duck. 
A revised list of the extant specimens in North America with some 
historical notes.' [Auk, VIII, 1891, pp. 201-216.] 

March 6, 1891. — Annual Meeting^ The President in the chair. 
Fifteen persons present. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year. President, 
Dr. J. A. Allen ; Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman ; Secretary, 
Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. ; Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

After having enjoyed the hospitality of the American Geographical 



8 

Society for the past ten years, the Linnsean Society resolved to accept 
an invitation from the President and Board of Trustees of the 
American Museum of Natural History, and to hold its meetings in 
future at the Museum. The advantages of such a change are obvious. 

Mr. Sennett made some remarks upon his recent trip to' Albany on 
behalf of bird-protection. The proposed new law will repeal 174 old 
ones and promises to be an excellent one, although it outlaws 
cranes, hawks, owls, shrikes, English Sparrows, blackbirds and 
crows. Of 28 species of hawks and owls found in the State, only 
five are proved to be foes of the farmer. The usefulness of crows and 
blackbirds is still questionable. 

Mr. J. D wight, Jr., presented a paper entitled ' /unco carolinensis 
shown to be a sub-species/ and exhibited a series of specimens taken 
from Cape Breton to North Carolina. [Auk, VIII, 189 1, pp. 
290-292.] 

Dr. C. S. Allen supplemented his paper of January 9th, with addi- 
tional facts about his dangerous pets, and thrilled those present by 
shaking out of a bag a large rattlesnake and a moccasin alive, and then 
endeavoring to provoke them to coil and strike. 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 

Secretary. 



INDEX 



Note. — The Rornan numerals refer to the annual 'Abstracts,' as follows 
year ending March, 1889 : II, do. 1890 ; Til, do. 1891. 



I, for the 



Accipiter cooperi, II, 3. 
velox, II, 3. 

Adney, E. T., Bird Names of the 
Milicetes, II, 7. 

/Egialitis vocifera, I, 4. 
wilsonia, I, I. 

yEolus papillosa, I, 5. 

Agelaius phoeniceus, I, 6. 

Allen, C. S., Trip down Suwanee River, 
III, 2 ; Venomous snakes, HI, 6, 8. 

Allen, J. A., Tyrannidse, I, 3 ; Mexi- 
can Mammals, II, 3 ; Changes of 
pelage of Red Squirrel, II, 10 ; Chip- 
munks of North America, II, 10 ; 
Geographical Distribution of North 
American Mammals, III, 6. 

Ammodramus caudacutus, I, 9. 
maritimus, I, 2. 
princeps, I, 4 ; II, 9. 
savannarum passerinus, I, 3, 9. 

Ampelis cedrorum, I, 6, 7 ; II, 2 ; 
III, 2. 

Anas fulvigula, II, 2. 

obscura, I, 2 ; II, 3. 
penelope, III, 2. 

Asio accipitrinus, I, 6. 

Ardea occidentalis, II, 2. 

Aramus giganteus, III, 5. 

Arvicola riparius^ II, 3. 

Beech, I, 9. 

Bell, John G., collection of, II, 9. 

Blue-striped Trigger Fish, III, 7. 

Bonasa umbellus, III, 6. 

Bubo virginianus, II, 1. 

Buteo lineatus alleni, II, 2. 

Callipepla squamata, II, 10. 

Campephilus principalis, III, 3. 

Cape-pigeons, II, 2. 

Carpodacus purpureus, II, 10. 

Cecropia moth, II, 1. 

Chapman, Frank M., Birds of Aiken, 
S. C, I, 2 ; Mniotiltidae of Engle- 
wood, N. J., I, 3 ; Northern limit 
of Carolinian Avifauna on Atlantic 
Coast, I, 4 ; Trip to Brevard Co., 
Fla., II, 2 ; Carolina Paroquet, II, 
4 ; Relation of North American and 
West Indian Avifauna. Ill, 3 ; The 
Gopher of Florida, III, 5 ; Mammals 
of East Coast of Florida, III, 7. 

Chelidon erythrogaster, I, 6. 



Chestnut, I, 9. 

Chordeiles virginianus, I, 6. 

Circus hudsonius, II, 3. 

Cirsium Lecontei, II, 5, 

Cistothorus marianae, III, 2. 

Clivicola riparia, I, 2, 6. 

Coccothraustes vespertina, II, 8, 9. 

Colaptes auratus, I, 7. 

Colinus virginianus, II, 10. 

Conurus carolinensis, I, 6 ; II, 2, 4. 

Corvus americanus, I, 6, 7. 
ossifragus, I, 4. 

Crossbills, I, 2. 

Crows, II, 10. 

Cyanocitta cristata, I, 2, 7. 

Danais archippus, II, 3. 

Dendragapus canadensis, I, 9. 

Dendrocygna autumnalis, III, 5. 
fulva, III, 5. 

Dendroica castanea, I, 3. 

coronata, I, 4 ; II, 3, 8. 
discolor, I, 3. 
tigrina, I, 3. 
vigorsii, I, 3. 
virens, II, 2. 

Dutcher, Basil H , Government re- 
connoissance in Idaho, III, 3 

Dutcher, William, Winter trip to Mon- 
tauk Point, L. I., II, 7 ; Birds ob- 
served at Little Gull Island, III, 1 ; 
Labrador Duck, III, 7. 

D wight, Jonathan, Jr., Birds of Digby, 
N. S., II, 7 ; Michigan Birds, II. 8 ; 
The genus Otocoris, II, 9 ; Birds of 
the New Jersey Coast, III, 2 ; Crest 
of Allegheny Mts., Ill, 4 ; On J unco 
carolinensis, III, 8. 

Ectopistes migratorius, I, 6. 

Elrenea pagana, II, 9. 

Elanoides forficatus, II, 9. 

English Sparrow. I, 2, 3 ; II, 10. 

Empidonax acadicus, I, 4. 

Falco columbarius, II, 3. 
sparverius, II, 3. 

Foster, L. S., Sketch of life of Audu- 
bon, I. I ; Spring migrants, I, 1 ; 
Birds of Kiskatom, N. Y , I, 2 ; II, 
3 ; Swifts of the World, II, 1 ; 
Snowy Owl, II, 8 ; III, 4 ; Rubio on 
birds of La Paz, Lower Cala , II, 9. 



IO 



Galeoscoptes carolinensis, II, 9. 

Gallinule, Florida, III, 6. 

Geomys tuza, III, 5. 

Geothlypis formosa, I, 3, 4. 
Philadelphia, I, 3. 

Gilbert, E. S., Grow Roosts, I, 6. 

Grebes, II, 8. 

Grinnell. Geo. B., Rocky Mountain 
Goat, I, 5. 

Gull, Herring, III, 6. 

Habia ludoviciana, I, 6. 

Haliaeetos leucocephalus, II, 1. 

Harporhynchus rufus I, 9. 

Hawley. A. H., Californian Birds, I, 5. 

Helminthophilabachmani, 11,2; 111,3. 
leucobronchialis, I, 3 ; III, 3. 
peregrina, I, 6. 
pinus, I, 4 ; III, 3. 
ruficapilla, I, 3. 

Helmitherus vermivorus I, 4. 

Hesperocichla naevia, II, 9. 

Hirundo fulva, I, 8. 

Howell, Arthur H., Long Island Birds, 
II, 2; Birds of Lake Grove, L. I., 
II, 8; Birds of Eliot, Me., Ill, 3. 

Ichneumon, II, 1. 

Icteria virens, I, 4. 

Ionornis martinica, I, 3. 

JUNCO, III, 4. 

carolinensis, III, 8. 

Langdon, F. W., Sixteen Ohio Birds, 
I, 6. 

Lanius ludovicianus, I. 3. 

Larus glaucus, II, 2 ; III, 5. 

Latham, Mrs. F. E. B., Loggerhead 
Turtle, II, 6. 

Lawrence, Geo. N., Former abundance 
of birds on New York Island, I, 6. 

Lawrence Newbold T., Long Island 
Bird Notes, I. 5. 

Liothrix lutea, II, 7. 

Liriodendron, I. 9. 

Loggerhead Turtle, II, 6. 

Loomis, Leverett M., Historical 
Sketch of South Carolinian Orni 
thology, III, 6 ; Song Seasons, III, 7. 

Loxia'curvirostra minor, I, 6. 
leucoptera, I. 6. 

Marshall, Alfred, Nest and eggs 
of some Long Island birds, II, 7. 

Marsh Hares, III, 2. 

Mazama montana, I, 5. 

M earns, Edgar A., Squirrels of Ari- 
zona, II, 6 ; Field notes in Arizona, 

H,9- 
Meleagris gallopavo, II, 2. 
Melanerpes carolinus I, 9. 

erythrocephalus, I, 3, 7. 
Melospiza fasciata, I, 2 ; II, 2. 



Mephitis mephitica, I, 9. 

Merula migratoria, I, 7. 

Mimus polyglottus, I, 2 ; III, 7. 

Minks, II, 8. 

Moccasin, III, 4, 8. 

Molothrus ater, I, 6. 

Mongoose, III, 4. 

Myodes lemmus, II, 7. 

Myiozetetes texensis, II, 9. 

Neofiber alleni, II, 2 ; III, 2. 

Nicholas, G. L., On skinning young 

birds, III, 1. 
Nyctea nyctea, II, 8 ; III, 6. 
Oak, I, 9. 

Oceanites oceanicus, I, 2. 
Opossums, II, 8. 
Otocoris, II, 9. 

alpestris praticola, I, 3, 5. 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, II, 3,9. 
Parus atricapillus, II, 2. 

hudsonicus, I, 9. 
Passer domesticus, I, 2. 
Peach, I, 9. 
Pennock, C. J., Turkey Buzzards and 

Hawks, I, 6. 
Petrels, II, 2. 
Phalacrocorax carbo, I, 5. 
Phasianus colchicus, II, 2. 
Picoides americanus, I, 9. 

articus, 1, 9. 
Pinicola enucleator, II, 10. 
Pitangus derbianus, II, 10. 
Plover, I, 9. 
Polioptila caerulea, I, 9. 
Progne subis, I, 6 
Prometheus moth, II, I. 
Quiscalus quiscula aeneus, I, 6. 
Raccoons, II, 8. 
Rail, Sora, III, 6. 

Virginia, III, 6. 
Rallus longirostris crepitans, II, 10. 
Rattlesnake, II, 1 ; III, 6, 8. 

Ground, III. 4. 
Regulus satrapa, II, 2. 
Sage, J. H., A flight of hawks, I, 6. 
Sayornis phcebe, I, 4. 
Sciurus carolinensis. II, 7. 

carolinensis leucotis, I, 9. 

hudsonius, II, 7, 10. 

niger ludovicianus, I, 9. 
Scott, W. E. D., Cape Sable, Fla., and 

Dry Tortugas Bird-notes, III, 2. 
Seiurus aurocapillus, I, 2. 

motacilla, I, 4. 

noveboracensis, III, 4. 
Sennett, Geo B , Shore-Birds, I, 1, 9. 
Bird Protection in Pa., II, 10. Wa- 
ter Birds of the woods, III, 5. 
Sialia sialis, I, 2, 7. 



1 1 



Sissenere, Oscar, The Lemming of 

Norway, II, 7. 
Sitta canadensis, II, 2. 
Snake, Hog-nosed, III, 4. 

Hoop, HI, 6. 

King, III, 6. 
Somateria spectabilis, II, 10. 
Spermophilus franklini, I, 9. 
Sphargis coriacea, III, 5. 
Sphyrapicus varius, II, 3. 
Spizella socialis, I, 2. 

pusilla, III, 7. 
Stelgidopteryx serripennis, I, 4, 6. 
Sterna antillarum, III, I. 

tschegrava, I, 3. 
Strix pratincola, II, I ; III, 4. 
Sturnella magna, I, 8. 
Surnia ulula, II, 9. 
Sylvania mitrata, I, 4. 
Tachycineta bicolor, I, 4, 6 ; II, 3. 
Tamias, II, 10. 

striatus, II, 7. 



Tatlock, John, Jr., Remarks on Cook's 
Mississippi Valley migration, I, 5. 

Terns, III, 1, 2. 

Thompson, Ernest E., Bird Hosts in 
Manitoba, I, 6 ; Zoographical Areas 
of Ontario, I, 9. 

Thrush, Hermit, III, 4. 

Thyothrorus ludovicianus, 11,3; HI»7- 

Tiarella, III, 6. 

Todirostum cinereum, II, 9. 

Totanus melanoleucus, I, 5. 

Tringa canutus, I, 1. 

Turdus fuscescens, II, 2 C 
mustelinus, I, 9. 

Tyrannus tyrannus, I, 7. 

Vireo solitarius, III, 4. 

solitarius alticola, I, 2. 

Walnut, I, 9. 

Warbler, Black-and-Yellow, III, 4. 

Weasels, II, 8. 

Woodchucks, II, 8. 



Members of the Linn^an Society 



Ok New York. 
1891. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M. D., Ph. D. George N. Lawrence. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. 



C. Slover Allen, M. D. 
J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 
Eugene P. Bicknell. 
Reginald I. Brasher. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Wm. A. Conklin, Ph. D. 
H. C. Denslow. 
William Dutcher. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
L. S. Foster. 
John B. Grant. 
George Bird Grinnell, 
H. S. Harbeck. 
Wm. F. Hendrickson. 
A. S. Higgins, Jr. 
F. H. Hoadley, M. D. 
Arthur H. Howell. 



RESIDENT. 

Frank E. Johnson. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Alfred Marshall. 
C. B. McQuesten, M. D. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M. D. 
Robert T. Morris, M. D. 
John I. Northrop, Ph. D. 
Wm. C. Osborn. 
Jenness Richardson. 
Wm. M. Richardson. 
C. B. Riker. 
Ph. D. John Rowley, Jr. 
W. E. D. Scott. 
George B. Sennett. 
Oscar Sissenere. 
J. C. Sprague. 
Louis A. Zerega, M. D. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Charles Dury. 

A. K. Fisher, M. D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M. D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

B. F. Goss. 
W. H. Gregg, M. D. 
Juan Gundlach, Ph. D. 

C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M. D. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Wm. K. Lente. 
Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 
Leverett M. Loomis. 
H. W. Mason. 
Theo. L. Mead. 
C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 
James C. Merrill, M. D. 
C. J. Pennock. 
Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 
Theodore Roosevelt. 
John H. Sage. 
R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. 
Ernest E. Thompson. 
E. Carleton Thurber. 
Spencer Trotter, M. D. 
B. H. Warren, M. D. 
S. W. Williston, M. D., Ph. D. 
Thos. W. Wilson. 



L. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 






ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^EAN SOCIETY 



NEW YORK, 



For the Year Ending March 2, 1892, 



OFFICERS. 



President, . . . . J. A. Allen. 

Vice-President, ..... Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, ...... Arthur H. Howell. 

Treasurer, . . . . L. S, Foster. 



The Society meets on the first and third Wednesday evenings of 
each month at the American Museum of Natural History, Central Park, 
New York City, 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINNJAN SOCIETY 



3ST HI ^AT YORK, 



FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 2, 1892. 



This is the fourth in the series of " Abstracts" published by the 
Society, and like the preceding numbers, is intended merely as a 
brief review of the year's work, only the more important points in the 
papers read before the Society being mentioned here. Some of the 
papers have been printed in full elsewhere, and in such cases, a ref- 
erence is here given to the place of publication. 

March 18, 1891. — The President in the chair. Ten members and 
seven visitors present. 

The Secretary read a paper by Mr. Wm. Dutcher, entitled, " Some 
Leaves from my Long Island Note Book," being an account of a trip 
made to Amityville, L. L, Feb. 22, 23, 1891. Twenty-three species 
were noted. A Sharp-tailed Sparrow {Ammodramus caudacntus) 
which was taken, had evidently wintered on Long Island. Mr. 
Dutcher purchased the skin of a Cardinal Grosbeak {Cardinalis 
cardinalis) which had been shot by Mr. Wilson at Seaford, L. I., Dec. 
1, 1890 — the first actual record for Long Island. 

Mr, L. S. Foster presented a paper entitled " A Glance at North 
American Ornithological Literature, 1870 to 1880," being an extended 



resume of the more important papers of that period, which was a most 
fruitful one. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented a paper upon the "Mammals of Costa 
Rica/' based upon a collection made by Mr. Geo. K. Cherrie. 
Among the specimens exhibited were several representing species new 
to science. [Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iii, pp. 203-218.] 

April 1, 1 89 1. — The President in the chair. Ten persons present. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett presented a paper on " The Quails of the United 
States," illustrating it with a large series of specimens. The habitat 
and characteristic habits of each species were considered in detail. 
He referred to the fact that it is now difficult to obtain skins of Quails 
worthy of credit as testimony in the problem of geographical distribu- 
tion, owing to the fact that many live birds have been introduced into 
various parts of the country, and these interbreed with the local races. 
As evidence of this, he stated that a Florida Quail has been taken in 
Michigan. 

Cohhus virginianus ridgzvayi is the most recent addition to our 
fauna in this group. The type is in the collection of Mr. G. Frean 
Morcom, of Chicago. Mr. Sennett had before him six male skins, 
one male head and six female skins of this species ; it approaches C. 
v. mexicanus and even more southern forms, but the female strongly 
resembles the female of C. v. texanus, whose habitat is separated from 
that of ridgwayi by a lofty mountain chain, and texanus occupies a 
lower altitude, as well. The call notes are, according to Mr. Wm. 
Brewster, the same as those of virginianus. 

Among the oddities of Quail life, Mr. Sennett exhibited albinistic 
and melanistic specimens of the common Bob-white, of an albino 
Florida Quail, and a hybrid between C. v. texanus and Callipepla 
squamata. 

In the course of his remarks, Mr. Sennett stated, on the authority 
of Mr. Elliot, that the Bob-white had been known to migrate, espec- 
ially in the northern portion of its habitat, which statement was ques- 
tioned by some of the members, who considered that accounts of the 
migration of this bird needed confirmation. 

Mr. Sennett also read some bird notes from the note book of Samuel 
E. Bacon, Jr., of Erie, Pa. He tells of a Crow {Corvus americanus) 
killing a Flicker {Cotapies auratus), and notes four specimens of the 
Pileated Woodpecker {Ceophlceus pileaius) taken near Erie. He also 
states that the " Blue-bill Duck " {Aylhya marila nearctica) has been 



caught on Lake Erie in fish nets, one hundred and fifty feet below 
the surface. 

April 15, 1 89 1. —The President in the chair. Seven members and 
two visitors present. 

The capture of a Barn Owl (Slrix pratincold) at Chatham, N. J., 
Nov. 8, 1890, was recorded by Mr. Dwight. 

Dr. J. A. Allen occupied the evening with a paper on " A Collec; 
tion of Mammals from Texas and Northeastern Mexico." A large 
number of specimens was shown, their differences pointed out, their 
rarity noted and their habitats defined. Among them was a specimen 
of the Red Cat {Felis eyra) now taken for the first time north of the 
Rio Grande, and a specimen of Sciurus arizonensis — the only record 
of this species in Texas. [See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iii, 
pp. 219-228.] 

May 6, 1891. — The President in the chair. Seven members and 
four visitors present. 

Mr. Geo. K. Cherrie presented an informal paper on "The Birds 
and Mammals of Costa Rica," giving descriptions of the country and 
the characteristics of the people, as well as a general account of the 
abundant animal life. 

Although Costa Rica is only About half the size of New York 
State, its list of birds numbers 730 species. It is a country of forests 
and of all sorts of climates, from the torrid sea-coast to that found at 
an elevation of 1 1 ,500 feet, the top of the volcano Irazu, where ice 
forms. 

The trees are not deciduous, although their leaves fall in part during 
the dry season, which extends from October to May. At the end of 
the rainy season, many North American migrants appear, and as the 
dry season advances they retreat to the coast region, and are not seen 
again till another year. 

Bird life is more abundant during the wet season, for the reason 
that fruit and insects abound at that period. The breeding season 
nearly corresponds with that of the United States. 

Mr. Cherrie spent three weeks on the west coast, and noted while 
there, 214 species of birds. Near San Jose, at an elevation of 5000 
feet, are what are called " the prairies," about 5 miles square. They 
become flooded to the depth of about an inch from September to 
February, and on them are found a number of species of water fowl 
and waders. Aciitis macularia remains to breed, and Totanus 



solitarius is supposed to breed, as it is present all the year. The 
Mallard, the Ruddy and the Muscovy are common ducks 

May 20, 1 89 1. — The President in the Chair. Ten members and 
four visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman described his recent trip to Corpus Christi, 
Texas, where he remained five weeks, and recorded 190 species of 
birds. He secured a series of skins of the Wood Rat {Neotoma 
micropus) which he found breeding in the chaparral and also near the 
bushes in the open prairie. The nests had from two to five openings. 
[See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iii, pp. 315-328. J 

Mr. W. E. D. Scott presented an account of a trip made to the 
Island of Jamaica, November, 1890, to April, 1891. [Auk, viii, 
1891, pp. 249, et seq.] 

Dr. C. S. Allen gave an account of his recent experiences at Oak 
Lodge, Fla., and of his journey to that point. Near there he 
observed a colony of Pelicans (Pelecanus fuscus) and secured some 
photographs of them, as well as of their nests and eggs. He exhibited 
the skin of a diamond-backed rattlesnake shot near there by Mr. Chas. 
F. Latham, in November, 1890. The snake before skinning 
measured eight feet, five inches in length, and fifteen inches in 
circumference. 

Mr. Chapman spoke of a rattler eight feet, nine inches long, killed 
by Mr. J. H. Norton of Jacksonville, Fla. 

Mr. A. H. Howell read a list of the spring migrants, with the dates 
of arrival, that he had observed the past season near Brooklyn, N. Y. 

Mr. W. E. D. Scott remarked that warblers were numerous at Po- 
cantico, N. Y„ this spring. He had taken Helminthophila leuco- 
bronchialis and an H. pinus with a dusky throat, approaching H. 
lawrencei. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher read a list of birds received from the keeper of 
Fire Island Lighthouse, L. I., the birds, 231 in number, having been 
killed during the early morning hours of May 19, 1*891. The list 
included twenty species; Geothlypis trie has was represented by 115 
individuals, and Seiurus noveboracensis by 42. 

October 7, 1891. — The President in the chair. Nine members and 
one visitor present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper entitled " Remarks on the 
Grackles of the sub-genus Quiscalus." [Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. iv, pp. 1-20.] 



October 21, 1891. — The Vice-President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and three visitors present. 

Three papers relating to Long Island birds were read ; one by Mr. 
A. H. Howell, upon the birds seen by him at the western end of 
Shinnecock Bay, August 24 to 29, 1891 ; one by Mr. Wm. Dutcher, 
upon the birds seen on Great South Bay, from September 17 to 24, 
1 89 1 ; and Mr. L. S. Foster presented some notes on a trip made to 
Amity ville, Sept. 7, 1891. 

Mr. Dutcher stated that a small breeding colony of Laughing 
Gulls (Lams atricilld) was located on Cedar Island, in the Great 
South Bay — probably the only one now left in this vicinity. He had 
observed a flock of fully one hundred Cormorants (probably 
Phalacrocorax dilophus) migrating high in air on September 21, 1891. 

The frequent capture of Ereunetes occidentalis on Long Island was 
referred to. 

November 4, 1891. — The President in the chair. Eleven members 
and one visitor present. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented a paper on " The North American Species 
of the Genus Colaptes, considered with Special Reference to the Rela- 
tionships of Colaptes auratus and Colaptes cafer." [Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. iv, No. 1, pp. 21-44.] 

Mr. Chapman showed a specimen of Colinus virginianus floridanns 
taken in New Jersey. 

Dr. J. A. Allen exhibited alive, a rare turtle from Minnesota — 
Emys meleagris, and also the skin of a new Grackle from Nicaragua, 
recently described (from other specimens) in the "Ibis" as Quiscahis 
nicaragaaensis. 

November 18, 1891. — The President in the chair. Twelve mem- 
bers and eleven visitors present. 

Mr. Henry Hales presented a brief paper, suggesting the reason 
why the Goldfinch (Spinus trislis) breeds so late in this vicinity. He 
attributed the habit to its love for the seeds of the dandelion, and 
gave it as his opinion that the birds move from one locality to another 
during May and June in order to follow up the seeding of this plant. 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. , brought up the subject of birds seen at 
night around the Statue of Liberty ? by asking for the views of those 
members who had recently passed a night with him on Bedloe's 
Island. Mr. F. M. Chapman read his notes written the day following 
the visit, and Mr, L. S. Foster and Dr. C. S. Allen made some 



remarks on their impressions of the trip. The latter had found a 
single bat, with its neck broken, at the base of the Statue. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam made some remarks upon bird migration ; 
he was satisfied that in migrating, birds rely mainly upon the power 
of sight, and stated that while darkness obscures minor details of 
topography, it brings into prominent relief the more important land- 
marks, as water courses and mountain ranges, the natural guides in 
passing from one region to another. He stated further that birds 
rarely migrate singly or in compact flocks, but in scattered assem- 
blages made up of many species and comprising individuals of all 
ages. On favorable nights the call notes of such birds may be heard 
at frequent intervals, and all moving in a common direction. A 
young bird in setting out on its first migration has only to launch 
into the air to find itself in company with a moving host whose notes 
it can easily follow. 

Mr. Hales spoke of a mesh-wire fence, eight feet high, in his yard, 
against which birds have occasionally been killed in the daytime ; 
he has picked up dead Cedar Birds (Ampelis cedrorum), and once, a 
Yellow-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus). 

Mr. L. M. Loomis referred to a deposit of bat guano, containing 
thirty-two bushels and three pecks, found in a loft near Chester, S. C. 

December 2, 1891. — The Vice-President in the chair. Nine 
members and four visitors present. 

Mr. Wm. A. Robbins was introduced by Mr. Foster, and presented 
a paper on the Falco?iidce breeding in southwestern Santa Clara Co., 
Cal., where he had collected for two seasons. Some of the eggs taken 
were exhibited. Elanus leucurus breeds regularly ; Buteo borealis 
calurus is abundant, and Aquila chrysa'eios is not uncommon, nesting 
on cliffs or in tall trees. One nest of Falco mexicanus was found. 
Falco sparverius was very common, and persisted in laying in the 
deserted nests of the Magpie. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper on " Bird Myths," drawing his 
material from the classics, and recent ethnological publications. 

Mr. Wm, Dutcher reported two Dovekies (Alle a//e), recently taken 
on Long Island — the first since 1882. He considers this species and 
the Puffin (Fratercula arclica), among the rarest of the boreal birds 
that visit Long Island. 

December 16, 1891. — The Vice-President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and three visitors present. 



Mr. Geo. B. Sennett presented some remarks upon the birds of 
Corpus Christi and Nueces Bay, Texas, followed by Mr. F. M. Chap- 
man, with notes from his journal of a visit to Corpus Christi in April, 
1 891. 

The latter had observed Swallows following a person walking on a 
marsh, being attracted by the insects he aroused. Mr. Dutcher had 
noticed the same habit in the Swallows, on Long Island. 

Ja?iuary 6, 1892. — The President in the chair. Eleven members 
present. 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., presented an important paper, entitled, 
" Summer Birds of the Crest of the Pennsylvania Alleghanies." [See 
Auk, Vol. ix, No. 2, pp. 1 29-141.] 

Messrs. Wm. Dutcher, L. S. Foster, A. H. Howell and L. M. 
Loomis related the incidents of a trip made to Long Beach, L. I., 
January 1, 1892. Photographs, taken by Mr. Dutcher, were shown. 

Jtmnary 20, 1892. — The President in the chair. Six members and 
two visitors present. 

Dr. J. A. Allen read a paper entitled " Definite versus fortuitous 
variation," the paper having special reference to geographical varia- 
tion in North American mammals and birds. Of North American 
bird forms, the following were cited in illustration : Colinus, Pipilo, 
and Melospiza fas data, the latter particularly in trans-continental 
variations. 

A spirited discussion of evolution followed, all the members 
present taking part. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher read extracts from correspondence received from 
the lighthouse-keepers at Fire Island Lighthouse and the one on 
Montauk Point, bearing on bird migration during the night of May 
20-21, 1891. At substantially the same hour birds began to strike at 
each place, and likewise ceased at the same hour. These lights are 
distant from each other about eighty miles. He considered that the 
Spring migration on Long Island was a little to the north of due east, 
and that the birds take advantage of the line of islands at the eastern 
end of Long Island, in order to easily reach the Connecticut shore. 

February 3, 1892. — The President in the chair. Nine members 
and one visitor present. 

Mr. L. M. Loomis presented a paper on "The Organization, 
Career, and Publications of the Elliott Society of Science and Art 
of Charleston, S. C. " 



8 

At the request of the Chair, Mr. Loomis made some remarks upon 
bird migration. The subject was discussed at length by others. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher considered that the appearance in the autumn 
of the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius longiroslris), as well as of the 
Willet ( Sytnphemia semipahnatd) and the Black Skimmer (Rhynchops 
7iigra), could be accounted for only by supposing a northward move- 
ment after breeding. It was his opinion that the occasional flights 
of Black Terns {Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis) come from the 
West, where these birds are common. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman spoke of the appearance of Spoonbills (Ajaja 
ajaja)— adults and birds of the year — at Corpus Christi, Texas, early 
in April. This species arrives after having bred in some other locality. 

February 17, 1892. — The President in the chair. Nine members 
and four visitors present. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher read a paper entitled "A Summer's Collecting 
in Southern California/' illustrating it by an extensive series of photo- 
graphs taken by himself during this trip, — June to September, 1891. 
After crossing the Mojave Desert, Mr. Dutcher, outfitting at Keeler, 
camped on the banks of Big Cottonwood Creek, and from thence, 
made the ascent of Mt. Whitney. Breaking camp, September 15, a 
visit was paid to Death Valley, where a camp of Piute Indians was 
visited, and a number of photographs of the region taken. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher gave an account of the habits of a Short-eared 
Owl ( Asio accipitrinus), which he held in captivity for a month in the 
fall of 1 89 1. During this time it did not become appreciably tamer. 

March 2, 1892. — Annual Meeting. The President in the chair. 
Eleven members and one visitor present. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year. President, 
Dr. J. A. Allen ; Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman ; Secretary, 
Mr. Arthur H. Howell; Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. L. M. Loomis presented a paper entitled ■' A Theory of Mi- 
gration." This paper was but a part of a more extended one to 
appear later, and dealt only with cold and food as factors influencing 
the southward migration of birds. The theory advanced was that 
food supply was the chief factor to be considered, cold influencing 
the southward movement in so far only as it occasioned a lack of food. 

Arthur H. Howell, 

Secretary, 



Members of the Linn^an Society 



Of New York. 

1892. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M. D., Ph. D. George N. Lawrence. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. 



RESIDENT. 



C. Slover Allen, M. D. 
J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 
Marsten T. Bogert. 
Reginald I. Brasher. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Wm. A. Conklin, Ph. D. 
Basil H. Dutcher. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
Chas. S. Faulkner. 
L. S. Foster. 
Walter W. Granger. 
John B. Grant. 
George Bird Grinnell, Ph. 
Wm. F. Hendrickson. 
F. H. Hoadley, M. D. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M. D. 

Louis A. 



Frank E. Johnson. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles M. Mali. 
C. B. McQuesten, M. D. 
Edgar A; Mearns, M. D. 
Robert T. Morris, M. D. 
Wm. C. Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
Jenness Richardson. 
Wm. M. Richardson. 
C. B. Riker. 
Wm. C. Rives, M. D. 
D. John Rowley, Jr. 
W. E. D. Scott. 
George B. Sennett. 
John C. Sprague. 
Lewis B. Woodruff. 
Zerega, M. D. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 

A. K. Fisher, M. D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M. D. 

E, S. Gilbert. 

B. F. Goss. 
W. H. Gregg, M. D 
Juan Gundlach, Ph. 

C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. J^ersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M. D. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Wm. K. Lente. 
Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 
Leverett M. Loomis. 
Alfred Marshall. 
H. W. Mason. 
Theo. L. Mead. 
C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 
James C. Merrill, M. D. 
C. J. Pennock. 
Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 
Theodore Roosevelt. 
John H. Sage. 
R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. 
D. Ernest E. Thompson. 

E. Carleton Thurber. 
Spencer Trotter, M. D. 
B. H. Warren, M. D. 
S. W. Williston, M. D., Ph. D. 



Thos. W. Wilson. 



L. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 



1892-93. • No. S. 



ABSTEACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^AN SOCIETY 



NEW YORK, 

For the Year Ending flarch i, 1893, 



WITH A PAPER 



By TAPPAN ADNEY 



"Milicete Indian Natural History." 



The Society meets on the first and third Wednesday 
evenings of each month at the A merican Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park, New York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

The Linnsean Society of New York. 

TRANSACTIONS. 

Transactions of The Linnsean Society of New York, Volume I., 
Royal Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece — Portrait of Linn/eus. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK, By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the 
Panther, Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least Weasel, 
Ermine, Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW {Corvus ossifragus Wilson) A WINTER AS 
WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN 
LIMIT OF ITS RANGE ? By WILLIAM DUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE 
CATSKILL MOUNTAINS WITH PREFATORY REMARKS 
ON THE FAUNAL AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE 
REGION. By EUGENE PINTARD BICKNELL. 

New York, December, 1882. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Transactions of the Linnsean Society of New York, Volume II., 
Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents : Frontispiece — Plate of Bendire's 
Shrew. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia, Concluded.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

Contains Biographies of the Dear, Moose and Elk ; of the Moles and 
Shrews (six species) ; the Bats (five species) ; the Squirrels (six species) ; the 
Woodchuck, the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats and Mice 
(seven species), and the Hares (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORECID^E. (Atophyrax Bendirii, with a Plate.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Abstract of Proceedings. 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Linnsean Society of New York, 
No. 1, for the year ending March 1, 1889, 8vo., paper cover, 9 pp. 
No. 2, " " 

No. 3, 
No. 4, 
No. 5, 

Free to Members of the Society at date of issue. 
To others, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 25 cents each. 
No. 5, 50 cents. 

For any information concerning the publications, address The Secretary 
of The Linnsean Society of New York, care of American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City. 



7, 1890, " 


10 pp. 


6, 1891, " 


11 pp. 


2, 1892, " 


8 pp. 


i, 1893, " 


41 PP. 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN/EAN SOCIETY 

T 

OF 

2STEAA7" YORK, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH i, 1893. 



This is the fifth in the series of "Abstracts " published 
by the Society, and, like the preceding numbers, is intended 
mainly as a brief review of the year's work, only the more 
important points in the papers read before the Society be- 
ing mentioned. Some of the papers have been printed 
in full elsewhere, and in such cases a reference is given 
to the place of publication. 

March 16, 1892. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Nine 
members and eight visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper on "The Winter 
Birds of the Vicinity of New York City," illustrating it 
with a map of the locality under consideration, which in- 
cluded all the territory within a radius of 50 miles of the 
New York City Hall, lengthened out to the eastward, 
however, 65 miles further, so as to include the whole of 
Long Island. The prominent points on the boundary 
line are Trenton, N. J., Newburg, N. Y., Bridgeport, Conn., 
and Montauk Point, Long Island. 

The list comprised 127 species that have occurred in this 



district during the months of December, January, and 
February. Following is an epitome of Mr. Foster's notes 
on the rarer species, and on the most notable records. 

The Puffin {Fratercula arcticd) is a rare visitor from the 
North ; recorded from Centre Moriches, L. I., December 
15, 1882. 

The Dovekie (A lie alle), which is quite irregular in its 
appearance, was fairly common during December, 1891. 

A Great Blue Heron (Ardea herodias) was shot at 
Bridgeport, Conn., in January, 1884. by Mr. C. K. Averill, 
and Mr. C. C. Young found one dead on Far Rockaway 
Beach in December, 1891. 

Two specimens of the Clapper Rail {Rallies crepitans) 
are recorded from Far Rockaway Beach, one in December, 
1884, another in February, 1885. « 

Wilson's Snipe {Gallinago delicatd) is unusual in winter ; 
Mr. Foster observed one at Far Rockaway, January 1, 
1890. 

Mr. Wm. C. Southwick of Raritan, N. J., noted the 
Killdeer (sEgialitis vociferd) at that place about February 

22, 1892. 

The Mourning Dove [Zenaidura macrourd) is very rare 
in winter ; there are three records — from Englewood, 
Chatham, and Princeton, N. J., respectively. 

The Yellow-bellied Woodpecker (Sphyrapicus varius) 
has but one record, from Westchester Co., N. Y., winter of 
1884-85. 

The Cowbird (Molothfus ater) is of rare occurrence in 
winter ; Mr. Foster recorded a good-sized flock at Long 
Beach, L. I., January I, 1892. 

There are few published records of the occurrence in 
winter of the Sharp-tailed Sparrow {Ammodramus canda- 
cutus); Mr. Foster killed one at Far Rockaway, February 

23, 1885. 

The Seaside Sparrow {Ammodramus maritimns) is also 
rare in winter, Mr. N. T. Lawrence recording one from 
Far Rockaway, February 22, 1884. 



There are two records of the Field Sparrow {Spizella 
piisilla), one from Setauket, L. I., January 31, 1885, and 
one from Englewood, N. J., December 25, 1885. 

A singular record is that of a Catbird (Galeoscoptes 
carolincnsis), at Fort Hamilton, L. L, December 30, 1882. 

A few solitary Brown Thrashers (Harporhynchus rufus) 
remain here during the winter, having been seen at Engle- 
wood. N. J., on two occasions, and in Central Park, New 
York City. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher remarked upon the unusually large 
number of species found in this region, not only in winter 
but in summer as well, about one-third of the total number 
of North American birds having occurred at one time or 
another within these limits. He said that the Gulf Stream 
had a moderating effect upon the climate of this region, 
and spoke of a sheltered swamp on the bar opposite Say- 
ville, south side of Long Island, which rarely freezes solid, 
and where many birds spend the winter in security. 

April 6, 1892. — The President in the chair. Five mem- 
bers present. 

Dr. J. A. Allen occupied the evening with remarks upon 
the Flycatchers of South America, illustrating his talk with 
a good series of specimens, representing a large number 
of genera. 

In speaking of the seasonal changes in the plumage of 
South American birds, he said that although the climate is 
very moist and the country well wooded, the changes in 
plumage resulting from abrasion and fading are very 
marked. [See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iv., Dec, 
1892, pp. 331-350.] 

Dr. Allen read extracts from letters which he had re- 
ceived from Mr. Jenness Richardson, who was then at 
Micco, Florida. He reported seeing, about the vessel while 
leaving New York Harbor, a Gull (Larus a.smithsonianus), 
having several wing feathers missing ; the same Gull fol- 
lowed the vessel all the way to Charleston, S. C. 



April 20, 1892. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Five 
members and two visitors present. 

Mr. Arthur H. Howell read a paper entitled "Some 
Holiday Collecting Trips." It treated in a familiar way of 
two trips, made by the writer on May 30, 1889 and 1890, 
respectively, to the central portion of Long Island. 

The Pine Warbler (Dendroica vigor sii) is a characteristic 
bird of the locality, arriving early in April and remaining 
till October. Mr. Howell had been unsuccessful in finding 
its nest, and queried as to the date of nesting. Mr. Jonathan 
Dwight, Jr., said that in Massachusetts they breed early in 
May, and the nest is built in the topmost boughs of a pine. 

Mr. Howell had found, in 1889, a nest of the Long-eared 
Owl (Asio wilsonianus) 25 feet from the ground in a small 
pine. It was a deserted squirrel's nest, much flattened out, 
and contained three downy young of different ages. 

A nest of the Hairy Woodpecker (Dry ob cites villosus) 
was found in a hole two and one-half feet from the ground 
in a living oak. It contained four young, two males and 
two females. 

Nests of the Baltimore Oriole (Icterus galbida) contain- 
ing respectively, two and six eggs, were recorded. [See 
"Ornithologist and Oologist," March and April, 1893.] 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., stated that in New Jersey he 
had found nests of the Mourning Dove (Zenaidura macrourd) 
on the Norway spruce, white pine, and apple trees, in the 
near vicinity of houses ; and in Kansas had found two 
nests in the open prairie. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher had found on Snake River, Idaho, 
that the bird invariably nested on the ground under the 
sage brush, although there were wooded tracts that it might 
have occupied ; in the East he had found the nests in 
scrub-oaks. He stated that the bird is found from sea- 
level to ten thousand feet altitude. 

Several of the members made reports of the migrant birds 
they had observed, which tended to show that the migration 
was rather late, and the migrants not very numerous. 



May 4, 1892. — The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and four visitors present. 

Mr, Frank M. Chapman gave an account of his recent 
trip to Cuba, where, in the vicinity of Trinidad, on the 
southern coast of the island, he spent the greater part 
of March and April, 1892. A full account of his ob- 
servations and collections will be found in the Bulletin of 
the American Museum of Natural History, Vol. iv., pp. 

279-33I- 

Dr. J. A. Allen spoke of an interesting new species of 
Gallinule from Gough Island, off the coast of Africa. He 
had named the bird Porphyriomis comeri. [See Bull. 
Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iv.. 1892, p. 57.] 

May 18, 1892 — The President in the chair. Nine mem- 
bers present. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman read some notes from T. G. 
Pearson of Archer, Fla. Among the interesting records 
was that of a flock of 50 or more Wild Pigeons (Ectopistes 
migrator ins"). Mr. W. E. D. Scott, however, rather doubted 
the correctness of the record, and stated that if it were 
true it was quite remarkable, Florida being out of the 
range of this bird for the last few years. 

Mr. Pearson had found the Sparrow Hawk {Falco 
sparverius) breeding very abundantly, the usual number of 
eggs being four or five ; if robbed, the birds always laid 
a second set and sometimes a third, usually in the same 
nest; 19 to 21 days are required to complete a second litter. 

Mr. Ernest E. Thompson, who had just returned from 
an extended trip in Europe, made some remarks on his 
impressions of European birds. He was struck with the 
fact that there was no marked Autumn song season, as with 
us, the only birds singing at that season being the Robin 
(Enthaciis rubccula) and the Skylark (Alauda arvensis). 

Mr. W. E. D Scott spoke of the destruction of birds in 
Florida, and said that there had been a marked decrease in 
the evil during the past few years, and a corresponding in- 
crease in the numbers of birds, especially the Herons and 



other birds used for millinery purposes. The new law is 
generally respected, and has a very salutary effect. 

Mr. Scott had found Burrowing Owls (Speotyto cunicularia 
floridana) breeding in the prairies (so called) of the Lake 
Okeechobee region, but not in communities. The ground 
is quite dry where they are found, and Mr. Scott thought 
the birds in every case made their own burrows. The 
eggs are usually five in number, sometimes four, and rarely 
six or seven. 

He found the Caracara Eagle (Polyboms cheriway) 
breeding near Fort Thompson ; a nest that he examined 
on April 13, 1892, contained two young about three weeks 
old. The usual position of the nest is about 45 feet from 
the ground, in a pine or palmetto tree. 

Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo osceola) are found 
commonly in droves of five to twenty, and Mr. Scott's ob- 
servations lead him to conclude that the Turkey will never, 
on account of the wildness and irreclaimable character of 
the country, be exterminated in southern Florida. He 
made some observations on the weight of the Turkeys of 
that region, which were as follows : males, 12 lbs. to 22 lbs., 
averaging about 16 lbs ; females, 4! lbs. to g\ lbs. [See 
"Auk., 7 ' Vol. ix, 1892, pp. 209-218.] 

October 5, 1892. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven 
members and twelve visitors present. 

Mr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., presented some remarks upon 
the birds of Kansas, being an account of a visit paid to the 
State in the summer of 1891, — from July 4 to 21. At 
the close of his remarks he exhibited a number of speci- 
mens. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher gave an account of his recent trip 
through parts of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, and New 
Mexico. He found the eastern limit of the range of the 
Prairie Dog to be near Wichita, Kansas, and at the same 
place found both Sturnella magna and 5. m. neglecla breed- 
ing, and of course numerous intermediates. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman gave some account of his experiences 



with the birds of Central Park (New York City), during 
the past summer. Several unusual birds have been 
recorded, among them a Red-bellied Nuthatch {Sitta 
canadensis) in June and July, and a Canadian Warbler 
[Sylvania canadensis) in full song, July I. 

The bathing habits of the birds form an interesting 
feature of their summer life. Mr. Chapman had discovered 
a little pool which seemed to be a favorite resort, and had 
watched it quite faithfully. The following species were, ex- 
cepting the English Sparrows, the most frequent visitors : 
Melospiza fasciata, GeotJdypis trichas, Vireo olivacetis, 
Dendroica cestiva, and Menda migratoria. The Vireos 
differed from the other bathers in the fact that they never 
entered the water bodily, but, flying from some elevated 
perch, merely dashed the water over themselves, and were 
away again. 

A rough estimate of the number of Sparrows bathing 
there per day places the number at 4,000. 

On August 29, there occurred the first flight of mi- 
grants, and on this same date the birds ceased bathing in 
the Park, and since then only two have been seen at their 
summer resort. 

October 19, 1 892. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and nine visitors present. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper entitled, 
" Notes on the Zoology of the Voyages of Columbus." 

Columbus was not a naturalist, but there are numerous 
references in his journal to the birds and mammals which 
he observed on his voyages. Mr. Chapman traced the 
details of the first and memorable voyage, noting the birds 
seen at different stages of the voyage, and how Columbus 
was led to alter his course by reason of meeting a large 
flight of North American migrants 800 miles from the 
Bahamas, thus landing at San Salvador instead of Florida. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper on "The Spring 
Birds of the Vicinity of New York City." the territory being 



the same as that covered by his previous paper on winter 
birds. [See p. I.] 

One hundred and one species were enumerated, with 
brief notes on each, the paper being not a complete list, 
but compiled from Mr. Foster's personal records in his 
field notes, and his collection of bird skins. 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher and Mr. F. M. Chapman made re- 
marks upon Mr. Foster's paper, and Mr. A. H. Howell 
gave a supplementary list of the birds he had noted on 
Long Island during the spring months. 

November 2, 1892. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and five visitors present. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented a paper entitled "Classifica- 
tion and Nomenclature of the Life Areas of North Amer- 
ica." [See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. iv, Dec, 1892.] 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper entitled, " An 
Analysis of the Summer Bird-Life of the Vicinity of New 
York City, with Remarks on some of the Rarer Species." 

Mr. Chapman has found that there are 127 species which 
can be classed as summer residents, of which 108 are land 
birds and 19 water birds ; 22 species may be considered 
abundant, 47 common, 31 tolerably common, and 27 rare. 

Mr. Chapman has observed 82 land birds the past season, 
seeing in one day 55. He noted, as being worthy of 
special mention, a Worm-eating Warbler {Helmitlierns 
vermivorns) 1 singing on the Palisades, July 3 and 10. 

Helniintlwphila pimis was found breeding with H. leitco- 
bronchialis on June 12, the nest containing eggs, [See 
"Auk," Vol. ix., 1892, p. 302.] 

The Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica peiisylvanica) 
is becoming more common every season ; a number may 
be found breeding in New Jersey, near Englewood. The 
Carolina Wren {Tliryothoms liidovicianus) seems also to 
have extended its range within the past few years, as it is 
abundant on the eastern slope of the Palisades, from Fort 
Lee to Piermont. It is restricted, however, to the imme- 



diate vicinity of the river valley, and is found only very 
rarely on Long Island. [See "Auk." Vol. x., 1893, p. 87.] 

Mr. Chapman stated that a pair of Duck Hawks (Falco 
peregrines) nest every year near Yonkers, N. Y. He men- 
tioned, also, the fact that a Mockingbird {Mimus polyglot- 
tos), evidently an escaped cage-bird, had taken up its 
abode in the vicinity of the Museum building, and is never 
found over 100 feet from its roosting place. 

December 7, 1892. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Eight members and five visitors present. 

The following paper was presented, which the Secretary 
read by title : 

11 Milicete Indian Natural History," by Tappan Adney. 
[See end of this Abstract.] 

This paper was read in substance before the Society, 
December 6, 1889, but its publication has been delayed at 
the author's request. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper on " Our Pres- 
ent Knowledge of the Distribution of North American 
Birds." This paper was based on a bibliography he had 
compiled of all faunal lists and papers mentioning at least six 
species, and was arranged by States. By means of a map 
the number and distribution of the lists by States and 
countries was indicated. New York takes the lead with 
79 titles ; Massachusetts is second, with yS ; and Cali- 
fornia third, with JJ. 

Dr. C. S. Allen presented some notes on Florida, being 
a verbal account of several trips made to Oak Lodge, just 
east of Micco, in Brevard County. 

He gave a description of the breeding habits of the Pel- 
ican [Pelecanus fuscus) and showed a number of photo- 
graphs of the nests, eggs, and birds. The island on which 
they were found breeding was about 1 50 feet long by 50 feet 
broad, and was covered with a dense growth of mangroves, 
very little land appearing anywhere. The nests here were 
in bushes, ten to fifteen feet from the ground, and were made 
of sticks, straw, dry reeds, etc., and held from one to four 
eggs. The young, on emerging from the shell, are of a size 



10 



corresponding with that of the egg, and slate colored, from 
tint of skin, with apparently scattering hairs (casings) pro- 
tecting white down, but in a few hours they appear to 
have increased to several times the bulk of the egg, and be- 
come white as soon as the down is freed from the protect- 
ing covering ; in a few days they are as large proportion- 
ately as birds usually are when a week or two old. This is 
due, in part, to the power the birds have of taking air into 
the spaces beneath the skin, which is very loose and capable 
of being immensely inflated. They remained in the nest 
but a few days, resting thereafter on the surrounding bushes. 
On being disturbed they disgorged large quantities of fish, 
apparently from the oesophagus. The birds begin to breed 
in March and continue breeding till June. 

Dr. Allen spoke of finding a Carolina Wren's nest in a 
hole which had been cut in a barrel of partially slacked 
lime standing in a shed. 

Mr. Sennett, in remarking upon Dr. Allen's paper, spoke 
of the breeding of the Pelican on the coast of Texas, upon 
extensive grass flats. 

December 21, 1892. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and two visitors present. 

In reply to a request for papers addressed to the Corre- 
sponding Members, three papers had been received, which 
the Secretary proceeded to read. 

The first was by Dr. F. W. Langdon, on " Faunal 
Changes in Ohio and the Vicinity of Cincinnati, 1838- 1892." 

The following species have apparently deserted this 

locality during the period named : Meleagris gallopavo, 

TympanncJius americanns, Conurus carolinensis, Elanoides 

forficatns, CeopJiloeus pileattis, Campephilus principalis, 

Corvus cor ax principalis. 

The following species are much less abundant than in 
former times : Ectopistcs migratorius, Progne subis, Am- 
pelis cedrornm. 

On the other hand, the following have become more 
common during this period : MolotJirus ater, GeotJilypis 



II 

formosa, Lanius ludovicianus, CJiondestes grammactts, Den- 
droica ccernlea. 

Two European species, the Skylark (Alauda arvensis) 
and the House Sparrow {Passer domes ticus), have been 
introduced. The Black-throated Bunting- (Spiza ameri- 
cana), which was considered of doubtful occurrence in Ohio 
forty years ago, has since become abundant, but in the last 
decade has again markedly decreased in numbers. 

The next paper was from Mr. E. S. Gilbert, of Canaseraga, 
N. Y., who, in treating of " Faunal Changes," refers to 
the disappearance of Ceophlazus pileaUcs and Melanerpes 
erythrocephahis, and the scarcity during the breeding season 
of Colaptes auratus, Sialia sia/i's, and Troglodytes dedon. 
He says also that, "Bobolinks and Kingbirds are greatly 
diminished in numbers," while, "on the other hand, the 
Shore Lark yOtocoris alpestris praticold) is more common 
than formerly," the reason being its love for regions of 
cultivated ground. These birds may be expected to arrive 
in the spring with considerable regularity, never varying" 
more than one day from February 15. 

The last paper was by Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, and was 
entitled, "The Chionididae, a Review of the Opinions on 
the Systematic Position of the Family." [See " Auk/' 
April, 1893, pp. 158-165.] 

Mr. F. M. Chapman showed a specimen of a new form of 
Oryzomys which he proposed to describe. [See Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. v., March, 1893, pp. 43-46.] 

Jamiaiy 4, 1893. — The President in the chair. Eleven 
members and two visitors present. 

The first paper of the evening was by Dr. J. A. Allen, "On 
Former Land Connections of the American Continents." 

The second paper, also by Dr. Allen, was " On the Dis- 
tribution and Relationships of the Pocket Gophers." 

Dr. Allen and Messrs. F. M. Chapman and B. H. Dutcher, 
gave accounts, drawn from personal experience, of the 
habits of these mammals and the methods employed in 
trapping them. 

Mr. Chapman stated that the Mockingbird that has 



12 



frequented the grounds of the American Museum since 
October 19, 1892, was yet present, notwithstanding the at- 
tentions of a visiting hawk. He feeds upon the fruit of the 
Virginia creeper and of a Chinese ailanthus-like tree. 

January 18, 1893. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and twelve visitors present. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman read a paper by Miss Florence 
A. Merriam on " Habits of the Gray Squirrel, and its Sus- 
ceptibility to Domestication." 

This animal is plentiful in the valley of the Black River, 
and at Miss Merriam's home at Locust Grove, Lewis Co., 
N. Y., is abundant, occupying the woods which are within 
sight of her house, and being rarely molested they have 
become remarkably tame ; by coaxing them with corn 
and nuts, they were enticed into the door-yard and on to 
the piazza of her house. One female, in particular, which 
Miss Merriam described under the name of " Gray," grew 
very tame, accepting food from the hand, and climbing all 
about one's person. 

She had noticed a number of interesting traits in the 
character of the Squirrels, notably the extreme nervous- 
ness they showed when placed in unusual circumstances, 
or when startled by a sudden apparition or loud sound. 
They seemed to be guided in their search for food more by 
smell than by sight, often sniffing about the lawn in a zig 
-zag fashion, while several nuts lay near by in plain view. 
Miss Merriam had observed very little friendly intercourse 
among them. 

The Hon. Clinton L. Merriam stated that until recently 
the Squirrels in the vicinity of his home (at Locust Grove, 
N. Y.) always occupied inside nests, but within the past 
few years he had observed a number of spacious outside 
nests. 

Mr. Geo. B. Sennett made remarks upon a collection of 
birds from northeastern Mexico, illustrated by specimens 
from his collection. He showed 21 of the Mexican species 
which are found nearest to the United States border, and 
told something of their habits and characteristics. 



February I, 1893. — The President in the chair. Ten 
members and three visitors present. 

Dr J. A Allen made remarks upon the Fox Squirrels of 
the United States, illustrated by specimens of the animals. 
He remarked upon the great tendency to melanism in the 
group, and described the characters of the three geograph- 
ical races found within our borders. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper on " Pro- 
tective Coloration Among Birds." 

Under the head of protective coloration proper, he 
instanced many cases, notably that of a flock of Parrots 
flying into a palm tree, whereupon they become almost 
indistinguishable from their surroundings, although not 
hidden to any extent by the foliage. He described, as 
illustrating the fact of the bird's consciousness of its pro- 
tective coloration, the habit the Cuban Meadow Lark has of 
turning its back to the observer, and also the remarkable 
instance narrated by Mr. W. H. Hudson in his " Argentine 
Ornithology" (Vol. ii., p. 103), of a wounded Bittern 
{Ardetta involncris) which persisted in turning its breast 
towards its captor, although he endeavored to pass around 
behind it. The bird, with its slender neck pointing straight 
upward, could not be distinguished from a reed stalk, ex- 
cept on close scrutiny. 

Mr. Chapman said that Dr. John A.Wells, of Englewood, 
N. J., had recently watched a Woodcock (Philohela minor) 
on her nest, and was fully convinced that she was aware 
of her resemblance to the surroundings of her nest, 
for she remained perfectly quiet and allowed of a very near 
approach ; but when a fall of snow came, and Dr. Wells 
again visited the sitting bird — now a very conspicuous 
object — she flew before he had approached within gunshot. 
Under the head of aggressive coloration, whereby a bird is 
enabled to seek its prey to better advantage by reason of 
its coloration, Mr. Chapman instanced the Fish Hawk, 
Gulls, Terns, etc. 

The most notable example of protective mimicry is the 



14 

European Cuckoo (Cuculns canorus), which, by reason of 
its striking resemblance to a hawk, is able to deposit its 
eggs in the nests of other birds, while they chatter and 
scold at a respectful distance. 

Mr. A. H. Howell recorded the breeding of Carpodacus 
purpureus on Long Island, as shown by a letter from Mr. 
A. H Helme, of Miller's Place, who says it is "a regular 
but not very common breeder." Mr. Wm. Dutcher con- 
firmed this statement and mentioned the fact of its breeding 
near Westbury, Queens Co. 

Mr. Chapman said that the Mockingbird which had 
frequented the vicinity of the Museum during the winter 
had not been seen since January 20. 

February 15, 1893. — The President in the chair. Ten 
members and six visitors present. 

Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller read a very interesting paper 
entitled "A June Study," telling, in her charming and 
popular style, of a month's study of the habits of the Blue 
Jay (Cyanocitta cristata). 

Mr. L. S. Foster said that he had found, upon investigation 
of the stomachs of the Blue Jays, that at certain seasons of 
the year they feed largely upon acorns, and Dr. J. A. Allen 
stated that by the same process he had found that they 
destroyed large numbers of the eggs of the tent caterpillar. 

Miss E. Taylor, upon being introduced by the chair, 
gave a brief but very interesting account of a recent trip 
she had made to the Mackenzie River, extending to within 
twenty miles of its mouth. She exhibited many good pho- 
tographs taken on the trip, and Dr. Allen showed a number 
of specimens of birds which she obtained and had pre- 
sented to the American Museum. 

Mr. Frank E. Johnson reported that a Mockingbird 
(Mimics polyglottos) had spent the past winter in the vicin- 
ity of Blithewood, L. I. 

He also mentioned seeing 3 or 4 Cowbirds (Molothrus 
ater) in the same place on January 23. 



i5 

March I, 1893. — Annual Meeting. The President in the 
chair. Six members and two visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report as follows : 

" There have been held during the year 15 meetings, be- 
ing the full quota, with the exception of the second meeting 
in November, when by vote of the Society the regular 
meeting was omitted, in order that the Society might meet 
with the Scientific Alliance. 

" The average attendance of members for these 15 meet- 
ings was 8, and of visitors 5. The total number of persons 
in attendance during the year was 192, of whom 71 were 
visitors, and 121 members. 

" The largest number of members present at any meeting 
was 11, the smallest number, 5 ; largest number of visitors 
present, 12 ; at two meetings there were no visitors ; largest 
attendance of both members and visitors, 19, which oc- 
curred twice ; smallest total attendance, 5 ; this occurred 
but once. 

"There have been read before the Society 22 papers, 17 
by the resident members, 3, by the corresponding mem- 
bers, and 2 by strangers. Of these 22 papers, 10 were 
written papers, and 12 more or less verbal and informal. 

" There were on the membership roll at the commence- 
ment of the year 75 members, consisting of Honorary, 3 ; 
Resident, 35 ; and Corresponding, 37. 

" Three Resident members have resigned and five new 
ones been added, making the total of Resident members 37, 
and the grand total y/, a. gain of two. 

"The library, which has for a number of years been in 
more or less of a chaotic state, has during the past fall and 
winter been thoroughly overhauled and arranged on 
shelves in the hall-way of the upper story of the American 
Museum. 

" A comprehensive catalogue has been prepared, and an 
index giving the title of every paper is now under way, and 
more than half finished. The thanks of the Society are 
due to Mr. and Mrs. L. S. Foster, Miss Foster, Mr. Walter 



\6 



W. Granger, and Mr. Edward Carson, who have rendered 
faithful and efficient aid in this work. There is still op- 
portunity for further assistance in its completion. 

" The library, as now catalogued, contains 660 publi- 
cations ; 73 quarto size, 18 royal octavo, and 569 octavo ; 
46 are bound in cloth, 18 in boards, and 596 in paper. 

" It is impossible to tell how many have been added dur- 
ing the year just past, but the catalogue is so arranged 
that a report of the accessions can readily be made in the 
future. Perhaps the most notable addition is that of the 
first volume of Capt. Bendire's " Life Histories of North 
American Birds." 

" The bulk of the library consists of the publications of 
scientific societies, the files of which are in many cases 
incomplete. The Secretary would suggest that an effort be 
made to fill the gaps, and also that the receipt of all pub- 
lications be acknowledged on printed forms. 

" The only publication issued by the Society was its usual 
'Abstract of Proceedings,' containing 8 pages. The matter 
in the hands of the Secretary at the present time would 
warrant something a little more pretentious for the next 
year. There were sent out 168 copies of the 'Abstract ;■' 
j6 to members, 57 to scientific societies and colleges, 26 
to scientific journals, and 9 to individuals." 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a 
balance on hand of $151.22. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 
President, Dr. J. A. Allen. 
Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 
Secretary, Mr. Arthur H. Howell. 
Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper on "Avian Classifi- 
cation : Suprageneric Groups." 

He illustrated, by means of charts, the classifications 
adopted by the more prominent systematists from the ear- 
liest times to the present day, so far as groups above genera 



i7 

are concerned ; his illustration of the scheme adopted by 
the A. O. U. being especially detailed and complete. 

Dr. Wm. C. Rives exhibited for identification a specimen 
in the flesh, which Dr. Allen pronounced to be a species 
of Tinamou (Nothurus maculatus). It is a South American 
game bird somewhat resembling a Quail, and was un- 
doubtedly brought from the Argentine Republic, as it is 
reported that a large number of similar birds have been 
shipped from that country to the New York market. 

Arthur H. Howell, 

Secretary, 



Milicete Indian iNatural History: 

A List of Bird Names, together with a Supplementary 
List of Names of Other Animals, 

By TAPPAN ADNEY. 



■ * o — — 



Two hundred and fifty years ago, when John Smith of 
Jamestown visited New England, the whole country from 
the Richelieu eastward to the river St. John in Acadia was 
occupied by the one great tribe of the Abenaki, composed 
of several sub-tribes speaking different dialects of one 
language. There were the Wawenocks, Norridgwoks, 
Assaguntacooks, Sokokies or Pequakets, and Pennacooks, 
all of whom have ceased to exist separately. Disheartened, 
and depleted in numbers by warfare with the whites, the 
remnants have withdrawn at different times into Canada. 
To-day there remain only the Penobscots and Passama- 
quoddies in Eastern Maine, and last, the so-called Milicetes* 
who occupy the valley of the St. John River in New 
Brunswick, but also mingle with the Penobscots. 

*A corruption of Malizet {Mal-i-ztt-e-'watc, a Milicete), the name applied to 
them by the Micmacs. They call themselves Olastugiuk, or People of the 
Olasluk, or Wallastook, as the river is named on old maps. They are there- 
fore often known by the term St. John River Indians. 



20 



The Micmacs* of Nova Scotia and eastern New Bruns- 
wick are a separate tribe, speaking a distinct language, 
although all are members of the great Algonkin family. 

The following list of Milicete birds is nearly complete, 
so far as the Indian names are concerned. Many species 
not included would, if they came under an Indian's ob- 
servation, receive some designation. Some species, on the 
other hand, are known to so few that it is doubtful whether 
the Indian name should not be classed as a synonym 
only. It will be seen that the land birds interest them 
more than the water birds, as befits an inland tribe. 

They make no such distinctions as we, the separation 
being rather into big and little ; Sips is any large bird 
whatever, but especially a " duck." A " duck," as they 
understand the word, has also a wider application and is 
more synonymous with "water-fowl." Sipsis, on the 
contrary, is any small bird. It may also mean a young 
water-fowl ; thus there is no clear line of separation there. 
Only the commoner species are given a name, and when- 
ever there is a superficial resemblance between what we 
regard as widely different species, there is no nominal 
distinction. Such differences, if noted at all, are treated as 
not more than individual ones. Inaccuracy of identifi- 
cation and looseness in application of names are there- 
fore matters of course. 

Little children, even, show a profound knowledge of 
natural history, so far as names go, like many of us. Most 
of the stories their mothers tell them are of the trees, the 



*Mr. Chas. G Leland, whose literary attainments are unquestionable, tells, 
in " Algonkin Legends of New England," stories of various birds and beasts. 
Those stories relate to the Penobscots, Passamaquoddies and Micmacs, the 
legend belonging to each being distinguished respectively by the marks " Pen," 
"P," and "M." Labelled with an "M" are certain legends undoubtedly 
not Micmac but Milicete, a fact overlooked in the haste with which the book 
is said to have been prepared. With this explanation the work has an especial 
interest in this connection, as the tales of birds and animals therein are almost 
as much Milicete as Passamaquoddy. Note also that his " JVezowiessis," the 
" Blue Bird," is only a " little yellow bird," the American Goldfinch. 



21 



four-footed beasts and the birds. As the child grows older 
he observes more for himself, and of birds he imitates their 
language. Though familiar with the names and the 
"literature" of his ornithology, he may never become an 
observer skillful enough to fit upon the owners the ex- 
cellent names which he knows. The meaning, too, and the 
reason why, are likewise difficult to get from most Indians, 
although it is alleged by those high in authority among us 
that every name in an unwritten language must carry its 
meaning with it, so as to be instantly taken apart and 
understood. 

In the following list the writer regrets that he cannot 
give a translation in every case that represents the mean- 
ing of the name with precision as absolute as our language 
permits, but the difficulties of translation, while not elim- 
inated, have been greatly simplified by reason of the ex- 
cellent knowledge of English possessed by many Indians 
of the Milicete tribe. 

The spelling is that recommended by the United States 
Bureau of Ethnology. It should be borne in mind that 
there is frequently no distinction between the sounds k 
and g, p and b, s and z, and tc and dj. In many instances 
the sound is intermediate. Indians themselves in writing 
their language in English characters, express either the 
hard or soft sounds with indifference, more so at the be- 
ginning of a word. 

The following abbreviated list will serve to explain the 
more important peculiarities of the alphabet : 
a, as in father. o, as in note. 

a, as in what, not. o, stiictly a shortened sound, 

a, as in all, not equivalent to 6 in 

au, as ou in out. English, which is more 

c, as sh in shall. nearly the sound of a. 

tc, as ch in church. q, as ch in German ich. 

e, as in they. u, as in rule, 

e, as in then. ii. as in pull, 

i, as in pique. n, as in butt. 



I, as in pick. 



22 



PlED-BILLED GREBE. 
Podilymlms podiceps (Linn.). A'zops. 
Akin to zobeyii, smooth or slippery. Gunners know how 
difficult it is to shoot a " Hell-diver." " Sartin, very hard 
to hit," says the Indian. 

Loon._ 
Urinator im"ber (Gunn.). Ug wim>, rarely Ug-wim'. 
Related to ugzvimu, floating on the water, " like a dead 
fish" ; also to ugwid'n, canoe. 

Leach's Petrel. 
Oceanodroma lencorlioa (Vieill.). Men'-he bi-meh'-sit. 
Leach's Petrel, the little "Peter" who skims the surface 
of ocean with legs hanging downwards is so called, from 
menhebimet, a skimmer, such as squaws use to remove the 
scum from the surface of the pot of boiling water. Gf. ne-bi, 
water (old Abenaki). 

Gull 
(Laridae) in general. Ki-ahkw' or Ki-aJikzv' . 
Perhaps related to kialikzvii, straight course. 

American Herring Gull. 
Lams argentatus Smithsonian us Coues. (Adult.) 
(i) Wa-be-ki'-ahkw, White (wdbcyu) -Gull. Also 
sometimes 

(2) Wd'-be-it'-sips, White-" Duck." 

Terns 

(Sterna, etc.). Ki-ah'-z\s, Little-Gull. 

Duck 
in general, Sips. A loose term as previously mentioned. 
Context is the only guide to meaning, especially of the 
diminutives. 

Red-breasted Merganser. 

Merganser serrator (Linn.). 

(1) Kzvsiq'-kuh. A name applied also to an unde- 
termined species of water insect. Another name is 

(2) Ya '-ft-biig-wi-miis '- sit ! , likewise the name of a 
certain water insect that circles about on the "surface of 
the water." (Cf. ugwimu.) 



23 

American Merganser, 

Merganser americanus (Cass.), also shares these names. 

Hooded Merganser. 

Lophodytes cucullatus (Linn.). Hug-wuns'. 
On authority of Governor Noel Paul. Meaning not 
learned. 

Mallard. 

Anas boschas Linn. Kw'hes or Gw'hes. 
Identified by Gov. Noel Paul. Neither this nor the pre- 
ceding are commonly known. 

Black Duck. 

Anas o"bscura Gmel. Mut'-a-Mh'-sim. 

Pintail, 

Dafila acuta (Linn.), and possibly 

Gadwall, 

Anas strepera Linn. 
Wa'-be-kwsiq'-kuh, a White Kwsiqkiih, though not neces- 
sarily a Sheldrake. (The former is the "Gray Duck" of 
the gunners at Machias, Maine, where our Indians often 
go to shoot.) 

Teal 

in general, A' -w a-tX-wes' . Whenever the two species 
are distinguished they stand thus : 

Green-winged Teal. 

Anas carolinensis Gmel. Kici-a'-iva-ti-wes', Big Teal. 

Blue-winged Teal. 

Anas discors Linn. A'-u-a-ti-wes'-sis, Little Teal. 
Commonly they are not separated, and the words would 
mean simply an adult and young teal respectively. 

Wood Duck. 

Aix spoil sa (Linn.). Lun'-tug-wi-es', River or Stream-Bird. 
Haliintiik, running water, a river ; es is here a generic 
expression for bird, large or small, or any bird-like animal, 
such as a bat. It is used only in combination as a termi- 
nal, and whenever so found in this list, means " bird." 



24 

Buffle Head. 

Charitonetta albeola (Linn.). 
So-beg' -wi-es' , Salt-water-Bird ; from sobehkw, a body of 
salt water ; a body of water having a level surface, as op- 
posed to running water (Cf. sobeyii, smooth). 

Canada Goose. 

Branta canadensis (Linn.). Wdp-tuk. 
The word has some reference to the white (wdbeyu) 
markings about the head and throat. The closest transla- 
tion obtainable is "the whole thing white." 

Old-wife. 

Clausula hyemalis (Linn.), 
(i) E'-zlhks; also 
(2) Ha'-ha-wes 1 . 
The imitation given is " ha-ha' -wlk." 

American Golden-eye. 

Glaucionetta clausula americana (Bonap.). Um'-kwdl-kwes' 

Brant. 

Branta oernicla (Linn.). 31dhkw'-la-wi'. 
The imitation of notes is expressed thus : "mahkw-la'-wi." 

(Sp. ?) Adj'-i-go'-ni-ts 1 . 

An unidentified "duck." 

(Sp. ?) Mul-djes'-sis, 

Little-mitten. A small, unknown Sea "Duck," some- 
times seen on lakes in autumn. 

Wilson's Snipe. 

Gallinago delicata (Ord.). Neks' kivi-gwes'-sis. 
Said to mean " Little-Bird-that-hides-in-the-grass," in 
the sense of creeping under something. 

(Sp. ?) A'-wa-zves'. 

A species of Snipe, confused often with the preceding, 
and uttering " a-ka'-wik." 

Greater Yellow-legs. 

Totanus melanoleucus (Gmel.). Dji-zis-Jco-wes'. 
Djizlskoe, jealous or envious. 



25 

Least Sandpiper, 

Tringa minutilla Vieill., and probably the Semi-palmated 

Sandpiper, 

Ereunetes pnsillus (Linn.), Dji-zis'-ko-wes'-sis. Little "Plover." 

Spotted Sandpiper. 

Actilis macularia (Linn.). Nan' d-mlk'-tcus. 
Rocks-its-rump (nandmls, a rocking, as of a cradle ; 
nanamlssuk, rocking - chair). 

Solitary Sandpiper. 

Totamis solitarius (Wils.). Tcau-lcuu-i'-gad-es'. 
Long, long-legged Bird (?). 

American Bittern. 

Botanrus lentiginosis (Montag.). Nok' -um-m-ls' ; from 
nokumin, flour. 

It is not " flour," but dandruff that falls from the fluffy 
feathers of a Bittern when you shake him by his long green 
legs. 

Djimkwaha is not synonymous with this name. 

Great Blue Heron. 

Ardea herodias Linn. Qaskw. 
Compare Gaskiunlms, Kingfisher. Frequently the Indian 
says " Gaskw-mosinns — Grandfather Crane." 

Black-crowned Night Heron. 

JVycticorax nycticorax naBvius (Bodd.). Djim-kwa'-hd, or 

Dji'-md-ku-d' ha. 

Perfectly distinct, though often confused with Nokuminis . 

(Sp. ?) Wd '-be-nok '-um-in-is', White- 

" Meadow Hen." May be only the adult male Night 
Heron, which is white when seen from below. 

Canada Grouse. 

Dendragapus canadensis (Linn.). Ses-e-ga'-ti ge-h.es'. 
Meaning given by an Indian, "Bird that picks at the 
buds (of evergreens) and weeps." It feeds on the soft- 
wood buds, and the red skin about the eye gives it the ap- 
pearance of weeping. 



26 



Ruffed Grouse. 

Bonasa umbel lus togata (Linn.). Mid'-dji es\ 

" Lazy-Bird," says one. In the old mythology, Miitdjies 
was a wonderful man. He undertook canoe building, but 
made a failure of it, and has not ventured to try the water 
since. 

Passenger Pigeon. 

Ectopistes niigratorius (Linn.). Pul'-es. 
Ktcikwipules is any animal found wild in the woods, i. e. 
a " wood pigeon." 

Biswe pules is an animal with no owner, a "wild pigeon." 

Saw-whet Owl. 

Nyctala acadica (Gmel.). Kup-ka' mis. 

Kitp, pitched in a high key, is the sound uttered by the 
owl. It is the '' whetting " sound that sometimes, as we 
read, leads travelers, lost at night in the forest, to hunt for 
the saw-mill and the workmen, who in filing their saws 
make the sounds that come with such suggestiveness out 
of the gloom of the lonely woods. 

No Indian hunter, if he is sane, thinks of injuring or 
mocking Kupkamls. Nor should any one imitate that di- 
minutive sorcerer, for something about your camp will get 
a good scorching, and if any one kills him he will as certainly 
get hurt himself. A pair of moccasins, owned by the 
writer and blistered before the camp fire, was witness to 
the truth of this. Had not one of those common mishaps, 
in which the writer endeavored with success to put the 
blade of an axe through his foot, occurred after instead of 
before his first tragic encounter with Kupkamls (whose 
pelt was afterwards removed without bewitchment), the 
evidence would have been conclusive to the Indian. But 
with all his witchcraft he is a harmless wo/iantosis, little 
devil, who would rather prescribe for his small patients, 
the unwary mouse, and sz'psis, small bird, the medicine of 
magic claws and sharper beak. 



27 
Long-eared Owl. 

Asio wilsoiiiaims (Less.). AzT-gaht. 

Not a widely-known name. A few profess to know this 
owl, though it breeds regularly on the islands in the St. 
John River. 

Great Horned Owl. 

Bubo Tirgiuianus (GmeL). Tiq-tv/V, or Tiq-tug'l'. 

Imitation of cry. It is the bugaboo of small children 
and papooses: "Tiqfigli ! kowoltiJikw ! — Owl! go to 
sleep ! " the Indian mother says to her child. Equivalent 
nearly to " Devil git you, go to sleep " 

Snowy Owl. 

Nyctea nyctea (Linn.). Wa'-be-kok'-wo-kus', White Owl. 

Barred Owl. 

Syriiium liebulosuni (Forst.). Kok'-wo-kas'. 
Imitation pronounced in full is " kok-wjk-ho-ho" and 
doubtless is applied also to the hooting of the Great 
Horned Owl, which says in English, "Who cooks for you ?" 

Red-tailed Hawk, 

Buteo foorealis (GmeL), 
and all other large Hawks not specifically mentioned, 
O-wu'-ha ; from dowuJia, a very old word, referring to con- 
stant search for food. 

Sharp-shinned Hawk. 

Accipiter velox (Wils. ). Two names : 
(i) Ka-glhk'-wXs, Little-" Hawk ; " from kdgehkw, 
hawk (Penobscot) ; (Chippeway, kagek.) Only the diminu- 
tive occurs, but is far more common than the next : 
(2) O'-zvii-hah'-sls, Little-" Hen-Hawk." 

American Osprey. 

Panclion lialiaetus caroliuensis (GmeL). I'-so-ma gwes'. 

Ishmcigw'n, half a fish. It is said to eat but half of a fish, 
the middle half (!) and throws away the head and tail. A 
lazy, good-for-nothing fellow who spends much of his time 
fishing, is called " fsomagives — Fish Hawk." 



28 



Bald Eagle. 

Haliaeetus leucocephalus (Linn.). Ktci-piil-a'-g'n. 
Related doubtless to ktcipulakwagn, the tackle with 
which a pot is suspended over a fire. A withe, having a 
kwagn, hook, at one end, is tied by a single knot, ktcipu- 
lekt, to the support above. The grasp of the Eagle in 
striking may suggest the apparatus of the camp fire, but 
one Indian believed that the hooked beak resembled 
ktcip u lakzvag n . 

Gyr Falcon. 

Falco rusticolus gyrfalco (Linn.). Wa' -be-wu' -ha, White Hawk. 

Kingfisher. 

Ceryle alcyon (Linn.). Gas' -kum-itn-is' . 
Gasktlmkessu signifies a dropping off suddenly (unex- 
pectedly) beyond one's depth, especially when wading in 
water. The name doubtless refers to the plunging of the 
Kingfisher. Often when the first name is spoken another 
is added : Nam' -es - sis' -kiit, Fisher {names si's, a small fish). 

Woodpecker in general, and in particular the 

Dovv t ny Woodpecker. 

Dryobates pubescens (Linn.). A-bak'-wi-ses'. 
" Bird-that-' butts '-its-head," was a meaning given. 
Black-backed Three-toed Woodpecker. 

Picoides americanus Brehm. Mugs-e'-wi-a-bak'-wi-ses'. 
Black-woodpecker, (imigseweyu, black) ; commonly not 
distinguished by name. 

Yellow-bellied Sapsucker. 

Spliyrapicus varius (Linn.). Bag'-a-kwa'-ha. 
In the name lurks a reference to the pounding, as in 
A bag wises. 

Flicker. 

Colaptes aura t us (Linn.). Ktu-a'-lohtc. 

Pileated Woodpecker. 

Ceopliloeus pileatus (Linn.). Um-kwat'-pot. 
From mehkwatpbt, red-headed (mehkweXk, red). 



2 9 

Whippoorwill. 

Antrostomus vociferns (Wils.). Hu-ip'-o-lis'. 

Mimicry unmistakable. 

Night Hawk. 

Cliordeiles Virginia mis (Gmel.). Pik'-tcis-kwes'. 
An indelicate though graphic allusion to the peculiar 
" booming" noise heard at the end of the downward plunge. 
Related to plktu, piktewn ; also to Nanatniktcus (Spotted 
Sandpiper). 

Chimney Swift. 

Chaetura pelagica (Linn.). Ped-ag'-l-es'. 
Thunder-Bird ; from pedagylk, thunder. The reason for 
this name is apparent to all who have heard the muffled 
beating of wings in the chimney* of a country house during 
the night time. Yet some prefer to think that it refers to 
the appearance of this Swift in increased numbers before a 
thunder storm. The swallows occasionally have to bear 
this name. 

Ruby-throated Humming Bird. 

Trochilus colubris Linn. A'-la-mus'-stt. 
Probably a reference to the whirring sound in flight. 
Kingbird. 

Tyraiinus tyrannus (Linn.). Mils' -li-djes'. 

Meaning is not clear. 

Canada Jay. 
Perisoreus canadensis (Linn.). 
It is not strange that the most characteristic, and one of 
the quaintest and most interesting, birds of the New Bruns- 
wick woods should be known by a variety of names, as 
suits its many-sided nature. The Moose Bird, Gorby, 
Whiskey Jack, Whiskey John, etc., has scarcely fewer 
Indian names. 

(i) Mkun-i'-wa -ses' , Bird-that-picks-out-the-meat (?). 
Related to mkunasu, a picking up. One Indian explained 
that it "picks out the best part of the meat," hence the 
name. It is more common than the next one : 



3Q 

(2) Wa '-tci-gan '~z-es' ', Bird-ofthe-old*camping-place 
(wutcigan, old camp). 

(3) Kits' -kits- se -gives' , Old-Lumberman-Bird (kits- 
Ms segwessu. old lumberman, Penobscot dialect). Like 
the lumberman, the Canada Jay roams about through the 
woods as if " cruising" lumber for the coming winter's 
operations, is the common explanation. Yet there may be 
a still closer connection between this. name and the white 
man's fancy that the Moosebirds are the restless spirits of 
old lumbermen, wandering aimlessly through the forest, 
lingering about the places where they worked long ago. 

(4) Sk'n-a'-gwes, Glutton-Bird ; from sttnagwat, a 
big eater, used often as a term of reproach. This is said to 
be more current among the Passamaquoddies. "He is 
eatin' all the time; seem like he never git enough," says an 
Indian. 

Raven. 

Corvus corax simiatiis (Wagl.). Ktci' a ga-gah\ Big Crow. 
Observe that a Common Crow of larger size than usual 
would be called ktciagagagos. 

Blue Jay. 

Cyanocitta ciistata (Linn.). Ti'ti-as'. 
Perhaps titi is imitative. 

Bobolink. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus (Linn.). Sau'-ni-djag-vul'usku\ 
One Indian thought it meant a " half-breed " blackbird. 
But perhaps it is related to sanitniisn, the south wind. 

Crow. 

Corvus amei icaiius Aud. Ga-ga'-gos. Mimicry. 

Bronzed Grackle. 

Qviisealus quiscula aeneus ("Ridgw.). Djag-wiil'-uskw, or 
Djag'-wu-li'. 

Imitation. A name for blackbirds in general. Same as 
" Cliog htskzv" Blackbird, in old Abenaki language (Kid- 
der). 



Red-winged Black Bird. 

Agelaius plioeniceus (Linn.). Mehk'-wul-kictn'-ut. 
Mekwidlniit , red wing, from w\d\n, wing, and mekweik, 
red. 

Pine Grosbeak. 

Pinicola enucleator (Lirni.). A'-miln-ha'-duk. 
Some reference to striking at the birds with the bill. At 
sight, both the Crossbills and the Purple Finch are likely to 
receive this name. 

Red Crossbill, 

Lovia curvirostra minor (Brehm), and 

White-winged Crossbill, 

Lovia leucoptera Gmel. 
(i) A'-miin-ha'-diik. Occasionally also 
(2) Pim-skwa' -bek-Jiig n 1 -Is , k4 Cross-Bill." 

Red Poll, 

A can this linaria (Linn.), and 

Pine Siskin, 

Spinus pin 11s (Wils.). Kwsi' ci-wis', or Kucsi'-wis'. 

Imitation of notes, having no reference to the meaning 
of the word, kwsiawlsk, a virgin. 

Purple Finch. 

Carpodacus purpiireus (Gmel.). 3fehk-we-it, 
from mehkweik, red. 

The full name is Mehk-we 'At-bon-i-es '-sis ■, Little-Red- 
Winter-Bird (pubon< winter). This name is only given to 
the males, and is barely applicable, for the Purple Finch is 
only exceptionally a winter bird. 

Snowflake. 
Plectroplieiiax nivalis (Linn.). 

(1) Wd'-bi-gel'lak'-sls, Little-Goose (domestic va- 
riety). There are not many Indians living to-day who 
remember the old name, so thoroughly has it been sup- 
planted by the new. Partly by accident the writer dis- 
covered the older 

(2) Psan'-i-es', Snowing Bird, from flsan, snowing. 



32 

The Sparrows. 
What a multitude of small, plain-colored birds the 
term "graybird" embraces, as used by the average 
white man in the Maritime Provinces of Canada. While 
we find that the average Indian there is a closer ob- 
server of birds than his white neighbor, we should not 
be surprised at his confusion when asked to give distinctive 
names to the different members of the Sparrow family. 
The truth is, they are more familiar with the names of these 
sparrows than with the appearance of the particular species 
to which they refer. They clearly recognize differences in 
songs, and they have names, based on these or other 
peculiarities, that are generally well chosen. Yet at first 
sight an Indian will call any sparrow Glaksis or Sulsulsili, 
because, as he tells you, ''they all look alike." 

Savanna Sparrow. 

Ammodramus sandwicliensis savanna (Wils.). Sul-sul-sil'-i. 
A likely imitation of the little meadow bird's song, but 
it has more interest in connection with the Song Sparrow. 

Thistle Bird (American Goldfinch). 
Spinus tristis (Linn.). Wi-zau'-i es'sls. 

Little-Yellow-Bird ; from wizaueyu, yellow. 
Song Sparrow, 

Melospiza fasciata (Gniel. ), and all sparrows in general. 

(i) Sul-sul-sll'-i. Imitation. This is one of the 
most constant singers. While to an unusual degree each 
individual renders his song to suit himself, there is through- 
out endless variety so strong a common resemblance that 
the author can never be mistaken. One type of song is 
strikingly suggested by the following string of jargon as 
given by an Indian boy: " SiU-sul-s , l-i+ l , su'-gas-kat'-pe- 
mo'-sum-sn — Sulsulsili, our flat-headed grandfather." 

(2) Ka-gas' -g' l-djes' -sis , a name given also to 
Kiqkanies. 



33 
White-throated Sparrow. 

Zonotricliia albicollis (Gmel.j. Klak'-sis, Little-Clock. 
The Indians say that Klaksis whistles every hour during 
the night, hence the name. They never tire of imitating 
the song of the Little-Clock, and one of the favorite in- 
terpretations is as follows: " Ma-h-zis'-kwetc, sdg'-ll-it, 
sdg'-il-it, sdg'-il-it — Milicete Squaw, 



Again, in good Milicete, it says, " Ma-li'-skfts, ddg'-a- 
duk\ dag'-a-duk, ddg'-a-duk' — Molly Brass Kettle, slap it, 
slap it, slap it." 

At another time it may be, " Ma-li'- skits, kll'-o-Tit, ktl'- 
o-llt, kM'-o-Ht — Molly Brass Kettle, speak to me," etc. 
The Penobscot name (auct. Mr. John N. Drake) is Wdbepepe. 
Also, the Passamaquoddies call it Wdbepe. Imitations, both. 

Chipping Sparrow. 

Spizella socialis (Wils.). Kiqka' ta-es', Garden or Field-Bird. 

Slate-colored Junco. 

Juiico liyemalis (Linn.). Pok'-wi-snau'~i-es'. 

Swallows, 
all species, including the 

Martin, 

Progne sub is (Linn.), He-bls' -ku-tcls' . 

Cedar Wax-wing. 

Ampelis cedroruiii (VieilL). Meg ici'-mo-si-mak'-sit. 
"Cuts its hair" (iiiosimoi), long behind and short in front, 
like the Mohawks and others, is the meaning given. 

* Though constantly quoted by Milicetes, the language is Micmac, which 
they do not understand. The writer learned the story from a Micmac Indian 
in Nova Scotia : A long time ago a Micmac brought home as his wife a squaw 
from the tribe of Milicetes, which the others did not approve of at all, for the 
two tribes had been at enmity. Every occasion was taken to insult the wo- 
man. One day a White-throat happened to be singing near by, and as if in 
imitation, an Indian repeated the words given above, which were meant to 
give offence. The word sounds like Ui-gil-az'-i — go away (Micmac), but it 
is not. 



34 
Oven Bird. 

Seinrns aurocapillus (Linn.). Sag'-i-Ug'nuk'-es. 
Bird-that-comes-when-the-buds-open (?). 

American Redstart, 

Setophaga ruticilla (Linn.), 
or any very small bright bird, Skwiid'-es, Fire Bird 
(skwut, fire). 

Catbird. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis (Linn.). Pso is'-ivi-sip'-sis, Cat Bird. 
This name certainly did not exist until the whites brought 
such an animal as psols into the Milicete country, but the 
old name, whatever it was, could not be learned. 

Winter Wren. 
Troglodytes liiemalis Vieill. 
( i ) A '-tiim-sub-i-keh'-sis. 

(2) Ha-tnu'-sub-i-keh'-sis, Little-Spider-Bird {liamn- 
subehkw, a spider). A doubtful name, mistaken for the 
first one. 

(3) Wai-nok'-tcls, Little-White-Man. This name 
originated soon after the first settlement by the white 
people. A certain boy then used to whistle like the Winter 
Wren ; so it came about whenever the song of Alumsiibi- 
kehsis was heard the Indians used to say "Wainoktcls, the 
Little-White-Man." 

Brown Creeper, 

CertSiia familial is americana (Bonap.), 
or any other bird that resembles it in appearance or 
habits, such as either of the Nuthatches and the Black- 
and-White Creeper, Wul-ges'-kwls, Little-Bark {zv\d\g(iskw, 
outside bark), a significant name. 

Red-breasted Nuthatch, 

Sitta canadensis Linn., 

and perhaps the White- breasted Nuthatch, 
Sitta carolinensis Lath. 

(1) Ba'-ftl-t-az'As, Little- Priest ; from bafilicis, a 



35 

corruption of the French patriarche. This is of course a 
new name, which has nearly supplanted the older 

(2) Tci' -di-wa' -ti-wemp' -tos. The word tcidiwatiwe 
signifies a slow going downwards on a tree trunk. 

Black-capped Chickadee, 

Parus atricapillus (Linn.), and 

Hudsonian Chickadee, 

Parus liiidsonicus Forst. Tci-gi'-gi-luh'-sis. 

Imitation (." Uigigi"). Passamaquoddy, k'tci-gi-gi'-las 
(" kitcJiigegelas"). Concerning the double note frequently 
uttered by the Black-cap, with a plaintive rising and falling 
inflection, Noel Sapier reverently assured the writer that 
the leader of a little flock uttered those words, and that he 
was saying to them " Ze-zos" Jesus. 

Hermit Thrush, 

Turdus aoualasclikae pallasii (Cab.), and incidentally the 

Olive-backed Thrush, 

Turdus ustulatus swainsonii (Cab.), and 

Wilson's Thrush, 

Turdus fuscesens Steph. 

( 1 ) A ' -tdl-a-zv auk' -turn, rarely A ' -tdl-a-gtvauk' -turn. 
Possibly an imitation of song — at least no meaning could 
be learned. 

(2) Ta-ne'-li-ain', Where are you going ? Now 
properly a name. 

" Ta-ne'-li-ain' , Ni-kwol '-o-was '-set ? Where are you 
going, Nikzvolowas set f" asks Atdlazvauktum. Out of the 
chilly mists of the early morning and in the deepening 
shadows of twilight we hear him, perched on the topmost 
cone of a tall spruce, high above his nest and sitting mate, 
repeating this question. Again, with matchless pathos, 
" Ta-ne'-li-ain' ', Ni-ko'-la Dm '-i- Den '-it — Where are you 
going, Nicolas Denys ?" Inquiry reveals the fact that 



36 

Nicolas Denys is only an Indian. Yet the Indian has for- 
gotten that his ancestors once traded with a white man of 
that name* 

American Robin. 

Merula migratoria (Lion.). 

(i) Um-kwlb'-X- si- lies', Red-throated (?) Bird. A 
new name unquestionably. The other is 

(2) Tci'-la-tci'-h, an imitation of the cheerful, cheery 
tci-la' -tci-W . Only the older generation recognize this 
name, and in a short time it will be forgotten. 
In conclusion : 

The male bird is nau-bu'-ha, 

The hen bird is skzv'hes (squaw bird). 

The nest is mu'-ci-ses'-sls (little bird's camp ? ). 

Egg, Wd'-wan. 



The following is an imperfect list of Mammals known to 
the Milicete Indians. 

Varying Hare, "Rabbit." 

Lepus americanns. Mali' ti-gwes'. 

Porcupine. 

Erethizon dorsatus. Ma'-di wes'. 

MUSKRAT, " Musquash." 
Fiber zibethicns. Ki'-wo-hus'. 

Beaver, " Beaber." 
Castor fiber canadensis. Ka-a'-bit. 

Ground Hog. 

Arctomys monax. Mon'-im-kwes'. 

CHIPMUNK, " Ground Squirrel." 
Tamias striatns. Ha'-sa-ku-uk'. 



* Monsieur Denys came to America in 1632. In 1636 he became Governor 
of the whole extent of the Bay of St. Lawrence and founded two settlements, 
which were also trading posts. There the Milicetes went to trade, so that his 
name must have been well known to them. Thus has the name been handed 
down from that remote time. 



37 
Red Squirrel. 

Scinrns liudsoiiius. Mi'-lbh, 
The squirrel, par excellence, of these Indians. 

Flying Squirrel. 

Sciiiropterns volncella. Seks ka'-iu. 

Bat, any species. Mbn-degn'-i-es' . 
In this name is a curious play upon words that would 
not be treated seriously except that it has entirely sup- 
planted any other name. It is of recent origin. Bats, of 
course, are regarded as "birds." 

Moose. 

Alces americanus. Mo-\-s. 

Believed to be a sort of imitation. 

Virginia Deer. 

Tariacus 'Virginia mis. Ed-ok'. 

Caribou. 

Rangifer caribou. Meg-aV-lp. 

Means "it shovels away the snow." 

Black Bear. 
Ursns americamis. "Bar," Mu'-in. 

Otter. 

Lutra canadensis. Ki'-won-lk'. 
The kll-he'-gn is a sort of dead-fall built across the slide 
of an otter, with triggers so arranged that the trap is 
sprung as the animal passes through. 

Skunk. 

Mephitis mepliitica. A' -big tci'lu. 
Refers undoubtedly to the characteristic odor. 

Mink. 

Pntorins vison. Tci'-a-ges'. 

Weasel. 

Pntorius ermineus. Si awes'. 
In winter pelage, Wd'-bi-si-gwes 1 ', White- Weasel. 

Fisher. 

Mn stela pennanti. "Black Cat," Pa-gumpk'. 



38 
American Sable. 

Mil stela americana. "Saple," Ne-makw'-so-es'. 
Sable trap, ne-makw '-so-es '-wl-heg'n' '. These traps are 
dead-falls, built in almost any conceivable situation — upon 
stumps, against sides of trees, on logs, on the ground. The 
setting is not by the " figure 4," but by a " standard " and 
a " bait-stick." 

Stretchers for stretching the skins of sable, also of mink, 
f kbfr l-ha-wag'n' . 

Red Fox. 

Vulpes fialvus. Kwauk'sis. 
Probably refers to the "tail" (alaiiksls). 

Wolf. 

Canis lupus. Mai' -sum. 

Lynx. 

Lynx canadensis. "Lusifi," A'-bi-gwz-si'-g'n. 

domestic animals: 
Dog. 

Canis familial is. Ul'-t-mus'. 

The following are some of the individual names \Kokwokiis 
(Screech Owl) ; Skinosis (Boy) ; Mtiin (Bear) ; Tumaskw 
(Nigger). 

Cat. 
Felis catus. Pso'-is. 

Cow. 

Bos taurus. Ca-kvs'. 
Notice that the English plural serves for the singular. 
Cows, Ca-hus'-uk. 

Horse. 

Equus caballus. A-has ! . 
English word. 



INDEX 



Note — The Roman numerals refer to the annual "Abstracts," as follows : IV, for ihe 
year ending March, 1892; V, do. 1893. 



Acanthis linaria, V, 31. 
Accipiter velox, V, 27. 
Actitis macularia, IV. 3; V, 25. 
Adney, Tappan, Milicete Indian Nat- 
ural History, V, 19. 
^Egialitis vocifera, V, 2. 
Agelaius phoeniceus, V, 31. 
Aix sponsa, V, 23. 
Ajaja ajaja, IV, 8 
Alaucla arvensis, V, 5, n. 
Alces americanus, V, 37. 
Allen C. S., Trip to Oak Lodge, Fla., 

IV, 3 ; Notes on Florida, V, 9. 
Allen, J. A., Mammals of Costa Rica, 
IV, 2, On a Collection of Mammals 
from Texas and Northeastern Mexico, 
IV, 3; The North American Species 
of the Genus Colaptes, IV, 5; Defi- 
nite versus fortuitous variation, IV, 
7; Flycatchers of South America, V. 
3; Classification and Nomenclature of 
the Life Areas of North America, V, 
8; Former Land Connections of the 
American Continents, V, 1 1 ; Dis- 
tribution of the Pocket Gophers, V, 
1 1 ; Fox Squirrels of the United 
States, V, 1-5. 
Ammodramus caudacutus, IV, 1 ; V, 2. 
maritimus, V, 2. 
sandwichensis savanna, V, 32. 
Arnpehs cedrorum. IV, 6; V, 10, 33 
Anas boschas, V, 23. 

carolinensis, V, 23. 
discors, V. 23. 
obscura, V, 23. 
strepera, V. 24. 
Antrostomus vociferus, V, 2q. 
Aquila chrysaetos. IV, 6. 
Arctomys monax, V, 36. 
Ardea herodias, V, 2, 25. 
Ardetta involucris, V, 13. 
Asio accipitrinus, IV, 8. 

wilsonianus, V, 4, 27. 
Aythya mania nearctica, IV, 2. 
Bat, IV, 6; V, 37. 
Bobolink, V, 11. 
Bob-white, IV, 2. 
Bonasa umbellus togata, V, 26. 
Bos taurus, V, 38. 



Botaurus lentiginosus, V, 25 . 
Branta bernicla, V, 24. 

canadensis, V, 24. 
Bubo virginianus, V, 27. 
Buteo borealis, V, 27. 

borealis calurus, IV, 6. 
Campephilus principalis, V, 10. 
Canis familiaris, V, 38. 

lupus, V, 38. 
Cardinalis cardinalis, IV, 1. 
Cariacus virginianus, V, 37. 
Carpodacus purpureus, V, 14, 31. 
Castor fiber canadensis, V, 36. 
Ceophloeus pileatus. IV, 2; V, 10, 11,28. 
Certhia familiaris americana, V, 34. 
Ceryle alcyon, V, 28. 
Cheetura pelagica, V, 29. 
Chapman, Frank M., Trip to Corpus 
Christi, Tex., IV, 4; Remarks on the 
Crackles of I he sub genus Quiscalus, 
• IV, 4; Notes on a Visit to Corpus 
Christi, Tex., IV, 7; Trip to Cuba, 
V, 5 ; Central Park Birds, V, 7 ; Notes 
on the Zoology of the Voyages of 
Columbus, V, 7; Summer Bird-Life 
of the Vicinity of New York City. V, 
8; Distribution of North American 
Birds, V, 9; Protective Coloration 
among Birds, V, 13 
Chantonetta albeola. V, 24. 
Cherrie, Geo. K., Birds and Mammals 

of Costa Rica, IV, 3. 
Chondestes grammacus, V, 1 1. 
Chordeiles virginianus, V, 29. 
Clangula hyemalis, V 24. 
Coccyzus americanus, IV, 6. 
Colaptes auratus, IV, 2, 5, V, 11, 28. 

cafer, IV, 5. 
Colinus virginianus "floridanus, IV, 5. 
mexicanus, IV, 2. 
ridgwayi, IV, 2. 
texanus, IV, 2. 
Conurus carolinensis V, 10. 
Corvus americanus, IV, 2; V, 30. 
corax principalis, V, 10. 
corax sinuatus, V, 30. 
Cuculus canorus, V, 14. 
Cyanocitta cristata, V, 14, 30. 
Dafila acuta, V, 23. 



40 



Dendragapus canadensis, V, 25. 

Dendroica restiva, V, 7. 

ccerulea, V, II. 
pensylvanica, V, 8. 
vigorsii, V, 4. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, V, 30. 

Dryobates pubescens, V, 28 
villosus, V, 4. 

Dntcher, B. H., List of birds from Fire 
Island Lighthouse, IV, 4; A Summer's 
Collecting in Southern California, IV, 
8; Trip to Kansas, Texas, etc , V, 6. 

Dutcher, William, Leaves from Long 
Island Note Book, IV, 1; Birds on 
Great South Bay, L. I. , IV, 5 ; Bird 
migration on Long Island, IV, 7. 

Dvvight, Jonathan. Jr., Birds at the 
Statue of Liberty, IV, 5; Summer 
Birds of the Crest of the Pennsylvania 
Alleghanies, IV, 7 ; Birds of Kansas, 
V, 6. 

Ectopistes migratorius, V, 5, 10, 26. 

Elanoides forficatus. V, 10. 

Elanus leucurus. IV, 6 

Emys meleagris, IV. 5. 

Equus caballus, V, 38. 

Erethizon dorsatus, V, 36. 

Ereunetes occidentalis, IV, 5. 
pasillus, V, 25. 

Erithacus rubecula, V, 5. 

Falco mexicanus, IV, 6. 
peregrinus, V, 9. 
rusticolus gyrfalco, V, 28. 
sparverius, IV, 6; V, 5. 

Felis catus, V, 38. 
eyra IV, 3. 

Fiber zibethicus. V, 36. 

Foster, L. S., Glance at North Ameri- 
can Ornithological Literature, IV, I ; 
Notes on a trip to Amity ville, L. 1., 
•IV, 5; Bird Myths, IV, 6; Winter 
Birds of the vicinity of New York 
City,V, I ; Spring Birds of the vicinity 
of New York City, V, 7; Avian Classi- 
fication, V, 16. 

Fratercula arctica, IV, 6; V. 2. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis, V, 3, 34. 

Gallinago delicata, V, 2, 24. 

Geothlypis formosa, V, to 

trichas, IV, 4; V, 7. 

Gilbert, E S., Faunal Changes, V, II. 

Glaucionettaclangula americana, V, 24. 

Gophers, V, n. 

Gulls, V, 13. 

Hales, Henry, Habits of the Gold- 
finch, IV, 5. 

Halioeetus leucocephalus, V, 28. 

Harporhynchus rufus, V, 3. 

Hawk, Fish, Y, 13. 



V, 8. 

Helminthophila pinus, IV, 4; V, 8. 
Helmitherus vermivorus, V, 8. 
Howell, Arthur H., Spring Migrants, 

IV, 4; Bird Notes from Shinnecock 

Bay, IV, 5; Some Holiday Collecting 

Trips, V, 4. 
Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis, IV, 8. 
Icterus galbula, V, 4. 
Jay, Blue, Food of, V, 14. 
Junco hyemalis, V, ^^. 
Kingbird, V, 11. 
Langdon, F. W., Faunal Changes in 

Ohio, V, 10 
Lanius ludovicianus, V, II. 
Lark, Cuban Meadow, V, 13. 
Larus argentatus smithsonianus, V, 3, 

22. 
Larus atricilla, IV, 5. 
Lepus americanus, V, 36. 
Loomis, L. M., A deposit of Bat guano, 

IV, 6; The Organization, Career, and 

Publications of the Elliott Society of 

Science and Art of Charleston, S. C , 

IV, 7; A Theory of Migration, IV, 8. 
Lophodytes cucullatus, V, 23. 
Loxia curvirostra minor, V, 31. 

leucoptera, V, 31. 
Lutra canadensis, V, 37. 
Lynx canadensis, V, 38 
Melanerpes erythrocephalus, V, II. 
Meleagris gallopavo. V, 10. 

gallopavo osceola, V, 6. 
Melospiza fasciata, V, 7, 32. 
Mephitis mephitica, V, 37. 
Merganser americanus, V, 23. 

serrator, V, 22 
Merriam. C. Hart, Remarks upon Bird 

migration, IV, 6. 
Merriam, Florence A., Habits of the 

Gray Squirrel, V, 12. 
Merula migratoria, V, 7. 
Miller, Olive Thorne, A June Study, V, 

14. 
Mimus polyglottos, V, 9, 12, 14. 
Molothrus ater, V, 2, 10, 14. 
Mustela americana, V, 38. 

pennanti, V, 37. 
Neotoma micropus, IV, 4. 
Nothurus maculatus, V, 17. 
Numenius longirostris, IV, 8. 
Nyctala acadica V, 26. 
Nyctea nyctea, V, 27. 
Nycticorax nycticorax nsevius, V, 25. 
Oceanodroma leucorhoa, V, 22. 
Oryzomys, New form of, V, 1 1. 
Otocoris alpestris praticola, V, II. 
Pandion haliaetus carolinensis, V, 27. 



41 



Parrots, V, 13. 
Parus atricapillus, V, 35. 
hudsonicus, V, 35. 
Passer domesticus, V, 11. 
Pearson, T. G., Notes from Florida, 

V, 5- 
Pelecanus fuscus, IV, 4 ; V, 9. 
Perisoreus canadensis, V, 29. 
Phalacrocorax dilophus, IV, 5. 
Philohela minor, V, 13. 
Picoides americanus, V, 28. 
Pinicola enucleator, V, 31. 
Plectrophenax nivalis, V, 31. 
Podilymbus podiceps, V. 22. 
Poly bonis cheriway, V. 6. 
Porphyriornis comeri, V, 5. 
Prairie Dog, V, 6. 
Progne subis, V, 10, 33. 
Putorius ermineus, V, 37. 

vison, V, 37. 
Quail, Florida, IV, 2. 
Quiscalus nicaraguensis, IV, 5. 

quiscula seneus, V, 30. 
Rallus crepitans, V, 2. 
Rangifer caribou, V, 37. 
Rattlesnake, IV, 4. 



Robbms, W 



A., The Falconida: 



breeding in southwestern Santa Clara 
Co., Cal , IV, 6. 

Rynchops nigra, IV, 8. 

Sciuropterus voluceila, V, 37. 

Sciurus hudsonius, V, 37. 
arizonensis, IV, 3. 

Scott, W. E. D. , Trip to the Island of 
Jamaica, IV, 4; Florida Birds, V, 5 

Secretary's report, V, 15. 

Seiurus aurocapillus, V, 34. 

noveboracensis, IV, 4. 

Sennett, George B., Quails of the United 
States, IV, 2; Notes from Pennsyl- 
vania, IV, 2; Remarks on the Birds 
of Corpus Christi and Nueces Bay, 
Tex. , IV, 7 ; On a collection of birds 
from Northeastern Mexico, V, 12. 

Setophaga ruticilla, V, 34. 

Shufeldt, R. W., The Chionididse,V, 11. 



Sialia sialis, V, II. 

Sitta canadensis, V, 7, 34. 

carolinensis, V, 34. 
Sparrow, English, V, 7. 
Speotyto cunicularia floridana, V, 6 
Sphyrapicus varius V, 2, 28. 
Spinus pinus, V, 31. 

tristis, IV, 5; V, 32. 
Spiza americana, V, II. 
Spizella pusilla, V, 3. 

socialis, V, 33. 
Squirrel, Fox, V, 13. 

Gray, V, 12. 
Strix pratincola. IV, 3. 
Sturnella magna, V, 6. 

magna neglecta, V, 6. 
Swallows, IV, 7. 
Sylvania canadensis, V, 7. 
Symphemia semipalmata, IV, 8. 
Syrnium nebulosum, V, 27. 
Tamias striatus, V, 36. 
Taylor, Miss E., Trip to Mackenzie 

River, V, 13. 
Terns, V, 13, 22. 
Thompson, Ernest E., Remarks on 

European Birds, V, 5. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus, V, 8. 
Totanus melanoleucus, V, 24. 
solitarius, IV, 3, 25. 
Treasurer's report, V, 16. 
Tringa minutilla, V, 25. 
Trochilus colubris, V, 29. 
Troglodytes aedon, V, 34. 

hiemalis, V, 34. 
Turdus aonalaschkae pallasii V, 35. 

fuseescens, V, 35. 

ustulatus swainsonii, V/35. 
Tympanuchus americanus, V, 10. 
Tyrannus tyrannus, V, 29. 
Urinator imber, V, 22. 
Ursus americanus, V, 37 r . 
Vireo olivaceus, V, 7. 
Vulpes fulvus, V, 38. 
Wren, Carolina, Nest of, V, 9. 
Zenaidura macroura, V, 2. 4. 
Zonotrichia albicollis, V, 33. 



Officers of the Linnaean Society 



President. 

Vice-President, 

Secretary, 



OF NEW YORK. 

1893-94. 



J. A. Allen. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YORK, 

JUNE, 1893. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M.D , Ph.D. George N. Lawrence. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. 



C. C. Abbott, M.D. 
G. S. Agersborg 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner, 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 
A. K. Fisher, M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M.D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

W. H. Gregg, M.D. 
Juan Gundlach, Ph.D 
C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M.D. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 
Wm. K. Lente. 
Leverett M Loomis. 
Alfred Marshall. 
Theo. L Mead. 
C. Hart Merriam, M.D. 
James C. Merrill, M.D. 
C J. Pennock. 
Thomas S. Roberts, M.D. 
Theodore Roosevelt. 
John H. Sage 
R. W. Shufeldt, M D. 
Ernest E. Thompson. 
E Carleton Thurber. 
Spencer Trotter, M.D. 
B. H. Warren, M.D. 
S. W. Williston, M.D., Ph.D. 
Thos. W. Wilson. (over.) 



MEMBERS OF THE lWMk\ SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, 

{Continued,) 



JUNE, 1 893 



RESIDENT. 



Tappan Adney. 

C. Slover Allen, M D. 

J. A. Allen, Ph.D. 

T. F. Allen, M.D. 

J. M. Andreini. 

Samuel P. Avery. 

David S. Banks. 

George Strong Baxter, Jr. 

Edward D. Bellows. 

Henry C. Bennett. 

Charles M. Berrian. 

Ronald K. Brown. 

Hugh N. Camp. 

Edward F. Carson. 

H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 

Frank M. Chapman. 

S. H. Chubb. 

Frederick Clarkson. 

A. E. Colburn. 

Wm. A. Conklin, Ph.D. 

Thomas Craig. 

R Fulton Cutting. 

Cleveland H. Dodge. 

W. E. Dodge. 

Andrew E Douglass. 

Basil H. Dutcher. 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. 

Newbold Edgar. 

Evan M Evans. 

Edward J. Farrell. 

Chas. S. Faulkner. 

Harry W. Floyd. 

L S. Foster. 

John Frick. 

Henry Gade. 

Theo. K. Gibbs. 

E. L. Godkin. 
Walter W. Granger. 
Isaac J Greenwood. 
George Bird Grinnell, Ph. 
Alex. Hadden, M D. 

John L Hamilton. 
J. C. Havemeyer 
John G. Hecksher. 

F. H. Hoadley, M.D. 
Peter S Hoe. 
Henry Holt. 

Clarence C. Howard, M.D. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
Frank R. Hoyt. 

Louis A, 



E. Francis Hyde. 
John B. Ireland. 
C. Bradley Isham. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Frank E. Johnson. 
Rudolph Keppler. 

F. Lange, M.D. 
J. D. Lange. 

G Langman, M.D. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Chas. A. Leale. 
A. Liautard, M.D. 
Benj. Lord^ M.D. 
Seth Low, LL.D. 
Chas. M. Mali. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M.D. 
Robt. T. Morris, M.D. 
Daniel A. Nesbitt. 
Harry COberholser. 
Wm. C Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
Edward S Renwick. 
Wm. M. Richardson. 
C. B. Riker. 
Wm. C Rives, M.D. 
S. H. Robbins. 
John Rowley, Jr. 
Wm. H. Rudkin. 
W. E D. Scott. 

G. Thurston Seabury. 
T. G. Sellew. 

Geo. B. Sennett. 
John C. Shaw, M D. 
Chas. Sill. 
Jas Baker Smith. 
Jas. C. Spencer. 
John C Sprague. 
D. Alex H. Stevens. 
Mason A. Stone. 
Sam'l Thorne. 
P C. Tiemann. 
Warner Van Norden. 
William Wallace. 
William Wicke. 
Robt. R. Willets. 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Wood. 
Lewis B Woodruff. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Zerega, M.D. 



Foster, Printer, New York. 



1893-94. No. 6. 

ABSTEACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK, 

For the Year Ending flarch 27, 1894, 



RECENT PROGRESS IN THE STUDY OF 
NORTH AMERICAN MAMMALS, 

By J. A. Allen, 

and 

A CONSIDERATION OF SOME ORNITHOLOGICAL 

LITERATURE, WITH EXTRACTS FROM 

CURRENT CRITICISM, 

Z, 1876 to iS 83, 
By L. S. Foster. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History ■, Central Park, New York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 



OF 



The Linnaean Society of New York, 



^ « »» 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Transactions of The Linnaean Society of New York, Volume I., 
Royal Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece — Portrait of Linn^us. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERItl AM, M.D. 

General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the 
Panther, Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least Weasel, 
Ermine, Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW ( Corvus ossifragus. .Wilson) A WINTER AS 
WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN 
LIMIT OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM BUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE 
CATSKILL MOUNTAINS WITH PREFATORY REMARKS 
ON THE FAUNAL AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE 
REGION. By EUGENE PINTARB BICENELL. 

New York, December, 1882. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Transactions of The Linn^an Society of New York, Volume II., 
Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents : Frontispiece — Plate of Bendire's 
Shrew. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia, Concluded.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose, and Elk ; of the Moles and 
Shrews (six species) ; the Bats (five species) ; the Squirrels (six species) ; the 
Woodchuck, the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats and Mice 
(seven species), and the Hares (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORECID^E. (Atop hy rax Bendirii, with a plate.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

New York, August, 1884. 

Price: Paper - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Abstract of Proceedings. 

Abstract of the Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York, 
No. 1, for the year ending March 1, 1889, 8vo., paper cover, 9 pp. 



No. 


2, 


No. 


3, 


No. 


4, 


No. 


5. 


No. 


6, 



7, 1890, " 


10 pp. 


6, 1891, " 


11 pp. 


2, 1892, " 


8 pp. 


1. 1893, " 


4IPP. 


27, 1894, " 


103 pp. 



Free to Members of the Society at date of issue. 
To others, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4. 25 cents each. 

No. 5, 50 cents. 

No. 6, 75 cents. 

For any information concerning the publications, address The Secretary 
of The Linnaean Society of New York, care of American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City. 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINNiEAN SOCIETY 

OF 

ISTETKT YORK, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 27, 1894. 



This is the sixth in the series of " Abstracts " published 
by the Society, and, like the preceding numbers, is intended 
mainly as a brief review of the year's work, only the more 
important points in the papers read before the Society be- 
ing mentioned. Some of the papers have been printed in 
full elsewhere, and in such cases a reference is given to 
the place of publication. 

March 15, 1893. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Twelve 
members and four visitors present. 

The Auditing Committee reported that it had examined 
the Treasurer's report and found it correct. 

Mr. A. H. Howell read a paper entitled "Remarks upon 
Birds observed on Long Island, N. Y., during 1892." It 
treated of the author's collecting experiences at various 
points on the island from January to October. He re- 
corded, among other things, the capture of an Orange- 
crowned Warbler (Helminthophila celata), at Flatbush, on 
October 12, 1892. [See -Auk," Vol. x.. 1893, p. 90] 

Mr. William Dutcher spoke of a specimen of the Orange- 



crowned Warbler {Helminthophila celata), now in the col- 
lection of the Long Island Historical Society, taken many 
years ago in Brooklyn. [See "Auk," Vol. x., 1893, 
P- 2 77-] 

A discussion of the nesting habits of the Crested Fly- 
catcher {Myiarchtis crinitus) disclosed the fact that many 
nests of this species lack the usually-expected snake-skin. 

Mr. H. W. Floyd recorded the capture of two specimens 
of the Lapland Longspur {Calcarins lapponicus) at Rocka- 
way Beach, Long Island, on February 22, 1893. 

April 5, 1893. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and thirteen visitors present. 

Louis B. Bishop, M. D., presented a paper entitled 
" Change of Color in the Plumage of the Kestrel (Tinnnn- 
cirius alaudarius) ." Dr. Bishop's paper was based upon a 
series of skins collected by himself in Egypt, during the 
winter of 1890-91 ; this series embraced various stages 
of plumage from the rufous of the young to the slate -gray of 
the adult bird. He considered that the bird changed from 
immature to adult plumage principally without a moult. 
Dr. J. A. Allen considered that Dr. Bishop's theory did 
not seem to be substantiated by the facts, and stated that 
continuous observations of living birds were necessary to 
a proper understanding of the case. 

C. S. Allen, M. D., gave a practical illustration of the 
manner of safely handling poisonous snakes. He exhibited 
living specimens of the Florida Diamond-backed Rattle- 
snake (Crotalus horridus) and the Moccasin {Ancistrodon 
contortrix), and showed the effect of the poison upon two 
Guinea Pigs. 

April 19, 1893. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and two visitors present. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented a paper entitled "Protective 
Coloration and Mimicry," which was a review of various 
theories of these subjects. Dr. Allen held that protective 
coloration is largely due to environment. 

May 3, 1893. — No quorum present. 



May 17, 1893. — The President in the chair. Six members 
and two visitors present. 

Mr. William Dutcher read a paper entitled k ' Notes on 
Some Rare Birds in the Collection of the Long Island His- 
torical Society." [See "Auk." Vol. x., 1893, pp. 267-277.] 
Mr. Dutcher also mentioned recent captures on Long 
Island of the Black-throated Loon (Urinator arcticus), 
Wood Ibis (Tantalus loculator), and Yellow-crowned Night 
Heron (Nycticorax violaceus). [See '" Auk," Vol. x., 1893, 
pp. 265, 266.] 

Mr. A. H. Howell said that he had taken on Long Island 
this season a male Golden-winged Warbler (Helmintho- 
phila chrysoptera) and a female Hooded Warbler {Sylvania 
mitrata). 

Dr. J. A. Allen made some remarks upon the Motmots, 
illustrated with specimens. He considered that the series 
of skins of these birds in the American Museum of Natural 
History shows quite plainly that the peculiar trimming of 
the tail-feathers is effected by the bird itself. 

Mr. W. W. Granger stated that he had noticed that, for 
the past two years, two pair of Duck Hawks (Falco pere- 
%rinus anatuni) had bred on the Palisades of the Hudson 
River. Opposite Yonkers a nest with eggs had been ob- 
served by him, a subsequent visit to which revealed the 
fact that the young had been hatched and, doubtless, re- 
moved by the parents. 

June 7, 1893. — The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and seventeen visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster, as chairman of the Finance Committee, 
reported two donations to the treasury of the Society — one 
of five dollars from Mr. Henry G. Marquand and one of 
fifty dollars from Miss Phcebe Anna Thorne. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented extended remarks upon 
his recent trip to the Island of Trinidad, illustrated by 
photographs and numerous specimens of birds, mammals, 
and reptiles which he had collected there. He said that, faun- 
ally, Trinidad has no connection whatever with the West 



i> 



Indies, but is, both faunally and geologically, related to South 
America, of which it was undoubtedly once a part. Mr. 
Chapman passed the greater part of his time at the Indian 
Walk Rest-house, seven miles southwest of Princestown ; 
and he also visited San Fernando, La Brea, Moruga, the 
Caroni River, and Monos and Huevos Islands. He de- 
scribed his experience on Huevos Island in the cave which 
is inhabited by about two hundred Guacheros (Steatomis 
caripensis.) [See "Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.," Vol. v., pp. 
203-234, and Vol vi., pp. 1-86.] 

C. S. Allen, M. D., exhibited an egg of the Canada 
Goose (Branta canadensis) of unusually large size, inside of 
which was a smaller egg perfectly formed and which had 
contained two yolks. The outer egg contained one. 

June 21, 1893. — The President in the chair. Seven mem- 
bers and two visitors present. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented remarks upon the White- 
footed Mice of North America, exhibiting specimens of 
nearly every known form of the genus Sitomys (formerly 
Hesperomys). Mr. Chapman spoke of the Florida forms — 
Sitomys niveiventris and 5. gossypinus. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman read a paper entitled 4< Birds Ob- 
served on a Voyage to Trinidad." In the course of the 
paper, he described the migrations which take place in the 
West Indian Islands and on the northern coast of South 
America. He said that apparently the greater number of 
North American birds reach Trinidad by way of the An- 
tilles. On the return voyage many Petrels were seen, over 
one hundred individuals having been observed on May 16 
and 17. These birds parted company with the vessel, 
when a cold wave set in, off the southern coast of Delaware. 
Man's influence upon the distribution of birds was brought to 
mind by the appearance of a Black Finch (Volatinia jaca- 
rini splendens) upon the vessel when off Trinidad ; the bird 
remained on board until Grenada was reached, when it flew 
ashore. A Black-poll Warbler (Dendroica striata) was 
seen near the vessel when two hundred and fifty miles from 
the nearest land. 



Mf. L. S. Foster read a list of antidotes, chiefly plants, 
which were considered to be useful in treating the bites of 
poisonous snakes. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb reported the breeding of the European 
Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in a church tower at Lenox 
avenue and 123d street, New York City. He had seen 
several young birds. 

Mr. W. W. Granger stated that two nests, containing 
nearly-fledged young of this species, are at present on the 
American Museum building. These birds have been con- 
tinually present in Manhattan Square since the fall of 1891, 
with the exception of January and February, 1893. 

October 4, 1893. — The President in the chair. Nine 
members and seven visitors present. 

The Constitution was so amended that Resident Mem- 
bers may become Life Members upon the payment to the 
Treasurer of fifty dollars, which shall be in lieu of annual 
dues ; and that any person interested in the aims of the 
Society may become a Patron upon the payment to the 
Treasurer of five hundred dollars and its acceptance by the 
Society. 

Mr. L. M. Loomis presented a paper entitled "A Study 
of the Earlier Southward Migrations at Monterey Bay, 
California, during June, July, and August, 1892." He found 
that the migration commenced on the Pacific coast in the 
same manner as in the East— by the departure, first, of the 
adult birds breeding in the vicinity, followed later by those 
from further north. The Northern Phalaropes (Phalaropus 
lobatus) were very abundant, especially on August 12. 
Usually they were found to migrate several miles from 
shore, but on that day they were deflected by a dense fog 
to within five hundred yards of the coast line. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a paper entitled "A Consideration 
of Some Ornithological Literature, with Extracts from 
Current Criticism. I. 1876 to 1883 " The criticisms in 
this paper were taken from the eight volumes of the Bulle- 
tin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, and the subject was 



treated from numerous standpoints. [This paper appears 
in this Abstract.] 

October 18, 1893. — The President in the chair. Ten 
members and three visitors present. 

An amendment to the By-Laws was passed, changing 
the nights of meeting to the second and fourth Tuesdays 
of each month. 

A committee was appointed to draft resolutions upon the 
recent death of our fellow-member, Charles Slover Allen, 
M. D. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper entitled '' The 
Origin of Certain North American Birds as Determined by 
their Routes of Migration." He said that the summer vis- 
itant birds of our country might be divided into two 
classes, viz.: (1) Those which breed continuously from our 
southern border to the northern limit of their range and 
(2) those species in which there is a large area between 
the southern limit of their breeding range and our south- 
ern border. Of the first class Mr. Chapman mentioned the 
Gray Kingbird {Tyr annus dominicensis), Black-whiskered 
Vireo (Vireo calidris), Parula Warbler (Compsothlypis 
americana), and Pine Warbler {Dendroica vigor sit). These 
may be considered to have reached their present limits by 
a gradual northward extension of their range, in which two 
causes have had part — (1) absence of competition and (2) 
abundance of food. As an example of the second class 
Mr. Chapman chose the Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), 
a bird which breeds from New Jersey to Nova Scotia, 
westward to Utah, and northward to the southern border 
of the British Territories. It is worthy of note that the 
Bobolinks which nest west of the Rocky Mountains do not 
migrate southward with the birds of the Western Province, 
but retrace their steps and leave the United States by way 
of Florida, thus furnishing evidence of gradual extension 
of range westward and of the stability of routes of migra- 
tion. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., read a paper entitled " The Migration 



of Birds," giving a summary of our present knowledge of 
the subject. 

Mr. A. H. Howell spoke of a young Baltimore Oriole 
(Icterus galbuld) which was strangled in the nest by a hair 
becoming tightly wound about its neck. 

November 14, 1893. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Nine members and nine visitors present. 

The committee appointed to draft resolutions upon the 
death of Dr. C. S. Allen reported as follows : 

" Charles Slover Allen. M. D., a resident member of the 
Linnaean Society, died in this city on October 15, 1893, 
after a brief illness. 

" Dr. Allen was born at New Berne, North Carolina, in 
1855. He graduated from Columbia College, New York 
City, winning first prize in chemistry in competitive ex- 
amination. After leaving college, he studied medicine 
under Dr. James B, Wood, and obtained his degree of 
Doctor of Medicine from Bellevue Hospital College. As 
the result of a competitive examination in which he took 
the highest rank, he was appointed an interne in the Char- 
ity Hospital on Blackwell's Island. 

''At the completion of his term of service in this insti- 
tution, he went abroad and continued his studies at Heidel- 
berg. 

" On returning to New York City, he was associated with 
Dr. James B. Wood, and later established an office of his 
own at 21 East 28th Street, which he occupied at the time 
of his death. 

" In the treatment of throat, nose and ear affections, Dr. 
Allen was especially and notably skillful, and he held the 
position of clinical lecturer on these diseases in the medi- 
cal department of the University of the City of New York. 

'■ Dr. Allen was born a naturalist, and only the duties of 
an unusually active professional life prevented him from 
taking high rank as an original investigator in some branch 
of natural history. As a naturalist, his tastes were of the 
broadest. Every object in nature had for him a fascina- 



8 



tion which impelled him to study the animate or inanimate 
with equal ardor. 

"He was an exceedingly close observer, of unlimited 
patience. At an early period he began the study of birds, 
and his papers on the Fish Hawk (The Auk, ix. 1892, pp. 
313-321, pll. iv, v) and the Black Duck (Ibid, x, 1893, pp. 
53-59, pll. i, ii) gave evidence of the excellent use he made 
of his necessarily limited opportunities for field work. 

" More recently, his natural history work had been 
largely confined to investigations of the toxic power of 
snake-venom, with the particular object of discovering an 
antidote for this virile poison. Dr. Allen was gifted with 
much ingenuity in the mechanical details of his profession, 
and the methods he employed in his herpetological studies 
were far in advance of any which had been previously 
used. While his experiments had not permitted him to 
arrive at final conclusions concerning the treatment of 
snake-bite, he had nevertheless brought together a large 
amount of invaluable data, which, it is to be regretted, will 
now never see the light. 

"On several occasions during the past two years, he 
treated, with success, persons who had been bitten by ven- 
omous snakes — moccasins and rattlesnakes — and he also 
had one patient who had been seriously bitten by a Gila 
monster. 

11 In the absence of a specific antidote, Dr. Allen's method 
of treatment was to isolate the poison by injections about 
the wound which would coagulate the fluids, and then re- 
move the poisoned part. As a result of his experiments 
with the Gila monster, Dr. Allen discovered that the bite 
of this reptile is not poisonous, provided it can be made to 
release its hold at once, for he observed that the poison 
does not begin to flow until the animal has been attached 
to its victim for several seconds. 

"Dr. Allen was a rarely genial comrade. In the field, 
no misfortune was so great as to dampen his enthusiasm, 
and his generous disposition always prompted him to sac- 



9 

rifice himself for the good of his companions. Indeed, his 
presence on an expedition was an assurance that it would 
be both a pleasant and a successful one. 

" Dr. Allen was elected a member of this Society in 1878, 
at its second meeting, and has always taken an active part 
in its proceedings, serving as Treasurer from 1889 to 1890. 
The results of his natural history researches were always 
presented before the Society, and his interest and attain- 
ments in every branch of science permitted him to discuss 
almost any subject which has come before us 

" We feel, therefore, that in Dr. Allen's death, the Soci- 
ety has parted with a member it could ill afford to lose, 
and as your Committee we know that we are voicing the 
sentiments of the Society, when we express our sincere 
grief at the death of one who ever had the best interests of 
the Society at heart. 

" Frank M. Chapman, 
" Frank E. Johnson, 
"Arthur H. Howell, 

"Committee." 

Mr. L. M. Loomis presented a paper entitled " Variabil- 
ity in the Occurrence of Transient Migrants." [See 
"Auk," Vol. xi., 1894, pp. 26-33.] 

Mr. Loomis also read a paper entitled " Facts Concern- 
ing Migration in the Southern Hemisphere, Gleaned from 
Sclater and Hudson's 'Argentine Ornithology.' " The ob- 
servations recorded in this work reveal that the same 
causes of migration exist in temperate South America as 
in temperate North America, and that similar movements 
take place in both regions. The height of the movement 
toward the equator occurs in Argentina during February 
and extends through March and into April. The migration 
to the breeding-grounds in the direction of the South Pole 
takes place chiefly in August, September, and October. 
In addition to the migration of endemic species, there is a 
migration thither of birds breeding in North America. 



10 



The following species are characteristic exemplifications of 
this migration : American Golden Plover (C/iaradrius do- 
minicns), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), Pectoral 
Sandpiper ( Tringa maculata), White-rumped Sandpiper 
(Tringa fuscicollis), Sanderling (Calidris arenarid), Soli- 
tary Sandpiper {Totanus solitarius), Bartramian Sandpiper 
{Bartramia lougicauda), Buff-breasted Sandpiper [Tryn- 
gites subruficollis), and Eskimo Curlew (Nu?uenius bore- 
alis). The Greater Yellow-legs {Totanus melanoleucns), 
Yellow-legs {Totanus flavipes), and Hudsonian Godwit 
(Limosa licemastica) present peculiar conditions, for these 
birds occur in summer as well as in winter, strongly sug- 
gesting a double migration — one from boreal breeding- 
grounds and one from austral breeding grounds — the two 
migrating bodies meeting in Argentina. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman read a paper entitled " The Islands 
the Alligators Build," being a popular account of the 
formation of the small islands in some of our southern 
waters. [See " Our Animal Friends," Vol. xxi , May, 
1894, pp. 198-202.] 

November 28, 1893. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Nine members and twelve visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper entitled "A Con- 
sideration of Some Ornithological Literature, with Ex- 
tracts from Current Criticism. II. 1884 to 1893." [This 
paper appears in this Abstract.] 

Mr. A. H. Howell read a paper entitled " Birds in our 
Great Cities," being a list with annotations of fifty-six 
species observed in the thickly-settled portions of New 
York City and Brooklyn ; records from Central and Pros- 
pect Parks were omitted. 

December 12, 1893. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Twelve members and five visitors present. 

Louis B. Bishop, M. D., read a paper on "The Breeding 
of Brewster's Warbler (Helminthophila leucobroncJiialis)." 
[See "Auk," Vol. xi., 1894, pp. 79-80.] 

Mr. Chapman commented on Dr. Bishop's paper, and 



II 



exhibited a number of skins of this species from the collec- 
tion of the American Museum. He also related his ex- 
perience with this bird in New Jersey and showed a nest 
which he had taken there. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper entitled " Re- 
marks on West Indian Mammals." After comparing the 
mammalian life of "oceanic islands" and "continental 
islands," and speaking in some detail of the mammals of 
the West Indies, he described his experience in collecting 
Bats and Hutias in Cuba. 

Mr. C. B. Riker stated that the Mongoose is now de- 
creasing in numbers in Jamaica. 

Dr. Bishop related his experiences while hunting Bats 
in Egyptian tombs. 

Mr. A. H. Howell read some notes on Long Island birds. 
[See 4 <Auk," Vol. xi., 1894, pp. 82-84.] 

Mr. A. H. Heime stated that he had seen the Yellow- 
bellied Flycatcher ( Empidonax flaviventris ) and the 
Golden-winged Warbler (Helminthophila cJirysoptera) fre- 
quently at Millers Place, Long Island, and had taken there, 
the past fall, an Orange-crowned Warbler (Helminthophila 
celatd) and several Tennessee Warblers (Helminthophila 
peregrind). Dr. Bishop remarked that a Whistling Swan 
(Olor colnmbianns) had been taken early in November of 
this year at Guilford, Connecticut, and that a flight of 
Black Terns (Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis) had been 
observed at the Quinnipiack Marshes, Connecticut, on 
August 29, 1893. [See "Auk," Vol. xi., 1894, p. 74.] 

December 26, 1893. — The President in the chair. Thir- 
teen members and twenty-seven visitors present. 

The Lecture Committee presented a formal report 
through Dr. J. A. Allen, the chairman, stating that arrange- 
ments had been completed for a course of four lectures to 
be given in the lecture hall of the American Museum as 
follows : 

1. January 9, 1894. "A Naturalist in the Island of Trin- 
idad," by Frank M. Chapman. 



12 



2. February 13, 1894. "Oyster Culture in Europe," by 
Bashford Dean, Ph.D. 

3. March 6, 1894. " Mammals of the Ancient Lake 
Basins of North America," by Henry Fairfield Osborn, 
Sc. D. 

4. April 3, 1894. " Domestic Fowls and Pigeons," by 
Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. 

Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller presented a paper entitled u A 
Rocky Mountain Study," telling of some of her ornitho- 
logical experiences in the vicinity of the Great Salt Lake, 
Utah. [See "Atlantic Monthly," February, 1894, pp. 
198-206.] 

Mr. B. H. Dutcher read a paper on the fauna of Montauk 
Point, Long Island, giving the results of his observations 
made during September, 1893. Seventy-seven species of 
birds and the following mammals were observed ; — 
Meadow Mouse (Arvicola riparius). Jumping Mouse (Zapus 
hudsonicus), White-footed Mouse (Sitomys americanus), 
Musk-rat {Fiber zibethicus), Wood Hare {Lepus sylvaticus), 
Opossum (Didelphis virginianus), Raccoon {Procyon lotor), 
Mink [Lutreola vison), Skunk {Mephitis mephitica), Fox 
(Vulpes fulvns), Brown Rat (Mus decumamis), and three 
species of Shrew. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented an analytical summary of 
the bird-life of the vicinity of New York City, where he has 
recorded three hundred and fifty-one species. 

January 9, 1 894. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History by Mr. Frank M. 
Chapman, entitled "A Naturalist in the Island of Trini- 
dad," with stereopticon illustrations. 

January 23, 1894. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Ten members and sixteen visitors present. 

Mr. L. M. Loomis presented the two following papers : 
(1) •• On the Causes that Necessitate Bird Migration" [see 
" Auk," Vol. xi., 1894, pp. 94-1 17] ; and (2) " On the Views 
held concerning the Migration of Young Birds of the 
Year." 



13 

Mr. C. B. Riker read a paper entitled " Experiences dur- 
ing Collecting Trips on the Amazon River." With San- 
tarem as a base, he made excursions thence into the virgin 
forests of the surrounding country. He found little true 
bird-music, but the birds fell naturally into the following 
surprising classes : " screechers," 'whistlers," " grunters," 
and " chirpers." 

Mr. F. M. Chapman reported that a Hermit Thrush 
(Turdus aonalascJikce pallasii) and a Towhee (Pipilo ery- 
tJirophthalmus) had thus far spent the winter in Central 
Park, and that a Baltimore Oriole {Icterus galbula) had 
been seen several times recently about the American Mu- 
seum building. 

Mr. C. C. Young said that a Bonaparte's Gull (Larus 
Philadelphia) had been captured at Rockaway Beach in 
January of this year. 

February 13, 1894. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Bashford 
Dean, Ph. D., on "Oyster Culture in Europe," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

February 27, 1894. — Mr. E. T. Adney in the chair. Eight 
members and three visitors present. 

The paper presented at this meeting was by J. A. Allen, 
Ph. D , entitled '' Recent Progress in the Study of North 
American Mammalogy." In his absence, on account of ill- 
ness, it was read by the Secretary. [Printed in full in this 
Abstract.] 

MarcJi 6, 1894. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History on " Mammals of 
the Ancient Lake Basins of North America." The lecture 
was given by J, L. Wortman, M. D., in place of Professor 
H. F.Osborn, who was unexpectedly prevented from giving 
the lecture, as had been originally arranged. The lecture 
was abundantly illustrated with maps, charts, and stere- 
opticon views. 

March 27, 1894.— Annual Meeting. The President in 
the chair. Ten members and seven visitors present. 



H 

The Secretary presented his annual report as follows : 

"There have been held during the year 15 meetings, 
being the same number as last year ; on May 3 — a very 
stormy night — no meeting was held, through failure to 
secure a quorum. 

'• The average attendance of members was 9, and ot 
visitors 8. The total number of persons in attendance 
was 254, of whom 122 were visitors, and 132 members. 

" The largest number of members present at any meeting 
was 13, the smallest number 6; largest number of visitors 
present, 27 ; largest attendance of both members and visit- 
ors, 40 ; smallest total attendance, 7, which occurred but 
once. The attendance of visitors shows an increase over 
last year of 72 per cent, and the total attendance an in- 
crease of 24 per cent. 

"There were on the roll at the commencement of the 
year JJ members, consisting of Honorary, 3 ; Resident, 
37 ; and Corresponding, 37. 

" One hundred and eight Resident members have been 
added to the roll, while 4 have died, 4 have been dropped, 
and one transferred to Corresponding membership, leaving 
the total of Resident members 136. One Corresponding 
member has died, and one has been transferred to Resident 
membership, leaving the total of Corresponding members 
35, and the grand total 174. 

"The members lost by death during the year are Charles 
Slover Allen, Jenness Richardson, Alexander I. Cotheal, 
Paul Hoffman, and B. F. Goss. 

*' There have been read before the Society 29 papers, 22 
by the Resident members, 5 by the Corresponding mem- 
bers, and 2 by strangers. Of these papers 22 were written, 
this being a much larger proportion than last year. The 
entire 29 papers have been furnished by 11 persons. 

"There have been added to the library during the past 
year 214 publications, and it now contains 874 volumes and 
pamphlets, as follows : 76 quartos, 24 royal octavos, and 
774 octavos. The work of indexing the library is about 



15 

completed, more than five thousand title-slips having been 
written. 

"The Society has issued the usual 'Abstract of Proceed- 
ings,' consisting of seventeen pages, to which were ap- 
pended a paper on'Milicete Indian Natural History,' by 
Mr. Tappan Adney, and an index to Abstracts iv. and v., 
making a pamphlet of 41 pages. The customary distribu- 
tion was made." 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a 
balance on hand of $300.07. 

The Audubon Monument Committee made a final report 
and was discharged. The committee for conference with 
other New York scientific societies, the Committee on Fi- 
nance, and the Lecture Committee, submitted reports, 
which were adopted and placed on file. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 

Vice-President, Mr- Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented a paper on "The Seasonal 
Changes of Color in the Northern Varying Hare (Leptis 
americanus^r This paper was illustrated by specimens 
showing that the change from the brown summer coat to 
the white dress of winter was due entirely to moult, and 
not through the blanching of the summer coat. [See 
" Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.," Vol. vi., pp. 107-128.] 

A second paper, also by Dr. Allen, was entitled " The 
First or Nestling Plumage of Various Species of North 
American Birds." Specimens were shown illustrating the 
character of the first plumage in various families of North 
American birds, and attention was called to the desirability 
of collecting specimens of birds at this early stage, the 
first or nestling plumage of many birds being still un- 
known. 

Mr. W. W. Granger referred to the extraordinary wing 
power of quite young Ruffed Grouse (Bo/iasa umbellns). 



Recent Progress in the Study of 
North American Mammals. 



By J. A. Allen. 



Three years since I presented a paper to the New 
York Academy of Sciences on " Recent Work in North 
x\merican Mammalogy," 1 giving a brief review of the prin- 
cipal works relating to North American Mammals, and 
dwelling in some detail upon the history of the subject 
from the year 1852 to the year 1890, comparing and con- 
trasting the methods, the results, and the resources of the 
three periods into which these four decades may be divided. 
The concluding paragraph of this paper may be here 
quoted as a fitting introduction to the present article, as 
follows : '* While, ten or twelve years ago, it was commonly 
supposed that comparatively little remained to be learned 
respecting the mammals of North America, beyond a few 
details regarding their distribution and habits, we are now 
little less than awed by the evident extent of our ignorance 
of the subject, as shown by the astonishing discoveries of 
the last four or five years, and recognize the obvious ne- 
cessity of a careful revision of the whole field" (1. c, p. 84). 
The results of the work of the last three years show 
that this statement, though a surprise to those unfamiliar 
with the then recent developments, was none too strong. 

While this paper will relate mainly to the work of the 
last five years, it is desirable, for a proper understanding of 

'Trans. N. Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. X., 1891, pp. 71-85. 



the subject, to extend the field of view somewhat further 
into the past, summarizing briefly some portions of the 
paper already cited. Beginning then with what may be 
termed the Bairdian period we may trace in outline the 
history of the subject as regards (i) methods, (2) resources, 
and (3) results. 

(1.) Methods.— From 1850 to about 1865 the chief incent- 
ive to research in this field was apparently the discovery of 
new forms. The subjects of individual and seasonal 
variation were to a large extent necessarily neglected ; 
their importance even had not come to be duly appreci- 
ated, there being rarely available for study a series of 
specimens of any species of sufficient extent to throw much 
light upon either of these questions. Neither was much 
attention paid to the equally important subject of geo- 
graphic variation, for the very good reason that adequate 
material for its investigation did not exist. Accordingly 
very slight differences, especially if accompanied by a 
difference of habitat in the specimens presenting them, 
were regarded as of specific importance. The word sub- 
species, in its modern sense, was an unknown term in bi- 
ologic terminology. 

Following Baird's work, done mainly between 1852 and 
1858, was a considerable interval of almost complete in- 
activity. There was, it is true, a gradual increase of ma- 
terial in a few of the principal museums, notably that under 
the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, but little was 
done toward its elaboration between the years i860 and 
1870. 

At about this later date new workers entered the field, 
and with the greatly increased material at their disposal it 
became possible to take up, in the case of a few species, 
the neglected subjects of individual, seasonal, and geo- 
graphic variation. It was found that many differences — as 
of size, color, and even in the relative size of different 
parts — which had previously been depended upon as of 
specific importance, were open to suspicion. These dis- 



19 

coveries, while unquestionably important, unfortunately 
sometimes led to erroneous conclusions. They formed, 
however, a phase of progress ; although they gave the 
pendulum a swing in the right direction, the impetus was 
too great ; the tendency to excessive subdivision gave 
place to a brief period of undue lumping. 

Later, with the rapid increase of material, a healthy re- 
action followed, although there came with it, for a time 
and in certain quarters, a tendency to excessive subdivision 
along the line of subspecies. But the continued rapid ac- 
cumulation of fresh material, it is to be hoped, will supply 
the required antidote, especially in the case of investiga- 
tors having access to large collections. 

(2.) RESOURCES. — Professor Baird had as the basis for 
his great work on North American Mammals what was 
then looked upon as a large collection. Compared with 
what previous workers had possessed, it was indeed enor- 
mous ; compared with the collections of to-day it was 
very small, and the wonder is that his work based thereon 
so well stands the test of time. Doubtless more specimens 
have been gathered during any one of the last four years 
than Professor Baird had for the entire basis of his great 
monograph, which will ever remain a monument to his 
sagacity and accurate and painstaking methods. 

But the amount of material available for study in recent 
years, in comparison with that available twenty to forty 
years ago, is only one of the points to be considered, the 
difference in quality being a far more important factor in 
the case than the difference in quantity. In the earlier 
days it was a rare thing to have any considerable number 
of specimens of the same species from any one locality, 
even the larger collections consisting of what might be 
termed sporadic material, — a specimen or two from one 
locality, and a few more from other localities, separated by 
perhaps hundreds of miles. Furthermore they were often 
without precise data as to either place or time of collection. 
The skull, as a rule, was left in the skin, and hence could 



20 

be examined only by great labor and serious injury to the 
skin. The skins themselves were often left flat, or rolled 
up, or greatly over-stuffed, or otherwise distorted, with the 
ears crumpled, the toes and feet bent at all angles, and the 
tail shrunken or broken, so that through the faults of care- 
less taxidermy accurate measurements were almost impos- 
sible, and even approximate ones were difficult to obtain. 
Well-prepared and carefully labeled specimens were the 
exception. Large numbers of the smaller mammals, it is 
true, were preserved in alcohol, and were thus available for 
measurement and for anatomical examination, but such 
material is almost useless for the study of color characters, 
and very inconvenient for comparative study in respect to 
specific and subspecific differences. Specimens of mammals 
preserved in spirits or other solutions are also in this re- 
spect very untrustworthy, from the fact that the coloration 
of the pelage is so liable to undergo great change, espec- 
ially if wood alcohol or alum solutions happen to be the 
preservative employed. 

Very different indeed from all this is the present method 
of forming collections of the smaller mammals. Now series 
of specimens of the same species, from the same locality, 
numbering from ten to fifty or more, are almost the rule ; 
and it is considered essential, wherever possible, to have 
the series duplicated at different seasons of the year, in 
order to show the seasonal variation. Of course this has 
not yet been done for all species, but it is the aim to collect 
as far as possible on this plan. The skull is removed from 
the skin, carefully cleaned and preserved separately, and 
cross-reference numbers refer to both skin and skull, so 
that they may be studied together. Several measurements 
of the animal are taken by the collector, who has special 
instructions in this regard, before skinning, and recorded on 
the label ; the skin is then carefully filled to the natural 
size as indicated by the measurements, the tail vertebrae 
being replaced by a wire; then, in pinning the specimen out 
to dry, the tail and the feet are carefully extended in straight 



21 



lines, and the ears given a natural set, with the result of 
rendering all of the external characters readily available for 
study. Such a specimen is also a pleasing object to the 
eye, in comparison with the commonly more or less dis- 
torted and unattractive specimens of earlier days. Further- 
more, not only is the sex, date, and place of collection given 
on the label, but the altitude of the locality, if in a moun- 
tainous district, is also recorded. 

With the old-time material it was often difficult to deter- 
mine satisfactorily even the color characters of a specimen, 
to say nothing of size and proportions, owing to its faulty 
preservation ; while in that of to-day all of the external 
features can be utilized, in addition to the measurements 
taken by the collector from the animal before skinning. 
Thus in respect to resources the worker of to-day has 
advantages immensely superior to those of his predeces- 
sors prior to a very recent date. 

As is well known to mammalogists generally, and as I 
have before stated, 1 this great improvement in the amount 
and character of the material now available for investiga- 
tion is due primarily to the enthusiastic and well-directed 
efforts of Dr. C. Hart Merriam, Chief of the Divison of 
Ornithology and Mammalogy of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 

(3.) RESULTS. — As already indicated, methods of re- 
search have undergone radical change since 1857, the date 
of Baird's great work on North American mammals. 
While new forms are still looked for with considerable 
avidity, it is not by any means so much the end and main 
purpose of investigation as was the case thirty to forty 
years ago. Then the idea of evolution by environment 
had scarcely been suggested and formed no part of the 
working hypothesis of the naturalist. Twenty years ago 
it had become fairly established. At the present time the 
relation of forms to each other, geographically and phylo- 
genetically, and to their environment, is the one interest- 

1 Trans. N.Y. Acad. Sci., X., p. 84. 



22 



ing problem underlying the whole subject. There is no 
more fascinating or profitable work for the student of the 
present mammalian fauna of North America than the trac- 
ing out of the habitats, and determining the intergradation 
or non-intergradation of such forms as compose many of 
our leading genera of mammals. We have as yet scarcely 
reached the point where this can be done with entire cer- 
tainty for any group, but here and there boundaries have 
been established, and we can begin to foresee in some 
instances what will be the final results. Should the activity 
of the last five years be continued for the next decade, it 
will doubtless be possible at the end of that time to map 
the distribution of most of our mammals with considerable 
accuracy ; to know what forms intergrade, and over what 
areas and under what conditions the intergradation occurs ; 
also what are sharply isolated and localized, though 
closely related to others ; and in many instances to deter- 
mine the lines of evolution and of closest genetic relation- 
ship among the congeneric forms of several of the leading 
families. 

A few statistics will throw into strong light some at 
least of the results of work during the last ten years. In 
1884 Mr. Frederick W. True, Curator of Mammals in the 
United States National Museum, published "A Provisional 
List of the Mammals of North and Central America, and 
the West Indies," 1 which fairly reflected the status of the 
subject as then understood. Mr. True's List contained 378 
species and 45 subspecies — a total of 423 recognized forms. 
At the present time the number, as nearly as can con- 
veniently be determined, is 732 species and 131 subspecies, 
or a total of 863 — an increase exceeding 100 per cent., 
mainly within the last five years. These additions include 
8 new genera and about 12 new subgenera, while 10 groups 
rated as subgenera in 1884 have been raised to the rank of 
genera. On the other hand, however, several genera have 

1 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., VII., 1884, pp. 587-611. 



23 

been reduced to subgeneric rank, and several others en- 
tirely canceled. 1 

In this connection we will consider North America not 
in its continental or geographic sense but as commonly 
faunally limited, or as defined in the A. O. U. Check-List 
of North American Birds, namely, North America north of 
Mexico but including Lower California. In the following 
statistical comparison we will also exclude the marine 
mammals, as the Whales and Porpoises. Taking the 
species by. ordinal groups we have the following results : 

Marsupials (Opossums) : 1884, 1 species; 1894, 1 species and 1 subspecies. 

Edentates (Armadillos, etc.): 1884, 1 species; 1894, 1 species. 

Ungulates (Deer. Antelope, Sheep, etc.); 1884, I2 species and 3 subspecies; 
1894, 12 species and 4 subspecies. 

Rodents (Squirrels, Spermophiles, Gophers, Mice, Rats, Pocket Mice, Kan- 
garoo Rats, Porcupines, Hares, etc.): 1884, 80 species and 34 subspecies; 1894, 
231 species and 105 subspecies, — an increase of 151 species and 71 subspecies, 
or nearly 200 per cent. 

Bats : 1884, 15 species; 1894, 25 species, — an increase of 60 per cent. 

Insectivores (Moles and Shrews) : 1884, 19 species and I subspecies; 1894, 
30 species and 3 subspecies, — an increase of 65 per cent. 

Carnivores (Bears, Wolves, Cats, Skunks, Weasels, etc.) : 1884, 53 species 
and 4 subspecies ; 1894, 69 species and 12 subspecies, — an increase of 42 
per cent. 

As would be expected, the increase proves to be greatest 
among the smaller nocturnal and burrowing species, as the 
Pocket Mice, Kangaroo Rats, Gophers, Spermophiles, 
Voles and other Field Mice, Shrews and Moles, where the 
increase in different groups ranges from 60 to 200 per cent, 
as against 15 to 40 per cent, among the Ungulates and 

1 In October, 1892, Mr. Walter E. Bryant published a very useful paper en- 
titled " Recent Additions to the North American Mammal Fauna " (Zoe, III., 
pp. 201-223), givhig a list of additions made between 1884 and October, 
1892, with notes on the changes that had occurred in nomenclature. Although 
restricted to that part of North America north of Mexico, the changes in gen- 
eric names number 17, mainly due to the revival of older names for those cur- 
rent in 1884, or through the raising of subgeneric names to generic rank, or 
the relegation of generic names to subgeneric rank, with about three subgenera 
and five generic names proposed for new groups or for pre-occupied names. 
The paper records 190 species and subspecies as actual additions to the list 
of 1884. 



24 

Carnivores. In other words, the larger and diurnal species, 
as the Deer and larger Carnivores, were relatively better 
known in 1884 than the smaller species that burrow in the 
ground and are for the most part abroad only at night. 

These statistics, however, very inadequately express the 
results of the work of the last decade, — or more correctly 
of the last seven years, for little advance was made prior 
to 1887. Since this date have been made not only the ad- 
ditions and other changes indicated above, but many 
radical changes in the nomenclature of species have been 
found necessary, in consequence of the former misappli- 
cation of names. Also many forms formerly ranked as 
subspecies have been found to be entitled to specific rank ; 
many names that had been reduced to synonyms have been 
revived for forms which prove to be tenable as subspecies, 
and to which they were evidently intended to apply, though 
originally very inadequately characterized. Again, forms 
originally characterized as species, and known only from 
limited areas and few specimens, have proved separable 
into several well-marked subspecies, and in some instances 
into species, and their known geographic range greatly 
extended. 

In order to emphasize some of these points it will be 
necessary to pass in review a few special groups. Although 
little monographic work has as yet been attempted, owing 
to lack of material and time for final revisionary work, yet 
the results that have been reached in the few instances in 
which such work has been undertaken have stood the test 
of re-examination much better than might have been ex- 
pected. It is almost too soon yet for final work in any 
group, but we may hope to reach the point ere long when 
the material will be sufficiently abundant to warrant the 
attempt, in the case at least of some of the better known 
generic groups. 

The following genera will be taken in illustration of the 
subject : Lepns, Heteromy s , P erognatlius , Dipodomys, Pero- 
dipus, Thomomys, Geomys, Phenacomys, Evotomys, Synap- 



25 

tomys, Arvicola, Neotoma, Sigmodon, Oryzomys, Onychomys, 
Sitomys, Scittrus, Tamias, Spermopliihis, and Spilogale ; or, 
practically the families Leporidse. Heteromyidae, Geomyidae, 
Muridae, and Sciuridae. 1 

In 1884 tne genus Lepus, or the Hares, was recognized 
in Mr, True's List as consisting of 11 species and 7 ad- 
ditional subspecies; it now numbers 24 species and 8 sub- 
species. Of the new forms 9 have been added from the 
United States 2 and 5 from Mexico. 

1 In the following review, and in the lists given in the footnotes, North 
America is taken in its geographic sense, and the subject is brought down to 
June, 1894. The writer assumes no responsibility as an endorser of the species 
and subspecies recorded in the lists, which are in no sense revisionary, but 
merely intended to reflect the present status of the subject as it stands in the 
literature of this date. To give the lists consistency, and to facilitate compari- 
son with the 1S84 List, a few changes have been made in the generic allocation 
of some of the recently described forms, followed always, however, by the 
name employed by the original describer. 

2 The United States list of additions is as follows : 

Lepus sylvaticus floridanus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 160, 
Oct., 1890. Brevard Co , Fla. 

I.epus sylvaticus bachmani (Waterhouse). Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., VI., p. 170, May, 1894. Texas. 

Leptis sylvaticus mearnsii Allen, ibid., p. 171, May, 1S94. Minnesota and 
adjoining portions of the Upper Mississippi region. 

Lepus idahoensis Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 5, p. 75, July, 1891. Idaho 
and northern Nevada. 

Lepus ciiierascens Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 159, Oct., 

1890. Southern California. 

Lepus insularis Bryant, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., 2d Ser., III., p. 92, April, 

1891. Espiritu Santo Island, Lower California. 
Lepus alleni Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus Nat. Hist., II. 

Arizona. 

Lepus melanotis Mearns, ibid., p. 297., Feb., 1890. 
ritory, and western Texas. 

Lepus paludicola Miller and Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX, 
9, 1894. Western Florida. 

Mexican and Central American species recently added are the following : 
Lepus sylvaticus aztecus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. ]88, 

Dec, 1890. Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico. 

Lepus otizabcv Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII. , 1S93, p. 143. Mt. 

Orizaba, Mexico. 



p. 294, 


Feb., 1890. 


Kansas, 


Indian Ter- 


ish., IX, 


p. 105, June 



26 

The genus Heteromys. which is developed mainly in 
Mexico and Central America, one species barely reaching 
the lower Rio Grande valley in the United States, has been 
added to the United States fauna, 1 and the number of 
species raised from 3 in 1884 to 9, with an additional sub- 
species, in 1894. 2 

The genus Perognathus has been increased from the 6 
forms recognized in 1884 to 29. 3 The range of characters, 

Lepus ver<zcrucis Thomas, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 74, pi. vi. Jalapa, Mexico. 
Lcpus insolitus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 189, Dec. 1890. 
Plains of Colima, Mexico. 

Lepas truei Allen, ibid., p. 192. Mirador, near Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

'Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., pp. 268-272, June. 1891. See 
also Allen and Chapman, ibid., V., pp. 218-220, Sept., 1893. 

2 Cf. Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XL, 1893, pp. 329-332, and 
ibid., XII., pp. 233, 234. 

The forms of this genus recently recognized by Mr. Oldfield Thomas appear 
to be as follows : 

Heteromys alleni Coues. Tower Rio Grande Valley. (,Cf. Allen, as cited 
above.) 

Hetetomys bulleri Thomas, Ann. and Mag. (6), XI., p. 330, April, 1893. 
La Laguna, Sierra de Juanacatlan, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Heteroniys salvini Thomas, ibid., p. 331. Duefias, Guatemala. 

Heteromys salvini nigiescens Thomas, ibid., XII., p. 234, Sept., 1893. 
Costa Rica. 

Heteromys pieties Thomas, ibid., p. 233, Sept., 1893. Mineral San Sebas- 
tion, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Heteromys longicaiidus Gray, P. Z. S., 1868, p. 204. " Hondurus " (= 
Venezuela, apud Alston, Biol. Cent. Am. Mam., p. 167.) 

Heteromys irroratus Gray, ibid., p. 205. Oaxaca, Mexico. 

Heteromys albolimbatus Gray, ibid., p. 205. La Parada, Mexico. 

Add also, to complete the list of the recorded species : 

Heteromys longicaudatus Gray, ibid., p. 204, Mexico. 

Heteromys desmarestianus Gray, P. Z. S., 1843, p. 79, and 1S68, p. 204. 
Coban, Guatemala. 

Heteromys adspersus Peters, Monatsb. Ak. Berlin, 1874, p. 357. Panama. 

Heteromys anomahis (Thompson). Trinidad. 

3 Cf . Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 1, pp. 1-29, pi. i-iv. Oct., 18S9. 

The following were here recognized by Dr. Mercian, of which 15 were de- 
scribed as new : 

Perognathus fasciatus Wied. Upper Missouri, near its junction with the 
Yellowstone. 

Perognathus fasciatus flavescens Merriam. Kennedy, Neb. 



27 

both external and cranial, in this genus is strikingly great, 
yet the transition between the extreme phases of the group 
is so gradual that it is difficult to separate it into more than 
two subgenera, and these are by no means trenchantly 
limited. 

In Mr. True's List the genus Dipodomys contained I 
species with I subspecies The group has since been 



Perognathus flavus Baird. Western Texas. 

Perognathus bimaculatus Merriam. Arizona. 

Perognathus longimeitibns (Coues). Southern California. 

Perognathus apache Merriam. Apache Co., Arizona. 

Perognathus inornatus Merriam. Fresno, Cal. 

Perognathus olivaceus Merriam. Kelton, Utah. 

Perognathus olivaceus amosnus Merriam. Nephi, Utah. 

Perognathus monticola Baird. Montana. 

Perognathus formosus Merriam. St. George, Utah. 

Perognathus intermedlus Merriam. Mud Spring, Arizona. 

Perognathus fallax Merriam. Southern California. 

Pei-ognathus obscurus Merriam. Grant Co., N. Mex. 

Perognathus spinatus Merriam. Lower Colorado River, Cal. 

Perognathus penicillatus Woodhouse. San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

Perognathus hispidus Baird. Charco Escondido, Mexico. 

Perognathus paradoxus Merriam. Trego Co., Kansas. 

Perognathus paradoxus spilotus Merriam. Cook Co., Texas. 

Perognathus californicus Merriam. Berkely, Cal. 

Perognathus armatus Merriam. Mount Diablo, Cal. 

Two other " undetermined species" were also mentioned, namely, Perog- 
nathus lordi (Gray) and Perognathus mollipilosus Coues. There have since 
been added : 

Perognathus fuliginosus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, p 74, Sept., 

1890. San Francisco Mountain, Arizona. 

Perognathus femoralis Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 281, June, 

1891. San Diego Co., Cal. 

Perognathus merriam i Allen, ibid., IV., p. 45, March, 1892. Southeastern 
Texas. 

Perognathus infraluteus Thomas, Larimer Co., Col. 

Perognathus lordi (Gray). British Columbia. Revived by Rhoads, Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, p. 405, Jan. 27, 1894. 

Perognathus copei Rhoads, ibid., p. 404. Staked Plains, Texas. 

Perognathus alticolus Rhoads,. ibid, p. 412. San Bernardino Mts., Cal. 

Perognathus lalirostris Rhoads, Am. Nat.,XXVIIL, Feb., 1894, p. 185. 
"Rocky Mountains." 



28 

divided into two genera, 1 Dipodomys and Pcrodiptis? with 

1 Cf . Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, p. 72, Sept., 1890. Dipodops, gen. 
nov. , later changed to Perodipus Fitzinger, an earlier name based on the same 
type. (Cf. Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VII., p. 26, April, 1892.) 

2 Following are the recorded species and subspecies of these two genera : 
Dipodomys phillipsi Gray. Valley of Mexico and adjacent mountain slopes 

and plains. (On this species see an important paper by Merriam, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., VIII., pp. 83-96, July 18, 1893.) 

Dipodomys ornatus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX, p. no, June 21, 
1894. Berriozabal, Zacatecas. Mexico. 

Dipodomys perotensis Merriam, ibid., p in. Perote, Vera Cruz, Mexico. 

Dipodomys elator Merriam, ibid., p. 109. Henrietta, Clay Co., Texas. 

Dipodomys deserti Stephens, Am. Nat., XXI., Jan., 1887, p. 42, pi. v. 
Deserts of Southeastern California. 

Dipodomys merriami Mearns, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II., p. 290, Feb., 
1890. Arizona. 

Dipodomys merriami melanurus Merriam, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), III., 
P- 345. June, 1893. San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

Dipodomys i7ierriami nevadensis Merriam, Proc. Biol., IX., p. ill, June 21 
1894, Pyramid Lake, Nevada. 

Dipodomys merriami nitratus Merriam, ibid., p. 112. Keeler, east side of 
Owens Lake, California. 

Dipodomys merriami nitratoides Merriam, ibid. , p. 1 12. San Joaquin Valley, 
California. 

Dipodomys merriami exilis Merriam, ibid., p. 113. Fresno, San Joaquin 
Valley, California. 

Dipodomys merriami atronasus Merriam, ibid., p. 113. Hacienda La Parada, 
San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Dipodomys ambigttus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 4, p. 42, Oct., 1890. 
El Paso, Texas. 

Dipodomys spectabilis Merriam, ibid., p. 46. Cochise Co., Arizona. 

Dipodomys calif omicus Merriam, ibid., p. 49. Mendocino Co., Cal. 

Dipodomys simiolus Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, p. 410, 
Jan. 27, 1894. Agua Caliente, California. 

Dipodomys similis Rhoads. ibid., p. 411. San Diego Co., California. 

Dipodomys parvus Rhoads, Am. x\'at., XXVIII. , Jan., 1894, p. 70. San 
Bernardino Valley, California. 

Perodipus agilis (Gambel). Southern California. 

Perodipus ordii (Woodhouse). Western Texas. 

Perodipus ordii palmeri (Allen), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 276, 
June, 1891. San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

Perodipus ordii columbianus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX, p. 115, 
June 21, 1S94. Umatilla,' Plains of Columbia, Oregon. 

Perodipus streatori Merriam, ibid., p. 113. Carbondale, Mariposa Co.. Cal. 

Peivdipus panamintinus Merriam, ibid., p. 14. Panamint Mountains, Cali. 
fornia. 



29 . 

12 species and 6 subspecies in the former, and g species and 
2 subspecies in the latter, or a total increase of from 2 to 29 
forms, with a considerable extension of the known range 
of the group. Besides these additions, an allied genus 
Microdipodops has been described from Halleck, Nevada, 1 
which combines the external characters of some of the 
species of Perognathits with many of the cranial characters 
of Perodipus. 

The Pocket Gophers form a group of burrowing Rodents, 
restricted to North America, and constituting two strongly 
marked genera, Thomemys and Geomys. They live almost 
wholly underground, and can be secured only by trapping 
them in their burrows. In Mr. True's List Thomomys is 
credited with two species (one of them then known only 
from the type specimen) and two additional subspecies. 
This genus has now 16 species and 1 subspecies, 2 and its 

Perodipus richardsoni (Allen), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Ill, p. 277. 
Oklahoma Territory. 

Perodipus sennetti (Allen), ibid., p. 226, April, 1891. Cameron Co., Texas. 
Perodipus compactus (True), Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XI., p. 160. Jan. 5, 

1889. Padre Island, Texas. 

Perodipus chapmani (Mearns), Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II., p. 291., Feb., 

1890. Fort Verde, Arizona. 

Perodipus longipes (Mernam), N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, p. 71, Sept., 1890. 
Painted Desert, Arizona. 

1 Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 5, p. 115, July 30, 1891. Type, M. mega- 
cephalus, sp. nov. 

- For a recent preliminary revision of the genus see Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., V., 1893, pp. 47-68. On T. bulbivorus see an important paper 
by Gerrit S. Miller, Jr., Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII., pp. 113-116., Aug., 
1S93. 

Following is a list of the United States species : 

Thomomys bulbivorus (Rich.). Thomomys clusius Coues. 

Thomomys laticeps Baird. Thomomys talpoides (Rich.). 

Thomomys bottce (Eyd. and Gerv ). Thomomys fulvus (Woodh.). 

Thomoviys townsendii (Rich.). Thomomys perpallidus Merr. 

Thomomys monticolus Allen. Thomomys aureus Allen. 

Thomomys douglasii (Rich.). Thomomys fossor Allen. 

Thomomys douglasii fuscus (Merr.). Thomomys toltecus Allen. 



3Q 

known geographical range has been extended far to the 
southward in Mexico. This genus has the further curious 
history that of the 12 forms recently added 5 of them 
were described some thirty years ago and had lapsed into 
synonymy. While many of the species closely resemble 
each other externally they are easily separated by cranial 
differences. 

In 1884 Geomys was credited with 5 species, three of 
which were known only from the United States, and the 
others, one each respectively, from Mexico and Central 
America. The recognized United States forms have been 
increased to 6, and the Mexican and Central American forms 
to 9, or a total increase of from 5 to 15. l A monographic 
revision of the genus has been undertaken by Dr. Merriam 
and is nearly ready for publication, with numerous figures 
of cranial characters and distribution maps of the species. 

While the increase in our knowledge of the two families 
Heteromyidse 2 and Geomyidse, or the Pouched Rats and 
Pocket Gophers, has been so great, it has scarcely been 
less so in respect to the Muridae. Here the ratio of increase 
in the number of recognized forms is not only very high, 

Recently described Mexican species are : 

Thomomys orizabtz Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII., p. 14.5, Dec. 
1893. Mt. Orizaba, Mexico. 

Thomomys peregrinus Merriam, ibid., p. 146. Salazar, State of Mexico. 

1 The present status of the group is as follows, the United States species 
being : 

Geomys ttiza (Ord). Geomys castanops (Baird). 

Geomys bursariics (Shaw). Geomys personalis True. 
Geomys bursarius hitescens Merriam. Geomys clarkii Baird. 

The Mexican and Central American species are : 

Geomys mexicanus (Licht.). Geomys scalcps Thomas. 

Geomys gymnurns Merriam. Geomys hisvidus Le Conte. 

Geomys nelsoni Merriam. Geomys cherriei Allen. 

Geomys merriami Thomas. Geomys fumosiis Merriam. 
Geomys grandis Thomas. 

2 Saccomyidae of Baird, Lilljeborg, Coues, etc. As Saccomys is a synonym 
of Hetero7nys it becomes untenable as the basis of the family name. Heter- 
omyidoe is equal to Heteromyinse of Alston, 1876. 



but there has also been a notable increase in the number 
of genera and subgenera, and changes in the status of 
several of those previously recognized, as well as in the 
nomenclature of some of the older species. The old genus 
HesperomyshdiS not only been dismembered by the raising of 
the United States subgenera Vesperimus (Coues =Sitomys 
Fitzinger, of earlier date), Onycliomys and Oryzomys, and 
the Mexican and Central American Tylomys, Rhipodomys, 
and Abrothrix to full generic rank, but a new subgenus 
Baiomys x has been proposed, and the name Hesperomys 
discarded as untenable, at least so far as the North American 
Muridae are concerned. 2 The genus PJienacoviys was 
described by Dr. Merriam 3 in 1889, with 4 species, to which 
others have since been added. 4 

This is a boreal type which barely reaches the mountain- 
ous portions of the United States, north of which it ranges 
across the continent from ocean to ocean ; yet prior to 
1889 not a specimen appears to have been seen, or at least 
critically examined, by any naturalist. 

The Red-backed Meadow Mice, forming the genus 
Evotomys, known from I species and 1 additional subspecies 
in 1884, now numbers 9 species with 3 additional subspecies, 

1 True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. XVT., p. 758, Feb., 1S94. Type, Hesperomys 
taylori Thomas. 

2 Cf. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., pp. 291-294, June, 1S91. 

3 N. Am. Fauna, No. 2, pp. 27-35, Oct., 18S9. 

4 Phenacomys intermedins Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 2, p. 32, Oct., 1889. 
Kamloops, British Columbia. 
' Phenacomys celatus Merriam, ibid., p. 33. Godbout, P. Q., Canada. 

Phenacomys Iatimanus Merriam, ibid., p. 34. Fort Chimo, Ungava, 
Labrador. 

Phenacomys ungava Merriam, ibid., p. 35, Fort Chimo, Ungava, Labrador, 

Phenacomys longicaudus True, Proc. U> S. Nat. Mus., XIII. , p. 303, Nov., 
1890. Coos Co., Oregon. 

Phenacomys orophilus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 5, p. 65, July, 1S91. 
Idaho. 



32 

some of the new forms differing radically in coloration 
from those earlier known. x 

Mr. True has recently described a new genus Myctomys 2 
from Fort Chimo, Ungava, Labrador, which appears to 
combine somewhat the characters of the genera PJienacomys 
and Synapatomys. 

The Lemming Mouse, forming the still monotypic genus 
Synaptomys, has had its known range remarkably ex- 
tended, and furnishes a cogent commentary upon our lack 
of knowledge of the mammalian fauna of even the long- 
settled parts of the United States. A few years since this 
species (S. cooperi) was positively known only from south- 
ern Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, east of the Mississippi 
River, though the type of the species was reputed to have 
come from either New York or New England, or possibly 
from New Jersey. Recently Dr. Merriam reported its oc- 
currence in Maryland, in Virginia, in the mountains of 
North Carolina, and at Alfred Centre, N. Y. 3 It has since 

1 The following have been recorded : 

Evotomys rutilus (Pallas). " Circumpolar regions." 

Evotomys gapperi (Vigors). Northern border of eastern United States. 

Evotomys gapperi oc/iraeezis Miller, Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI., p. 
193, March 24, 1894. White Mts., N. H. 

Evotomys gapperi rhoadsi Stone, Am. Nat., Jan., 1893, p. 55. May's 
Landing, N. J. 

Evotomys gapperi brevicaudus Merriam, No. 5, p. 66, July, 1S91. Black 
Hills, South Dakota. 

Evotomys carolinensis Merriam, Am. Journ. Sci., XXXVI,, Dec, 1888, p. 
460. Mountains of North Carolina. 

Evotomys dawsoni Merriam, Am. Nat., July, 1889, p. 649. Finlayson 
River, N. W. T. 

Evotomys galei Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 4, p. 23, Oct., 1890. Boulder 
County, Colorado. 

Evotomys occidentalis Merriam, ibid., p. 26. Chehalis Co., Washington. 

Evotomys californicus Merriam, ibid., p. 26. Humboldt Co., California. 

Evotomys idahoensis Merriam, ibid., No. 5, p. 66, July, 1891. Salmon 
River Mountains, Idaho. 

Evotomys fuscodorsalis Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VI. , p. 103, 
April, 1894. New Brunswick. 

2 Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII. , p. 2 (of advance sheet), April 26, 1894, 
Type M. innuitus, sp. nov. 

3 Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., Vll, pp. 175-177, Dec, 1892. 



33 

been taken in Southern New Jersey, 1 and in Wareham, 
Massachusetts. 2 As Dr. Coues, 3 in 1877, reported it from 
Kansas, Oregon, and Alaska, the genus has probably a wide 
distribution, and may be found to embrace several quite 
distinct forms. It evidently occurs in the East over por- 
tions of the country where it has escaped all collectors for 
half a century, since, as compared with other field mice, it 
proves to be a singularly difficult species to trap. Indeed, 
the Virginia and New York records rest on skulls found in 
pellets from stomachs of owls, and the Maryland record on 
a specimen taken from the stomach of a hawk. 

A Meadow Mouse, also with grooved incisors, like 
Synaptomys, has been recently described by Mr. Rhoads 
from Kittitas Co., Washington, as the type of a new genus 
Aulacomys* 

The genus Arvicola, embracing the common Meadow 
Mice, has been increased in the last ten years from 8 spe- 
cies and 2 subspecies to 15 species and 5 subspecies. 5 

The Wood Rats {Neotoma) and Cotton Rats {Sigmodon) 
have undergone corresponding revision and increase. Not 
only has Neotoma micropus of Baird been revived, but the 
number of forms of Neotoma has been raised from 4 to 



1 S. N. Rhoads, Am. Nat., Jan., 1893 p 53. Described as Synaptomys 
stonei, sp. nov. 

2 Outram Bangs, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX., pp. 99-104, April, 1894. 

3 Mon. N. Am. Roden., pp. 235, 236. 

4 Am. Nat., Feb. 1894, p. 182. Type A. arvicoloides, sp. nov. 

5 Additions subsequent to Bryant's List ot 1892 are as follows : 

Arvicola edax Baird (Revived; cf. Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., 
1893, p. 184.) 

Arvicola aztecus Allen, ibid., p. 73, April, 1893. Aztec and La Plata, New 
Mexico. 

Arvicola operarius Nelson, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII. , p. 139, Dec, 
1893. St. Michaels, Norton Sound, Alaska. 

Arvicola phceus Merriam, ibid., VII., p. 171, Sept., 1892. Sierra Nevada 
de Colima, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Arvicola chrotorrhinus Miller, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XXVI., p. 190 
March, 1894. White Mts., N. H. 



34 

40. Four forms have been revived, and 22 species and io 
subspecies 1 have been described as new ! 

1 A T eotoma cinerea (Ord). 

Neotoma cinerea occidentalis (Baird). Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., III., p. 287, June, 1891. 

Neotoma cinerea drummondii (Rich.). Revived by Merriam, Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Wash., VII., p. 25, April, 1892. 

Neotoma occidentalis fusca True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII., No. 1,006, 
p. — , (advance sheet, p. 2, June 27, 1894). Fort Umpqua, Oregon. 

Neotoma lepida Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XII., p. 235, Sept., 
1893. Utah. 

Neotoma arizonce Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII.. p. no, July, 
1893. Eastern Arizona and New Mexico. 

Neotoma Jloridana (Ord). 

Neotoma pennsylvanica Stone, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1893, p. 16. 
Cumberland Co., Pa. 

Neotoma ?nexicana Baird. Revived by Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 3, 
p. 67, Sept. 1890. 

A T eotoma mexicana bullata Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX., p. 122, 
July 2, 1894. Santa Catalina Mts., Arizona. 

A T eotoma leucodon Merriam, ibid., p. 120. San Luis Potosi, Mexico. 

A r etoma latifrons Merriam, ibid., p. 121. Querendaro, Michoacan, Mexico. 

A T eotoma fulviventer Merriam, ibid., p. 121. Toluca Valley, Mexico. 

Neotoma orizabcc Merriam, ibid., p. 122. Mt. Orizaba, Puebla, Mexico. 

A r eotoma baueyi Merriam, ibid., p. 123. Valentine, Nebraska. 

A T eotoma fallax, Merriam, ibid., p. 123. Gold Hill, Boulder Co., Colorado. 

Neotoma desertorum Merriam, ibid., p. 125. Furnace Creek, Death Valley, 
California. 

A T eotoma desertorum sola Merriam, ibid., p. 126. San Emigdio, Kern Co., 
California. 

A T eotoma orolestes Merriam, ibid., p. 128. Saugache Valley, Colorado. 

Neotoma albigula Hartley, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), IV., p. 157, pi. xii., 
skull, May 9, 1894. Fort Lowell, Arizona. 

Neotoma micropus Baird. Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
III., p. 282., June, 1891. 

Neotoma micropus canescens Allen, ibid., p. 285. Oklahoma Territory. 

Neotoma fuscipes Baird. 

Neotoma fuscipes streatori Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX., p. 124, 
July 2, 1894. Carbondale, Amador Co., California. 

Neotoma fuscipes dispar Merriam, ibid., p. 124. Lone Pine, Owens Valley 
California. 

Neotoma monochroura Rhoads, Am. Nat., XXVIII. , Jan., 1894, p, 67 
Josephine Co., Oregon. 



35 

Dr. Merriam has also described a new genus, from the 
State of Colima, Mexico, allied to Neotoma. under the name 
Xenomys} 

The Cotton Rats (genus Sigmodon) have been increased 
from I species to 2 species and 4 subspecies, the genus now 
consisting of two quite distinct groups, represented re- 
spectively by 5. hispidiis and S. fulviv enter, - 



Neotoma califomica Price, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2), IV., p. 154, pi. xi., 
skull, May 9, 1894. Bear Valley, San Benito Co., Cal. 

A T eotoma splendens True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII., No. 1,006, p. — , 
(advance sheet, p. 1, June 27, 1894). Marin Co., California. 

Neotoma venusta True, ibid., p. 2. Carrizo Creek, California. 

A T eotoma macrotis Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XII., p. 234, 
Sept., 1893. San Diego, Cal. 

Neotoma macrotis simplex True, Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII., No. 1,006, 
p. — , (advance sheet, p. 2, June 27, 1894. Fort Tejon, California. 

Neotonia i7itermedia Rhoads, Am. Nat., XXVIII., Jan., 1894, p. 69. San 
Diego Co., Cal. 

Neotoma intermedia gilva Rhoads, ibid. , p. 70. Banning and San Bernar- 
dino, Cal. 

A r eotoma intermedia melamira Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., IX., p. 
126, July 2, 1894. Ortiz, Sonora, Mexico. 

Neotoma intermedia angusticeps Merriam, ibid., p. 127. Southwest corner 
of Grant Co., New Mexico. 

Neotoma pinetorum Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII., p. in, July, 
1893. San Francisco Mountains, Arizona. 

iVeotoma ferruginea Tomes. 

A r eotoma torquata Ward, Am. Nat., Feb., 1891, p. 160. State of Morelos, 
Mexico. 

Neotoma alleni Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VII., p. 168, Sept., 1892. 
Manzanillo, Colima, Mexico. 

Neotoma tenuicauda Merriam, ibid., p. 169. Sierra Nevada de Colima, 
Jalisco, Mexico. 

1 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VII,, pp. 159-163, Sept., 1892. Type X. nelsoni, 
sp. nov. 

2 Sigmodon hispidns Say & Ord. Southeastern United States. 

Sigmodon hispidns littoralis Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., II., p. 118, 
June, 18&9. Southern Florida. 

Sigmodon hispidns texianus (Aud. & Bach.). Revived by Allen, ibid., Ill, 
p. 287, June, 1890. Texas. 



36 

In 1884 tne genus Oryzomys was ranked as a subgenus 
of " Hesperomys," with 2 species, one of which was the 
Rice-field Mouse (0. palustris) of the Southern States, 
and the other a Mexican and Central American species 
(0. couesi). The number has since been increased by the 
addition of one species and two subspecies from the United 
States, and 6 species from Mexico and Central America. 1 

The Grasshopper Mice, genus Onychomys, likewise 
merged in Hesperomys in 1884, and numbering only 2 
species, now stands as a full genus with 8 species and 1 
subspecies. 2 

Sigmodon hispidus toltecus (De Saussure). Revived by Allen, ibid., p. 207, 
Southern Mexico, South to Costa Rica. 

Sigmodon hispidus arizonce Mearns, ibid., II., p. 287, Feb., 1890. Fort 
Verde, Arizona. 

Sigmodon fulviv enter Allen, ibid., II., p. 180, Oct., 1889. Zacatecas, 
Mexico. 

1 Oryzomys palustris (Harlan). South Atlantic States. 

Oryzomys pahtstris natator Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.,V., p. 44, 
March, 1893. Florida and Gulf Coast. 

Oryzomys palustris texensis Allen, ibid., VI., p. 177, May, 1894. Coast of 
Texas. 

Oryzomys aquaticus Allen, ibid., III., p. 289, June, 1891. Cameron Co. 
Texas. 

Oryzomys talamancce Allen, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XIV., 1891, p. 193. 
Costa Rica. 

Oryzomys alfaroi Allen, -Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 214, April, 1891. 
Costa Rica. 

Oryzomys costaricensis Allen, ibid., V., p. 239, Sept., 1893, Costa Rica. 

Oryzomys couesi (Alston). See Thomas, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist. (6), XL, 
1893, p. 403. 

Oryzomys fulgens Thomas, ibid., p. 403, Mexico. 

Oryzomys melanotis Thomas, ibid., p. 404. Mineral San Sebastian, Jalisco, 
Mexico. 

2 Onychomys leucogaster (Wied). Upper Missouri. 

Onychomys leucogaster brevicaudus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 5, p. 52 
July, 1891. Idaho. 

Onychomys longipes Merriam, ibid., No. 2, p. I, Oct., 1889, Texas. 

Onychomys longicaudus Merriam, ibid. , p, 2. St. George, Utah. 

Onychomys melanophrys Merriam, ibid., p. 2, and No. 3, pp. 61, 62. Kanab. 
Utah. 



37 

The very numerous group of Deer Mice, or White-footed 
Mice, forming the restricted genus Sitomys (= subgenus 
Vesperimus Coues), has of late received a large share of 
attention, both from collectors and systematists. In 1884 
probably the specimens in the museums did not exceed 
700 or 800, of which only a small part would now be con- 
sidered as available, or at least desirable, for scientific use, 
while now probably 7,000 to 10,000 could be brought to- 
gether if the specimens in the various public and private 
collections in this country should be combined. The num- 
ber of forms recognized in this particular group of mice in 
1884 was 9 — 6 species and 3 subspecies. The number 
now recorded is 37 — 21 species and 16 subspecies ; an in- 
crease of about 300 per cent, in seven years. 1 I am more 

Onychomys melanophrys pallescens Merriam, ibid., No. 3, p. 61, Sept., 1890. 
Apache Co., Arizona. 

Onychomys fuliginosus Merriam, ibid. , p. 59, Oct., 1890. Arizona. 

Onychomys ramona Rhoads, Am. Nat., Sept., T.893, p. 833. San Bernardino 
Valley, Cal. 

Onychomys torridus (Coues). Arizona. 

1 The United States additions made prior to October, 1892, may be found 
recorded in detail by Bryant in Zoe, III., pp. 212-214. Mexican and later 
additions are included in the following full list : 

a. United States. 

Sitomys americanus (Kerr). 

Sitomys americanus canadensis Miller, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII., p. 55, 
June, 1893. Northern New England, northern New York, and northward. 

Sitomys americanus gossypinus (Le Conte). 

Sitomys americanus arcticus (Mearns). 

Sitomys americanus nebracensis (Baird). 

Sitomys americanus texanus (Woodhouse). 

Sitomys americanus rufinus (Merriam). 

Sitomys americanus austerus (Baird). 

Sitomys americanus gambe/i (Baird). Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., V., 1893, p. 190. 

Sitomys americanus deserticolus (Mearns). 

Sitomys americanus sonoriensis (Le Conte). 

Sitomys americanus thurberi Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., p. 1S5, 
August, 1893. Northern Lower California. 



38 

or less familiar with all but three or four, and consider that 
very few of them are not well founded ; while I am cogni- 

Sitomys mearnsii (Allen). 

Sitomys boylii (Baird). 

Sitomys auripectus Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., p. 75, April, 
1893. San Juan region of Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

Sitomys rowleyi Allen, ibid., p. 76. Southeastern Utah and adjoining por- 
tions of Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. 

Sitomys rowleyi pin a/is Miller, ibid., p. 331, Dec, 1S93. Grant County, 
New Mexico, and Pinal County, Arizona. 

Sitomys fratercuhts Miller. 

Sitomys eremicus (Baiid). 

Sitomys major Rhoads, Am. Nat., Sept., 1893, p. 831. San Bernardino Co., 
Cal. 

Sitomys herroni Rhoads, ibid., p. 832. San Bernardino Valley, Cal. 

Sitomys californicus (Gambel). 

Sitomys gilberti Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., p. 188, Aug., 1893. 
San Benito Co., Cal. 

Sitomys martirensis Allen, ibid., p. 187. San Pedro Martir Mountains, 
Lower California. 

Sitomys robustus Allen, ibid., p. 335, Dec, 1893. Lake Co., California. 

Sitomys jloridaniis (Chapman). 

Sitomys macropus (Merriam). 

Sitomys truei (Shufeldt). 

Sitomys truei megaloiis (Merriam). 

Sitomys truei nasutus (Allen). 

Sitomys truei crinitus (Merriam). 

Sitomys aureolus (Aud. & Bach.). 

Sitomys michiganensis (Aud. & Bach.). 

Sitomys anthonyi (Merriam). 

Sitomys taylori (Thomas). 

Sitomys niveiveutris (Chapman). 

Sitomys niveiveutris subgriseus Chapman, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., 
p. 340, Dec, 1893. Florida. 

b. Mexico and Central America. 

Sitomys aztecus (De Saussure). 

Sitomys melanophrys (Coues). 

Sitomys dijficilis (Allen) = Vesperimtis dijficilis Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., III., p. 298, June, 1891. Sierra de Valparaiso, Zacatecas, Mexico. 

Sitomys musculus Merriam, Proc Biol. Soc Wash., VII., p. 170, Sept., 1892. 
Colima and Jalisco, Mexico. 

Sitomys cherriei Allen = Hesperomys (Vesperimus) cherrii Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 211, April, 1S91. Costa Rica. 

Sitomys uudipes Allen = Hesperomys {Vesperimus) nudipes Allen, ibid., p. 
213, and V., 1893, p. 239. Costa Rica. 



39 

zant of quite a number of still undescribed forms entitled 
to recognition in nomenclature. Five admitted by Baird 
in 1857, but later reduced to synonyms, have been rein- 
stated as subspecies. The group is divisible into several 
sections or subgenera, one of which (as already noticed) 
has already been characterized by Mr. True (see antea, p. 
31). Neither this nor some of the other leading types of 
this group were represented in our leading museums by a 
single specimen prior to 1885. They were thus not over- 
looked by previous workers, but are genuine discoveries of 
the present decade. 

The Sciuridae, or the Squirrels, Spermophiles and their 
allies, present a nearly parallel case with the Muridae, but 
only the genera Sciurus, Tamias and Spermophilns can be 
noticed in the present connection. 

Of the genus Sciurus there were recognized in 1884, 13 
species and 7 subspecies; in 1894, 18 species and 16 sub- 
species. 1 

1 The additions from the United States are : 

Sciurus hudsonius nwgollonensis Mearns. 

Sciurus hudsonius vancouverensis Allen. 

Sciurus hudsonius calif ornicus Allen. (Perhaps = Sciurus botta Less. , 1832.) 

Sciurus carolinensis hypophceus Merriam. 

Sciurus niger limitis (Baird). Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. Mus Nat. Hist., 
VI., p. 183, May, 1894. 

Sciurus fossor nigripes Bryant. 

Sciurus aberti concolor True, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., XVII., No. 999, 
(advance sheet), April 26, 1894. Larimer Co., Colorado. 

Mexican and Central American additions are : 

Sciurus niger melanonotus Thomas, P. Z. S., 1890, p. 73, pi. vi. Jalapa, 
Mexico. 

Sciurus apache Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat Hist., V.. p. 29, March, 1893. 
Northern Chihuahua. Mexico. 

Sciurus aberti durangi Thomas, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., (6) XL, p. 50, 
Jan., 1893. Cuidad, Durango, Mexico. 

Sciurus nayaritensis Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. vii., Feb., 
1890=5. alstoni Allen (nee Anderson), ibid., II., p. 167, Oct., 1889. Zaca- 
tecas Mexico. 

Sciurus cervicalis Allen, ibid., p. 183. Sierra Nevada de Colima, Jalisco, 
Mexico. 



40 

In 1884 the genus Tamias, as recorded in Mr. True's 
List, contained 4 species and 4 additional subspecies; in 
1894 (taking Tamias as limited in 1884), the recognized 
forms number 21 species and 12 subspecies. 

The species in the 1884 list were (1) the common Eastern 
Chipmunk ( Tamias striata s)\n\\\z\i has since been separated 
into three subspecies; (2) Say's Chipmunk (T. lateralis), 
ranging from the Rocky Mountains westward, in suitable 
localities, to the Pacific coast. This now consists of a 
group of three species and several additional subspecies. 
(3) Harris's Chipmunk (T. Ziarrissi), more southern in dis- 
tribution than the last, now stands as a group of 4 species 
and 2 subspecies. (4) The Four-lined or Rocky Mountain 
Chipmunk (T. quadrivittatus), with 4 subspecies, now 
stands as a group of 23 species and 16 subspecies, under 
several subgeneric subdivisions. 1 

Sciurus leucops (Gray). Revived by Allen, ibid. , p. 166, and III., p. 182. 
Sciurits nelsoni Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII,, p. 144, Dec , 1893. 
Morelos, Mexico. 

1 Following is the list as at present recognized (for full reference to additions 
made prior to October, 1892, see Bryant, as before) : 
Tamias striatus (Linn.). Tamias f rater Allen. 

Tamias striatus lysteri (Rich.). Tamias minimus (Bach.). 

Tamias striatus griseus Mearns. Tamias minimus consobrinus Allen. 

Tamias quadrivittatus (Say). Tamias minimus pictus Allen. 

Tamias quadrivittatus neglectus Allen. Tamias amcenus Allen. 
Tamias quadrivittatus gracilis Allen. Tamias cinereicollis Allen. 

Tamias quadrivittatus luteiventris Allen. Tamias umbrinus Allen. 
Tamias quadrivittatus affinis Allen. Tamias speciosits Merriam. 

Tamias quadrivittatus borealis Allen. Tamias townsendii Bachni. 

Tamias merriami Allen. Tamias townsendii hindsii (Gray). 

Tamias obscnrns Allen (ex Townsend MS.). Tamias quadrimaculatus (Gray). 
Tamias senex Allen. Tamias macror/iabdotes Merriam. 

Tamias panamintinus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc., VIII., p. 134, Dec, 1893. 

Tamias callipeplus Merriam, ibid., p. 136. 

Tamias alpinus Merriam, ibid., p. 137. 

Tamias bulleri Allen, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., III., p. 92 = T. asiaticus 
bulleri Allen, ibid , II., p. 173. 

Tamias dorsalis Baird. 

Tamias lateralis (Say). 



41 

The genus Spermophilus was credited in the 1884 List 
with 11 species and 6 subspecies; it now contains 20 
species and 13 subspecies. 1 

Tamias castanurus Merriam, N Am. Fauna, No. 4, p. 19, Oct., 1890. 

Tamias canerascens Merriam, ibid , p. 20. 

Tamias chrysodeirus Merriam, ibid., p. 19. 

Tamias chrysodeirus brevicaudus (Merriam) = Spermophilus chrysodeirus 
brevicaudus Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII., p. 134, Dec., 1893. 

Tamias harrisii (Aud. & Bach.). 

Tamias leucurus Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 2, p. 20, Oct., 1889. 

Tamias leucurus cinnamomeus Merriam, ibid., No. 3, p. 51, Sept., [890. 

Tamias leucurus peninsula: Allen, Bull. Am Mus. Nat. Hist., V., p 197, Aug., 
1893. 

Tamias nelsoni (Merriam) = Spermophilus nelsoni Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. 
Wash , VIII., p. 129, Dec, 1893. 

1 Spermophilus grammurus (Say). 

Spermophilus grammurus douglasii (Rich. ). 

Spermophilus grammurus beecheyi (Rich ). 

Spermophilus grammurus atricapillus Bryant, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., (2), II., 
p. 26, June 20, 18S9. 

Spermophilus grammurus macrourus (Bennett). Revived by Allen, Bull. Am. 
Mus. Nat. Hist., II., 1889, p. 170. Zapotlan, Jalisco, Mexico. 

Spermophilus grammurus fisheri (Merriam) = Spermophilus beecheyi fisher i 
Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash , VIII , p. 133, Dec, 1893. 

Spermophilus empetra (Pallas). 

Spermophilus empetra kodiacensis Allen. 

Spermophilus empetra columbianus (Ord) = Spermophilus columbianus Mer- 
riam. N Am. Fauna, No. 5. p. 39, July, 1891. 

Spermophilus richardsoni (Sabine). 

Spermophilus townsendi Bachman. 

Spermophilus elegans Kennicctt. 

Spermophilus armatus Kennicott. 

Spermophilus beldingi Merriam. 

Spermophilus perotensis Merriam, Proc Biol. Soc Wash., VIII., p. 131, Dec, 

1893. 

Spermophilus obsoletus Kennicott. 
Spermophilus spilosoma Bennett. 
Spermophilus spilosoma macrospilotus Merriam. 
Spermophilus spilosoma major Merriam. 
Spermophilus spilosoma pratensis Merriam. 
Spermophilus spilosoma obsidianus Merriam. 

Spermophilus spilosoma annectens Merriam, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VIII , p. 
132. Dec, 1893. 

Spermophilus cryptospilotus Merriam. 



4 2 

Besides the addtions above indicated to the genera Sci- 
iirus, Tamias, and Spermophilus, each of these genera is con- 
sidered as separable into several subgenera, most of which, 
however, were proposed prior to 1884. Thus Trouessart, 1 
in 1880, proposed to divide the North American species of 
Sciuriis into (1) Neoscinrus (type, S. carolinensis), (2) Para- 
sciurus (type, 5. niger), and (3) Tamiasciurus (type. 5. 
hiidsonius). Tamias was divided by the same author into 
(1) Tamias (type, T. striatns), and (2) Eutamias (type, T. 
asiaticus), to which Dr. Merriam 2 has added Amnios permo- 
p hikes (type, T. lucunts), and has transferred this group to 
the genus Spermophihis . To the four previously recognized 
subgenera of Spermophihis Dr. Merriam has added 2 also 
Xerospermophiliis (type, 5. mohavensis). 

In respect to the other genera of the Sciuridae, additions 
have been made also to both Arctomys and Cynomys, with 
radical changes in the nomenclature of some of the species 
of the latter. 

There have likewise been numerous additions among the 
Bats and Shrews, and also among the Carnivores, particu- 
larly in the case of the Skunks of the genus Spilogale. 
This group stood in 1884 as a subgenus of Mephitis, with I 
species ; it now ranks as a genus, 3 with 8 species and 2 
additional subspecies. 

Spermophilus canes cens Merriam. 

Spermopkilns sonoriensis Ward, Am. Nat., Feb., 1891, p 158. Hermosillo, 
Sonora, Mexico. 
Spermophihis tereticandus Baird. 
Spermophilus mohavensis Merriam. 
Spermophihis neglectus Merriam. 
Spermophilus mexicanus (Licht. ). 
Spermophilus trldecemllneatus (Milcheil). 
Spermophilus trldecemllneatus pallidus Allen. 
Spermophilus frankllnl (Sabine ). 
Spermophilus annulatus (Aud. & Bach.). 

iBull. Soc. d'£tudes Scientif. d' Angers, 1888, pp. 76-81 and 86. 

2 Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., VII., p. 27, April, 1S92. 

^Cf. Merriam, N. Am. Fauna, No. 4, pp. 1-15, Oct., 1890. 



43 

As already said, the work here under notice is recognized 
as tentative. As additional material is acquired, and the 
various groups are taken up monographically, probably 
some of the recently described forms will be found to have 
been too hastily recognized in nomenclature, and that 
others now ranked as species will have to take the status 
of subspecies. On the other hand, it is quite certain that 
there still remain many new forms to be described, even 
among some of the groups to which so many additions 
have already been made. 

In many groups of our mammals little has been done as 
yet beyond the description of a few new forms. Especially 
is this the case with nearly all of the genera of the Car- 
nivores, the Shrews and Moles. Some preliminary work 
has recently been done on the latter by Mr. True, who has 
in hand a monograph of the group. 1 The Shrews present 
a most difficult and interesting group, where at present it 
is almost impossible to properly allocate the names already 
given, or to form even a surmise as to the number of spe- 
cies and their relationships,. The Bats have fortunately 
been brought into comparative order through the labors of 
Dr. Harrison Allen, whose recent monograph of the subject 2 
is a valuable contribution to our knowledge of their anat- 
omy, relationships, and proper nomenclature. Thus 



'To the Moles have recently been added I new genus, 3 new species, and 1 
new subspecies, as follows : 

Parascalops, gen. nov., True, Proc. U. S Nat. Mus., XVII., 1894, (advance 
sheet, April 26, 1894). Type, Scalops breweri Bachman. 

Scapamis dilatus True, ibid. Fort Klamath, Oregon. 

Scapanus anthonyi Allen, Bull Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., V., p. 200, Aug., 1893. 
San Padro Martir, Lower California. 

Scalops texanus Allen, ibid., IK., 1891, p. 221, and V., p. 200. Texas. 

Scalops aquaticus anstralis Chapman, ibid., V., p. 339, Dec, 1893. Florida. 

Scalops parvus Rhoads, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, p 157. Tarpon 
Springs, Florida. 

2 A Monograph of the Bats of North America. By Harrison Allen, M.D,= 
Bulletin of the U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 43. 8vo., pp. i-ix., 1-198, pll. i-xxxviii., 
1893 { March, 1894). 



44 

although so much has been done during the last five years, 
the published results form but a beginning toward a proper 
knowledge of the mammalian fauna of North America. 

Thus far in this paper reference has been made mainly 
to the discovery of new forms as evidence of the recent 
advances in our knowledge of North American mammals, 
and little in respect to increase in knowledge along other 
lines, or of particular geographical areas. Most of the new 
forms have of course come from the little known parts of 
the West, and from countries south of the United States, 
where collecting had been exceedingly superficial and 
sporadic, the material previously gathered being such as 
chance threw in the way of comparatively untrained col- 
lectors. Less than a decade ago the more unsettled parts 
of the West, and especially the extensive arid regions, 
were practically virgin ground, so far as the systematic 
trapping of small mammals was concerned. Now there 
are few areas of any great extent that have not been visited 
by trained collectors with the best modern devises for 
capturing small mammals; while considerable portions of 
the country have been methodically explored, with a view 
not merely to securing large series of specimens from 
certain selected localities for comparative study, but 
especially for the purpose of determining the geographical 
distribution of particular forms or groups of forms, as 
regards both their vertical and horizontal range. In the 
western and southwestern portions of the United States 
many thousands of square miles have been systematically 
surveyed biologically under the direction of Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, 1 Chief of the Division of Ornithology and Mam- 
malogy, United States Department of Agriculture, who for 
the last five years has been able to keep in the field a 
large corps of skilled collectors. Under the same auspices 
much collecting has been done also in the East and South, 



1 See N Am. Fauna, Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 7, for reports on his explorations in Arizona, 
Idaho, and southwestern California and contiguous regions. 



45 

and in northern and central Mexico. Thousands upon 
thousands of specimens have also been secured by in- 
dependent collectors, which have found their way either 
into various private collections or into public museums.* 
This material has of course all been subjected to pre- 
liminary examination, and most of the novelties made 
known, but for the important results that must follow from 
its careful elaboration we must still wait. Various faunal 
papers — far too numerous for enumeration in the present 
connection — have also been published. New workers are 
also every year entering the field; so that the outlook for 
the further progress of North American mammalogy is full 
of encouragement. 

1 For example, during the last four or five years some 6,ooo specimens of North 
American Mammals have been acquired by the American Museum of Natural 
History in New York City. 



A Consideration of Some Ornithological Literature, 
with Extracts from Current Criticism. 



I. 1876 TO 1883. 
II- 1884 TO 1883. 

By L. S. Foster. 



1876 to 1883. 

Under the heading, " Recent Literature," in the volumes 
of the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, published 
from 1876 to 1883, are reviews of numerous publications 
which, I hold, pretty fairly represent the ornithological 
literature of this important, period, particularly so far as 
North America is concerned. 

A hasty survey of this literature might, perchance, con- 
vey the idea of individual effort rather than combined ex- 
ertion, but, summarized, it shows an advanced movement 
along a series of lines which, at the close of the period, 
interlaced and formed the firm foundation upon which has 
been erected the solid superstructure of The American 
Ornithologists' Union. 

The more prominent features of the time and those 
which will permanently characterize it, seem to be as 
follows : 

The appearance of the first volume of the Catalogue of 
the Birds in the British Museum ; 

The revisionary work of Mr. Ridgway and Dr. Stej- 
neger on certain orders and genera ; 

The organization of The Linnaean Society of New York, 
together with the publication of the first volume of its 
Transactions ; 



4 8 

The publication of Biologia Centrali-Americana ; 

The appearance of Mr. George N. Lawrence's " General 
Catalogue of the Birds noted from the Islands of the Lesser 
Antilles " ; Stearns and Coues's " New England Bird Life "; 
Dr. Merriam's " Review of the Birds of Connecticut "; Dr. 
Wheaton's "Report on the Birds of Ohio"; Dr. Coues's 
series of four bibliographical papers and his check-list of 
1882 ; Mr. Ridgway's nomenclature of 1881 ; and the be- 
ginning of John Burroughs's charming series of out-of- 
door books with the republication of "Wake-Robin" in 1877. 

In clearing the way for the A. O. U. check-list, the work 
on nomenclature which was done by Mr. Ridgway and Dr. 
Stejneger was not only necessary but eminently workman- 
like. In these years, the battle for trinomialism in North 
America was fought and gallantly won. 

Especially will this period be notable as the epoch in 
which serious work was begun in recording facts of migra- 
tions ; the Germans, the English, and, in this country, 
Prof. W. W. Cooke, accomplished much. 

[The continuation of this paper, as read, consisted of 
numerous examples of the criticisms which follow :] 

Titles and Criticisms of 
Some Ornithological Literature, 
1. 

1876 TO 1883. 



1876. 



Cooper, J. G.— New Facts relating to Calif ornian Ornithology. No. 1. 
By Dr. J. G. Cooper. Proc. Cal Acad. Sci., 1876. 14 pages. 

About fifty species are noticed The paper is replete with 

interesting matter, and forms a valuable contribution to our knowledge 
of Californian Ornithology. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
II., p. 76, July, 1877. 



49 

D'Hamonville, J. C. L. T. — Catalogue des Oiseaux d'Europe, ou 

enumeration des especes et races d'oiseaux dont la presence, soit 

liabituelle soit fortuite, a ete dunient constatee dans les limites 

geographiques de l'Europe, par J. C. L. T. D'Hamonville. 8vo., 

pp. 74. Paris, 1876. 

. . . .deserves more than a mere mention on account of the admira- 
bly comprehensive manner in which it has been prepared. the 

Baron makes the whole number 658 — T. M. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 

Club, Vol. II., pp. 106, 107, October, 1877. 

Gakrod, A. H. — On some Anatomical Characters which bear upon the 
Major Divisions of the Passerine Birds. By A. H. Garrod. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1876. 

....He concludes his paper with a tabular arrangement of the 
larger groups of the Passeres, expressive of his views of their affinities. 
—J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith, Club, Vol. II., p. 23, January, 1877. 

Gentry, Thomas G. — Life-Histories of the Birds of Eastern Pennsyl- 
vania. By Thomas G. Gentry. (In two volumes.) Vol. I: 
Philadelphia, 1876. 12 mo., pp. xvi., 309. 

... .a most welcome volume of biographies of the birds of Eastern 

North America The author's style is unostentatious and simple, 

at times lapsing into carelessness . . .The present volume includes the 
Song-birds as far as the Corvidas of Dr. Coues's arrangement ... — 
J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. I., pp. 49, 50, July, 1876. 

Henshaw, H. W. — Annual Report upon the Geographical Surveys 
West of the One- Hundredth Meridian, etc. By George M. 
Wheeler, First Lieutenant of Engineers, U. S. A. Being Appen- 
dix J J of the Annual Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1876. 
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1876. Report on the 
Ornithology of the Portions of California visited during the Field 
Season of 1875. By Mr. H. W. Henshaw. Pp. 224-278. 

....Among the more important results are the extension, either 
southward or westward, of the previously recorded range of many spe- 
cies of birds The biographical annotations are often full and 

always exceedingly interesting ... — W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
III., pp. 136, 137, July, 1878. 

Jordan, David Starr. — Manual of the Vertebrates of the Northern 
United States, including the District east of the Mississippi 
River, and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, exclusive of 
Marine Species. By David Starr Jordan, M.S., M.D., etc. 
Chicago, 1876. 12mo., pp. 342. 

. . . .Several of the analytical tables of different groups of birds are 
based on or taken directly from Coues's Key, and the latest and best 
authorities are followed for the other classes ... On the whole the author 
is to be congratulated on the success he has achieved in this difficult 
undertaking, combining in a work of convenient size and moderate 



50 

cost a text-book of the Vertebrate Animals of the Northeastern States 
reliable in character and sufficiently extended to guide the student with 
tolerable ease to the name of any species he may chance to have in 
hand.— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. I., pp. 93, 94, November, 
1876. 

Kidder, J. H. — Contributions to the Natural History of Kerguelen 

Island. By J. H. Kidder, M.D. Edited by Dr. Elliott Coues, 

U. S. A. II. Oology, pp. 6-20. Bull. U. 8. Nat. Mus., No. 3. 
Washington, 1876. 

... .an account of the Oology of the island, including detailed de- 
scriptions and measurements of the eggs, together with an account of 
the breeding habits of all the species found breeding there. . . . — J. A. 
A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. I , p. 48, July, 1876. 

Kidder, J. H. — Contributions to the Natural History of Kerguelen 
Island. By J. H. Kidder, M.D. Edited by Dr. Elliott Coues, 
U. S. A. II., pp. 85-116. A Study of Chionis minor. Bull. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., No. 3. Washington, 1876. 

This essay opens with a resume of the literature of the species . . . 
Then follows a description of its anatomy, includine: an account of its 
myology, of the viscera and the skeleton ; of its habits, general appear- 
ance in life, and external characters — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 

Club, Vol. I., pp. 48, 49, July, 1876. 

Lawrence, George N. — Description of a New Species of Jay of the 
Genus Cyanocitta ; also of a supposed New Species of Cyanocorax. 
By George N. Lawrence. Annals of the Lyceum of Nat. Hist. 
N. Y., Vol. XL, pp. 163-165. [Published Feb., 1875.] 

(Cyanocitta pulchra) being from Ecuador and the other (Cyano- 
corax ortoni) from Northern Peru. -J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
I., p. 47, July, 1876. 

Lawrence, George N. — Birds of Southwestern Mexico collected by 
Francis E. Sumichrast. Prepared by George N. Lawrence. Bull. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 4. Washington, 1876. 

. . . .The list embraces three hundred and twenty-one species, with 
valuable and occasionally quite copious field-notes by the collector . . 
-J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. I, p. 93, November, 1876. 

Ma.rsh, O. C. -Extinct Birds with Teeth. By Professor O. C. Marsh. 
Am. Jour. Sci. and Arts, June, 1876, pp. 509-511. 

These interesting forms ... combine in a peculiar manner many 
reptilian characters with others truly avian. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. I., p. 49, July, 1876. 

Ridgway, Robert.— Second Thoughts on the Genus Micrastur. By 
Robert Ridgway. The Ibis, 1876, pp. 1-5. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Studies of the American Falconidse : Monograph 



5i 

of the Polybori. By Eobert Ridgway. Bull. U. S. Geol. and 
Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. I., No. 6, pp. 451-473, plates xxii.- 
xxvii. , February 8, 1876. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Studies of the American FalconidaB. By Robert 
Ridgway. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. II., 
No. 2, pp. 91-182, plates xxxi., xxxii., April 1, 1876. 

Saunders, Howard. — On the Stercorariinoe or Skua Gulls. By 

Howard Saunders, F.L.S. &c. Proc. Zo'dl. Soc. London, 1876, 

pp. 317-332, pi. xxiv. 

Mr. Saunders recognizes six species, all of which he refers to one 
genus for which he adopts the name Stercorarius . . . . — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. II., pp. 23, 24, January, 1877. 

Saunders, Howard. — On the SterninaB, or Terns, with Descriptions 
of three new Species. By Howard Saunders, F.L.S., F.Z.S. 

Proc. Zobl. Soc. London, 1876, pp. 638-672, pi. lxi. 

Of the forty-eight species recognized, thirty-eight are placed 

under S'erna —J. A. A., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. II., p. 24, Jan- 
uary, 1877. 

....We have here in condensed and convenient shape the main 
results of a protracted study, representing much laborious and faith- 
ful application; the author has evidently worked with care, and fully 
availed himself of the unusual facilities he has enjoyed. .. .1 regard 
the paper as the most authoritative one we possess on this subject. 

The colored plate illustrates the heads of three species of Anous . . . 

—Elliott Coues, Bull Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 140-144, July, 1878. 

Sclater, P. L. and Salvin, Osbert. — On new Species of Bolivian Birds. 
By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S.,fand Osbert Salvin, M.A., 
F.R.S. Proc. Zobl. Soc. London, 1876, pp. 352-358, pll. xxx- 
xxxiii. 

Sclater, P. L. and Salvin, Osbert. — Revision of the Neotropical 
Anatidre. By P. L. Sclater and O. Salvin. Proc. Zo'dl. Soc. 
London, 1876, pp. 358-412, pi. xxxiv. 

a most valuable synopsis of the Ducks and Geese of Middle and 

Southern America, and embraces also a large proportion of the species 
of North America, including as it does all that reach Tropical America 
in their migrations . . . The paper closes with a very convenient tabular 
synopsis of the geographical distribution of the genera and species. 
-J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. II., p. 24, January, 1877. 

Vennor, Henry G.— Our Birds of Prey; or the Eagles, Hawks, and 
Owls of Canada. By Henry G. Vennor, F.G.S. Of the Geological 
Survey of Canada. With 30 Photographic Illustrations by Wm, 
Notman. Montreal : Published by Dawson Brothers. 1876. 4to., 
pp. i-viii and 1-154, 30 mounted photographs of birds. 

The text, which is largely compiled from the notes of other 



52 

writers, gives a fairly digested summary of the individual history of 
each species ...— T. M. B., Bull. Nidi. Ornilh. Club, Vol. II., pp. 24. 25, 
January, 1877. 

1877. 

Barrows, W. B. — Catalogue of the Alcidse contained in Museum of 
the Boston Society of Natural History, with a review and proposed 
classification of the Family. By W. B. Barrows. Proc. Boston Soc. 
Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX., pp. 150-165. November, 1877. 

The true affinities of the species he (Mr. Barrows) believes can 

only be determined by a thorough study of their embryological develop- 
ment. The character of this paper indicates that in Mr. Barrows we 
have a valuable accession to our corps of ornithological students. — 
J. A. A., Ball. Nutl. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 86, April, 1878. 

Bendire, Charles E. — Notes on some of the Birds found in South- 
eastern Oregon, particularly in the Vicinity of Camp Harney, from 
November, 1874, to January, 1877. By Captain Charles Bendire, 
U. S. Army. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX., pp, 109-149, 
Nov., 1877. 

a list embracing one hundred and ninety-one species and 

varieties. . . Aside from some former notes by the same author we 

have here our first detailed information respecting the ornithology of 
the immediate region under consideration .... The list is enriched with 
copious biographical notes, including descriptions of the breeding- 
habits, nests, and eggs of a large number of the less well-known species, 
and forms a most important contribution to the ornithology of the West. 
—J. A. A., Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 81, April, 1878. 

Burroughs, John. — Wake-Robin. By John Burroughs. Second Edi- 
tion, corrected, enlarged and illustrated (cut). New York: Pub- 
lished by Hurd and Houghton. Cambridge: The Riverside Press, 
1877, 16mo., pp. 1-256, frontispiece and wood cuts. 

Hurd and Houghton have reprinted Mr. John Burroughs's charm- 
ing little volume " Wake-Kobin," wherein the wild wood-life of the 
birds, from Washington to the Adirondacks is picturesquely sketched. 
Mr. Burroughs has a keen eye and a loving heart towards the birds 
....— E. L, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. II., pp. 48, 49, April, 1877. 

Elliot, D. G. — Review of the lbidinre, or Subfamily of the Ibises. 

ByD. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., etc., etc. Proc. ZooL Soc. 

London, 1877, pp. 477-510, pi. li. 

Mr. Elliot treats the Ibises and Spoonbills as subfamilies of 

one family, for which he adopts the name lbididce. After a short risume 
of the literature of the subject he gives a key to the nineteen genera 
(three being new), among which he distributes his twenty-five species 
Then follows a systematic review of the species, with their principal 
synonomy, and various critical and descriptive remarks, with general^ 

a short account of their habits and geographical distribution — 

J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 182, October, 1878. 



53 

Feilden, H. W. — List of Birds observed in Smith Sound, and in the 
Polar Basin during the Arctic Expedition of 1875-76. By H. W. 
Feilden. The Ibis, Fourth Series, Vol. I., pp. 401-412, October, 

1877. 

. . . .enumerates twenty-four .species observed "in Smith Sound 

and northward between the seventy-eighth and eighty-third degrees of 
north latitude,". .. .The quite detailed notes respecting the species of 
this list render it a paper of unusual interest. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 86, April, 1878. 

Gextry, Thomas G. — Life -Histories of the Birds of Eastern Penn- 
sylvania. By Thomas G. Gentry. Vol. II., 8vo., pp. 336. The 
Naturalist's Agency, Salem, Mass., 1877. 

... .It abounds in original observations, combined with much that 
is gleaned from other authors. . . .Despite some faults of execution, the 
work before us contributes much of value respecting the habits of our 
birds, and records many interesting points in their history not given 
by previous writers. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 
36, 37, January, 1878. 

Harvie Brown, J. A. — On the Distribution of Birds in North Russia. 
Part I. On the Distribution of Birds of the Lower Petchora, in 
Northeast Russia. Part II. Longitudinal Distribution of Species 
North of 64° 30' N. lat., or the Northern Division. Part III. 
On the Longitudinal Distribution of the Birds of the Southern 
Division (between 64^° N. and 58°-60 Q N.). By J. A. Harvie- 
Brown. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, April, July, 
and September, 1877. 

.... By means of a system of symbols the range of each of the two 
hundred and eighty-one positively identified or authentic species is 
given in tables, in such a way as to indicate the abundance or scarcity 
of the species in each of the several districts . . It is good work in a 
most important direction . . .The number of circumpolar species (nearly 
fifty) embraced in these lists render these papers ot special iaterestto 
students who commonly confine their attention to the birds of the 
North American Region. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 
35, 36, January, 1878. 

Henshaw, H. W. — Annual Report upon the Geographical Surveys 
West of the One-Hundredth Meridian, etc. By George M. 
Wheeler, First Lieutenant of Engineers, U. S-. A. Being Appen- 
dix NN of the Annual Report of Eogineers for 1877. Washing- 
ton: Government Printing- Office, 1877. Report on the Ornitho- 
logy of Portions of Nevada and California. By Mr. H. W. Hen- 
shaw. Pp. 1303-1322. 

....following is a systematic and very able consideration of the 
faunal provinces of the United States. . . .The full results of the season's 
work are given in two detailed lists, entitled, respectively, "List of 
Birds observed near Carson City, Nevada, from August 25 to Septern 
her 16, and from November 10 to November 20, 1876, with Notes," 



54 

and " List of Birds observed on the Eastern Slope of the Sierras, near 
Carson City, Nevada, from September 16 to November 7, with Notes." 
...The genus Posserella is again overhauled.... — W. B., Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 137, 138, July, 1878. 

Langdon, Fbank W. — A Catalogue of the Birds of the vicinity of 
Cincinnati, with Notes. By Frank W. Langdon. Salem, Mass. 
The Naturalist's Agency, 1877, 8vo., pp. 18. 

....embraces two hundred and seventy-nine species, about one 
third of which are marked as known to breed in the vicinity. . . The 
list is evidently prepared with care, and gives a convenient and un- 
doubtedly trustworthy summary of the Avian Fauna of the locality of 
which it treats.— J. A. A., Bull. Rutt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. III., p. 34, Jan- 
uary, 1878. 

Lawrence, Geobge N. — Descriptions of New Species of Birds from 
the Island of Dominica. By George N. Lawrence. Ann. N. Y. 
Acad. Sci., Vol. L, pp. 46-49. Issued Dec, 1877. 

The important explorations by Mr. F. A. Ober in some of the 
smaller West India Islands (Lesser Antilles)have been rich in interest- 
ing results relating to birds. The collections and observations made 
by Mr. Ober have been made the basis of several recent papers by Mr. 
George N. Lawrence, in which no less than fourteen species supposed 
to be new have been described. . — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. IV., pp. 48, 49, January, 1879. 

McCauley, C. A. H. — Notes on the Ornithology of the Region about 
the Source of the Red River of Texas, from Observations made 
during the Exploration conducted by Lieutenant E. H. Ruffner, 
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A. By C. A. H. McCauley, Lieutenant 
Third United States Artillery. Annotated by Dr. Elliott Coues, 
U. S. A. Bull. U, S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. III., 
No. 3, pp. 655-695, May 15, 1877. 

The paper includes notices of about one hundred species, with 

quite copious notes respecting the habits of a considerable proportion 

of them, with, in some cases, descriptions of their nests and eggs 

—J. A. A , Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. II., pp. 76, 77, July, 1877. 

Meekiam, C. Hart. — A review of the Birds of Connecticut, with 
Remarks on their Habits. By C. Hart Merriam. Trans. Conn. 
Acad, of Arts and Sciences, Vol. IV., pp. 1-150, July -Oct., 1877. 

Since the appearance of Linsley's "Catalogue of the Birds of 

Connecticut" in 1843, no detailed enumeration of the birds of that State 
has been published. Hence the advent of Mr. Merriam's paper must 
be hailed with interest by all engaged in the study of New England 
Ornithology. The author gives in all two hundred and ninety-two 
species. . . In the careful elaboration of interesting details culled from 
personal experience and the note-books of well-known and trustworthy 

field collectors, this paper is most rich — W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 

Club, Vol. II., pp. 107, 108, October, 1877. 



55 

Minot, H. D.— The Land-birds and Game-birds of New England, with 
descriptions of the birds, their nests and eggs, their habits and 
notes. With illustrations. By H. D. Minot. 

" To him who in the love of Nature holds 

" Communion with her visible forms, she speaks 

" A various language;" 

Bryant's Thanatopsis. 

Salem, Mass. Naturalists' Agency. Boston : Estes & Lauriat. 
1877. 8vo., pp. i-xvi and 1-456, frontispiece and woodcuts. 

.... the descriptions, however, are tersely original .... the most 
prominent and most original features of the work are the artificial 
"keys."....— E. C, Bull. Nutt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. II., pp. 49, 50, April, 
1877. 

...the book has never been reviewed on its merits, and things 
which should have been severely censured have passed nearly unchal- 
lenged up to the present time . . leaving out the faulty portions, which 
in nearly all cases relate to abstract points similar to those just cited 
[careless methods of work and identification], the pages bear the im- 
press of accurate observation and original thought, while no one who 
loves the out-door side of Nature can fail to sympathize with the 
author's sentiment or to be impressed by the truth and beauty of many 
of his passages It is a pity that one who writes so delightfully will 
mar his work bv a persistent adhesion to false principles. — William 
Brewster, Bull. Nuit. OrnUh. Club, Vol. VI, pp. 242-244, October, 1881. 

Nelson, E. W. — Birds of Northeastern Illinois. By E. W. Nelson. 
Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. VIII., pp. 90-155, April, 1877. 

. It is not, however, from the simple enumeration of species that 
this list derives its chief value and interest, but from the unusually 
complete and satisfactory character of the biographical annotations, 
which embrace good descriptions of the habits of many birds previously 
but little known....— W. JB., Bull. Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol. Ii., pp. 68, 
69, July, 1877. 

Nelson, E. W. — Notes upon Birds observed in Southern Illinois, be- 
tween July 17 and September 4, 1875. By E. W. Nelson. Bull. 
Essex Inst, Vol. IX., pp. 32-65, June, 1877. 

. . . .contains much information respecting the distribution, habits, 
and relative abundance of the summer birds of the southern portion of 
the . . .State —J. A. A., Bull. Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 36, Jan- 
uary, 1878. 

Rathbun, Frank R. — A Partial Catalogue of the Birds of Central 
New York, from observations taken in the Counties of Cayuga, 
Seneca, and Wayne by Mr. H. G. Fowler, of Auburn, N. Y., and 
from the Cabinet of Skins of New York Birds collected by Mr. 
J. B. Gilbert, of Penn Yan, Yates County. Divided and arranged 
in accordance with the " Check List of North American Birds," 
by Elliott Coues, M.D., U. S. A., and dedicated to the Cayuga 
Historical Society. By Frank B. Rathbun. Auburn Daily Ad- 
vertiser (newspaper) of August 14, 1877. 

.... The list contains one hundred and ninety-one species, with 
brief notes on their relative abundance, times of migration, etc. The 



56 

list bears evidence of trustworthiness .... —J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. 111., pp. 34, 35, January, 1878. 

Reichenow, Anton. — Systematische Uebersicht der Schreitvogel 
(Gressores), einer natiirlichen, die Ibidie, Ciconiidic, Phcenicop- 
teridse, Scopidie, Babenicipid?e, und Ardeidaj umfassenden Ord- 
nung. Von Dr. Ant. Reichenow, Assistent am kgl. zoolog. 
Museum in .Berlin. Journal fur Ornithologie, XXV Jahrgang, 
pp. 113-171, 225-278, pll. i, ii. April and July, 1877. 

.... He also throws over all "barbarous " names, whether specific 
or generic, all names of erroneous signification, and all classical names 
improperly constructed. Under these restrictions many long-estab- 
lished and familiar designations fall, to be replaced by the next (in Dr. 
Eeichenow's view) unobjectionable name. In default of any such our 
author proceeds to supply the deficiency. . . . While differing from Dr. 
Reichenow respecting important principles of nomenclature, and on 
various points of classification, we can but accord to his paper a high 
importance, as it evinces laborious and careful research, and embraces 
a vast amount of information, succinctly and lucidly presented, that 
will be of great service to future workers in the same field. — J. A. A., 
Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 183-185, October, 1878. 

Ridgway, Robekt.— -Report of Geological Explorations of the Fortieth 
Parallel. Clarence King, Geologist in Charge. Vol. IV., Part 
III. , Ornithology. By Robert Ridgway. ±to., pp. 303-670. 1877. 

... .a thorough and exhaustive account of the ornithology of an 
interesting belt of country. The observations were mainly limited to 
that portion of the Great Dasin included between the thirty-ninth and 
forty-second parallels and extending from the Sierra Nevada to the 
Wahsatch Mountains... in point of nomenclature it represents the 
author's later views —J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 82, 
83 April, 1878. 

Roosevelt, Theodore, Jr., and Minot, H. D. — The Summer Birds 
of the Adirondacks in Franklin County, N. Y. By Theodore 
Roosevelt, Jr., and H. D. Minot. 8vo., pp. 4, 1877. 

a very acceptable list of the summer birds of the Adirondacks 

embracing ninety-seven species. ... —J. A. A., Bull. Nutt Ornith. Club. 
Vol. III., p. 36. January, 1878. 

By far the best of these recent (local) lists which I have seen. . . . — 
C. H. M., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 85, April, 1878. 

Rowley, G. £).— Somateria labradoria (J. F. Gmelin). The Pied 
Duck. By G. D. Rowley, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., etc., etc. Ornith- 
ological Miscellany, Vol. II., Part VI., pp. 205-223, with 5 plates, 
1877. London: B. Quaritch, 15 Piccadilly, W. ; Triibner & Co., 
Ludgate Hill, E. C. ; R. H. Porter, 6 Tenterden St., Hanover 
Square, W. 

... a timely and exhaustive contribution to the history of a species 
believed to be rapidly approaching extinction .... Mr. Rowley here gives 



57 

not only the literary history of the species, but discusses its relation- 
ship to the Eiders — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 

79, 80, April, 1878. 

SaijVin, Osbert. — Salvin on the Procellariida). Rowley's Ornitholog- 
ical Miscellany. Part IV. London, 1887. 

This paper is in two parts. The first is devoted to an exami- 
nation of the unpublished ''Banks' drawings," and the manuscripts of 
Dr. Solander, so far as they relate to the Petrels . . .Mr. Salvin's second 
paper is a careful examination of the new species of Petrels obtained by 
Dr. H. H. Giglioli during the voyage of the Italian corvette " Magenta " 

round the world — T. M. B , Bu'l. JSutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. II., pp. 

fi9, 70, July, 1877. 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler. — Catalogue of the Birds of the British Museum. 
Vol. III. Catalogue of the Coliomorpbse, containing the families 
. Corvidaa, Paradiseidie, Oriolidre, Dicruridse, and Prionopidaa. By 
R. Bowdler Sharpe. 8vo., pp. xiii., 344, pll. xiv. 1877. 

In the third volume Mr. Sharpe enters upon the great series of 
Passerine Birds The species here described by Mr. Sharpe number 
three hundred and sixty-seven. ... We are sorry to see several in- 
stances ot the use of the same name in a generic and specific sense, for 
the same species. . . .—J. A. A., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 78, 
79, April, 1878. 

Streets, Thomas H. — Contributions to the Natural History of the 
Hawaiian and Fanning Islands and Lower California, made in con- 
nection with the United States North Pacific Surveying Expedi- 
tion, 1873-75. By Thos. H. Streets, M.D., Passed Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. Navy. Bull. U. S. Nut. Mas., No. 7, 8vo., (Birds, 
pp. 9-33), Washington, 1877. 

. . . includes notes en about fifty species of birds, of which rather 
more than one-half were collected on the coast of Lower California and 
adjoining portions of the Mexican coast. The author acknowledges his 
indebtedness to Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., for the identification of the 
birds, and adds that he has "kindly furnished the notes accompanying 
that portion of the ornithological collection from the Californian Penin- 
sula '".... there are many valuable biographical and other notes on sev- 
eral hitherto little known species. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith Ciub, Vol. 
III., pp. 80, 81, April, 1878. 

Willard, S. L. — A List of the Birds of Central New York. Utica, 

N. Y., 1877. By S. L. Willard, Esq, 16 pp. 

The author's remarks in the way of a prelude are thus briefly ex- 
pressed : " The following is a complete list of the birds of Central New 
York, with notes on their abundance." This might lead one to expect 
a valuable contribution to our science, but a perusal of the ''List" 
proves this supposition to be erroneous.... — C. H. M., Bull. Nuft. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. 111., pp. 83, 84, April, 1878. 



53 

1878. 

Allen, J. A. — A List of the Birds of Massachusetts, with Annotations, 
by J. A. Allen. Bull. Essex Inst., Vol. X., pp. 3-37, April, 1878. 

It is seldom that one meets with a local catologue more thoroughly- 
satisfactory in all essential respects than the present one .... this list 
presents the names of three hundred and sixteen species of ascertained 
occurrence in Massachusetts, not one of which can be challenged. . . . 
one hundred and thirty-five are marked as breeding within the State 
. . Thirty-five North American birds have been added to the Massa- 
chusetts list since 1867.— T. M. B., Bull Null Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp 
138-140, July, 1878. 

Aughey, Samuel. — Notes on the Nature of the Food of the Birds of 

Nebraska. By Professor Samuel Aughey, of Lincoln, Neb. 

First Ann. Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm.for the Year 1877. Appendix II., 

pp. 18-62. 1878. 

....The list numbers two hundred and fifty species, and hence 
includes a pretty large, proportion of the birds that visit the State, and 
as the list relates ostensibly to only locust-eating species, our first feel- 
ing i^ one of surprise that it should be so large Although Mr. 
Aughey's paper bears especially upon the subject of birds as grass- 
hopper destroyers, it forms at the same time a valuable faunal list of the 
birds of Southern Nebraska, containing notes relating to the relative 
abundance and season of most of the species.— J. A. A , Bull Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, pp. 110, 111, April, 1879. 

Aughey, Samuel. — Some facts and considerations concerning the 
beneficial work of birds. By Professor Samuel Aughey, of Lin- 
coln, Neb. First Ann. Rep. U. S. Ent. Comm. for the Year 1877, 
pp. 338-350, 1878. 

... .a special communication on the general subject of the useful- 
ness of birds, with particular regard, however, to the locust question 
... .he concludes that even the majority of Raptorial birds should be 
protected. . . .He believes that sooner or later the protection of useful 
birds should become not only a national, but an international matter, 
....—J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, pp. Ill, 112, April, 
1879. 

Brewer, T. M. — Notes on certain Species of New England Birds, 

with Additions to his Catalogue of the Birds of New England. 

By T. M. Brewer. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XIX., pp. 

301-309, April, 1878. 

This paper adds twenty-one species to the " Catalogue of the Birds 
of New England," published by this author in 1875, and contains notes 
on twenty-seven other species of rare occurrence in New England. The 
whole number of "recognized forms" now admitted by him as having 
been taken in New England is three hundred and fifty-six . . — J. A. A., 
Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., p. 185, October, 1878. 

Bureau, Louis. — De la Mue du Bee et des Ornements Palpebraux du 



59 

Macareux arctique, Fratercula arctica (Lin.) Stepb., apres la saison 

des amours. Par le Docteur Louis Bureau. Extraii du Bulletin 

de la Societe Zoologique de France, 1877. 8vo. Paris, 1878. Pp. 

1-21, pll. iv., v. 

The remarkable changes which the bill and eyelids of the Common 
Puffin undergo after the breeding season have been hitherto unknown 
The author's exposition of the matter reveals a phenomenon as yet 
unparalleled among birds . . The author concludes this remarkable 
paper with some pertinent and suggestive observations on other species 
of Fratercula and on Lunda clrrhata. -Elliott Coues, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. Ill, pp. 87-91, April 1878. 

Cory, Charles B. — A Naturalist in the Magdalen Islands ; giving a 

Description of the Islands, and List of the Birds taken there, with 

other Ornithological Notes. By Charles B. Cory. Illustrated 

from Sketches by the Author. Boston, 1878. Small 4to. Part 

II., Catalogue of Birds taken or observed in the Magdalen 

Islands, with Notes regarding those found breeding, etc., etc. 

Pp. 33-83. 

In a sumptuous little quarto Mr. C. B. Cory has given an account 
of a summer trip to the Magdalen Islands in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. 
. . . .Part I. consists of a general account of the Islands. . . and direc- 
tions how to reach the Magdalen group, etc. Part II. gives a list of 
one hundred and nine species observed and taken by the author . . 
The annotations relate mainly to the habits and relative abundance of 

the species — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV., p. 171, July, 

1879. 

Coues, Elliott. — Birds of the Colorado Valley. A Repository of 
Scientific and Popular Information concerning North American 
Ornithology. By Elliott Coues. Part First. Passeres to Lani- 
ida3. Bibliographical Appendix. Seventy illustrations (wood- 
cuts). 8vo. Pp. xvi., 807. Washington: Government Printing 
Office, 1878. "Miscellaneous Publications, No. 11," of the 
United States Geological Survey of the Territories, F. V. Hayden, 
U. S. Geologist-in- Charge. 

In point of completeness, mode of execution, and general useful- 
ness, the bibliography here under notice far excels any natural history 
bibliography known to us, and deserves to rank with the best bibliog- 
raphies of any department of literature, and may well serve as a model 
for future workers in similar fields. . . .As regards the general work, or 
the "Birds of the Colorado Valley" as a whole, no more important 
contribution to the subject of North American Ornithology than this 
promises to be has for a long time appeared, and none covering all 
points of the field here taken ;. . . .— -J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. IV., pp. 54-57, January, 1879. 

Coues, Elliott. — Field Notes on Birds observed in Dakota and Mon- 
tana along the Forty-ninth Parallel during the Seasons of 1873 and 
1874. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., late Surgeon and Naturalist 



6o 

TJ. S. Northern Boundary Commission. Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey 
of the Territories, Vol. IV., No. 3, pp. 545-66 L. July 29, 1878. 

The observations relate mainly to the country from Pembina on 

the Ked River to the Rocky Mountains a distance of about eight 

hundred and fifty miles. Dr. Coues in his preliminary remarks divides 
the country traversed into three regions, which he terms respectively 
the "Red River Region," the "Missouri Region," and the "Rocky 
Mountain Region " The physical and zoological characteristics ot these 
regions are briefly detailed, to which is added a tabular enumeration of 
some of the more conspicuous birds of the three regions. Then follows 
a copiouslv annotated list of all the species observed . . . — J. A. A., Bull. 
Xult. Orniih. Club, Vol. IV., pp. 49, 50, January, 1879. 

Jordan, David Starr — Manual of the Vertebrates of the United 
States, including the District east of the Mississippi Eiver, and 
north of North Carolina and Tennessee, exclusive of Marine Spe- 
cies. By David Starr Jordan, Ph.D., M.D., etc. Second Edition, 
revised and enlarged. Chicago: McClurg & Co., 1878. 12mo., 
pp. 407. 

. . . .the second edition has not only been to some extent "revised," 
but enlarged by the addition of upwards of fifty pages of new matter. 

....The account of the fishes has been entirely re-written — J. A. 

A., Ball. Nult. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp. 145, 146, July, 1878. 

Lawrence, George N. — Descriptions of Seven New Species of Birds 
from the Island of St. Vincent, West Indies. By George N. Law- 
rence. Ann. _ZV Y. Acad. Sci., Vol. I., pp. 146-152. Issued May- 
September, 1878. 

Law t rence, George N. — Descriptions of Suppo-ed New Species of 
Birds from the Islands of Grenada and Dominica, West Indies. 
By George N. Lawrence. Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci., Vol. I., pp. 
160-163. Issued May-September, 1878. 

Maynard, C. J.— The Birds of Florida, with the Water and Game 
Birds of Eastern North America. By C. J. Maynard. Illustrated. 
4to. Part IV., pp. 89-112, and one Plate. C. J. Maynard & Co., 
Newtonville, Mass., 1878. 

... .is wholly devoted to the family Fringillidcn, of which fourteen 
species are described . . .It is illustrated with a fine colored plate of the 
Ipswich or Pallid Sparrow (Passerculus princeps), representing the adult 
in spring. To original, somewhat detailed descriptions of the different 
phases of plumage of the various species treated the author adds shoit, 
very pleasantly written descriptions of their habits . . . — J. A. A., Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. Ill , p. 145, July, 187S. 

Ridgway, Robert.— Studies of the American Herodiones. Part I.— 
Synopsis of the American genera of Ardeidse and Ciconiidre ; in- 
cluding descriptions of three new genera, and a monograph of the 



6i 



American species of the genus Ardea. By Eobert Ridgway. 
Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Sum. of Terr., Vol. IV., pp. 219-251, 
February 5, 1878. 

The first of a series of papers here begun deals mainly with the 
Ardeidce and Ciconiidce . . .The A. wiirdemanni of Baird, which has been 
a puzzle to ornithologists for twenty years is considered to be the 
"blue phase" of A. o'-cidenlalis . —J. A. A., Butt. Null Ornith. Club, 
Vol. III., pp. 182, 183, October, 1878. 

Saunders, Howard. — On the Larinaa. By Howard Saunders. Proc. 
Zool. Soc. London, 1878, pp. 115-212. 

The whole number of species recognized in this paper is forty-nine, 
of which number twenty may be counted as North American . . . Mr. 
Sannders's paper evinces a remarkable success in disentangling the 

complicated web of European Gulls and the service rendered by 

Mr. Saunders cannot fail to be appreciated by all who have experienced 
its need.— T. M. B., Butt. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., pp 185-lb7, 
October, 1878. 

Sennett, George B. — Notes on the Ornithology of the Lower Rio 
Grande of Texas, from Observations made during the Season of 
1877. By George B. Sennett. Edited, with Annotations, by Dr. 
Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., 
Vol. IV., pp. 1-66, February 5, 1878. 

... .on one hundred and fifty-one species of birds observed on the 
southern border of Texas. ... Air. Sennett certainly collected under 
many annoyances, but intensely hot days. . . .did not prevent his secur- 
ing some five hundred birds, one of which is new to science, namely, 
Sennett's Warbler (Parula nigrl'ora). The paper is most carefully com- 
mentated by Dr. Coues . . . — H. A. P., Butt. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. III., 
pp. 144, 145, July, 1878. 

Stevenson, H. — Adams's Notes on the Birds of Alaska. By H. 
Stevenson. The Ibis, 4th Series, Vol. II., pp. 420-442, Oct., 1878, 

Some twenty-eight years ago (October, 1850) Mr. Edward A.dams, 
a surgeon in the British navy . . .was sent to the Redoubt of Michalaski, 
on the shores of Norton Sound, Alaska. He remained there until late 
ia the following June, and made some veiy interesting and valuable 
notes on the birds of the region. His collections were given to the 
British Museum, to Mr. John Gould, and to the late Mr. G R. Gray. 
The latter dedicated to him the Colymbus adamsi ... These early obser- 
vations of Alaskan species .... have intrinsic interest and are well 
worthy of attention.— T. M. B., Bull. Nutt Orni'h. Club, Vol. IV, pp. 
52, 53, January, 1879. 

Wilson, Alexander, and Bonaparte, Charles Lucian. — American 
Ornithology ; or, The Natural History of the Birds of the United 
States. Illustrated with plates engraved from drawings from 
Nature. By Alexander Wilson and Charles Lucian Bonaparte. 
Popular edition. Philadelphia : Porter and Coates. Three vol- 
umes in one. 

It claims to be an exact reproduction, minus the atlas of colored 
plates, of the $100, three-volume edition issued by the same firm some 



62 



years ago. No one can help rejoicing at any effort to disseminate more 
widely an acquaintance with Alexander Wilson and his charming and 
painstaking work. . . . But simply to reprint Wilson, even with Bonaparte 
added, at $7.50, pointing out none of the errors, nor supplementing 
the shortcomings is, to say the least, utterly unnecessary to the ad- 
vancement of the science. — E. I., Bull. Nutt. Orniih. Club, Vol. IV.. pp. 
53, 54, January, 1879. 

1879. 

Belding, L. — A Partial List of the Birds of Central California. By 
L. Belding, of Stockton. Edited by R. Ridgway. Proc. D. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. I., April, 1879, pp. 388-449. 

... It is based, .... upon observations extending through about 
twenty years' residence in California, and upon collections made chiefly 
during the last two years, which have from time to time, been forwarded 
by Mf. Belding to the National Museum The number of species, 
exclusive of the wading and swimming birds, is 158 . . In respect to 
the designation of incipient species, Mr. Kidgway uniformly adopts the 
system advocated by him in his paper on the use of trinomials in 
zoological nomenclature in the present number of the Bulletin ... As 
already stated, Mr. Kidgway was the first to adopt the system of pure 
trinomials, and we regret to note his divergence therefrom .... — J. A. A., 
Bull. Null. Orniih. Club, Vol. IV., pp. 167-171, July, 1879. 

Brewer, T. M. — Some Additional Notes upon Birds observed in New 
England, with the Names of Five Species not included in his 
Previous Lists of New England Birds. By T. M. Brewer. Proc. 
Boston Soc. Nat. Hist, Vol. XX., pp. 263-277. Published Decem- 
ber, 1879. 

.... It forms a second supplement to his ' ' Catalogue of the Birds of 
New England," published in 187^, and adds five species to the number 
previously recognized by him as New England birds, raising the whole 
number to 361 .. These "Notes" form a convenient and connected 
record of recent discoveries in relation to many of the rarer New 
England birds, and add more or less that is new respecting some of 
them.— J. A. A., Bull. Null. Orniih. Club, Vol. V., pp. 108, 109, April, J 880. 

Coues, Elliott. — On the Present Status of Passer domesticus in 
America, with Special Reference to the Western States and 
Territories By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. GeoL 
anal Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. V., pp. 175-193, £ept. 6, 1879. 

....a partial bibliography of, what is commonly termed the 
" Sparrow- War in America " in which are given the titles of most of the 
papers relating to this troublesome question, usually with a short digest 
of the papers mentioned. . . .— J. A. A., Bull. Null. Ornith Club, Vol. V., 
p. 41, January, 1880. 

Coues, Elliott.— Second Instalment of American Ornithological 
Bibliography. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. GeoL 
and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. V., pp. 239-330, September 6, 
1879. 

This part gives the titles of " Faunal Publications " relating to 

Central and South America, or that portion of America forming the 



63 

so-called "Neotropical Region." Beginning with Marcgrave in 

1648, the list of titles is brought down to include most of those which 
appeared in the first half of the year 1879 Of the laborious re- 
search and care displayed in the preparation of this work, too great 
praise can scarcely be accorded. — J. A. A., Mull. Nutt. Orrdth. Club, Vol. 
V., pp. 4U, 41, January, 1880. 

Daktt, Mary. — On the Plains and among the Peaks; or, How Mrs. 
Maxwell made her Natural History Collection. By Mary Dartt. 
Philadelphia : Claxton, Remsen, and Haffelfinger, 624, 626, 628 
Market Street, 1879. 8vo., pp. 237. 

Among the many wonderful "exhibits" at the recent Centennial 
Exposition in Philadelphia, few things attracted such general attention 
or created more surprise. . . than Mrs. M. A. Maxwell's collection of the 
animals of Colorado. This little book before us, devoted mainly to a 
very intelligent and pleasantly written account of how Mrs. Maxwell's 
work was accomplished, was prepared by a sister of that lady-naturalist. 
The main text of the work is intended for the general public, . ; but 
in an "Appendix" of twenty pages are given annotated lists of the 
mammals and birds represented in the collection, the iormer by Dr. 
Cones and the latter by Mr. Ridgway. . . .The list of birds numbers 234 
species The annotations relate mainly to an enumeration of the 
specimens represented, but occasionally to facts of distribution and 
locality of occurrence.— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV., pp. 
113, 114, April, 1879. 

Elliot, Daniel Giratjd.— A Classification and Synopsis of the 
Trochilidre. By Daniel Giraud Elliot, F.R.S.E., etc, Wash- 
ington City : Published by the Smithsonian Institution. March, 
1879. 4to., pp. xii., 277, figg. 127 (wood-cuts in the the text). 

....Mr. Elliot's concise and comprehensive "Synopsis" ...forms 
a most welcome aid to the student of this intricate group . . Four 
hundred and twenty-six species are admitted as valid, distributed among 
one hundred and twenty genera The leading characters of very 
nearly all the genera are represented by outline figures of the head, 
wing, and tail, and the species are described in sufficient detail for 
their easy recognition . . . The work closes with an appendix, giving an 
analytical key to the genera, and separate indexes to the generic and 
specific names. . . It will doubtless form a reference work for the group, 
not to be soon superseded, either in point of completeness or of useful- 
ness.— J. A. A, Bull. Nutt Ornith. Club, Vol. IV, pp. 230-232, October, 
1879. 

Gibbs, Morris. — Annotated List of the Birds of Michigan. By Dr. 
Morris Gibbs. Bull, of the U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr. , 
Vol. V., No. 3, pp. 481-497, November 30, 1879. 

Although several prior lists of the birds of Michigan have appeared, 
the present one is a welcome addition to our knowledge of the ornitho- 
logy of that State. Mr. Gibbs's list enumerates 310 species and sub- 
species, and contains brief notes on their relative abundance, breeding, 
times of migration, etc . . .Although mainly based on the observations 
of the author, he expresses his indebtedness to other sources of informa- 
tion....— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., p. 110, April, 1«80. 



6 4 

Hallock, Charles. — The Sportman's Gazetteer and General Guide. 
Fifth edition. By Charles Hallock. 

. . . .This book has become a recognized authority on all subjects of 
which it treats, having been already republished in England, France, 
and Germany... The ornithological portions were, we believe, pre- 
pared by Mr. George B. Grinnell.— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Orniih. Club, 
Vol. IV., p. 175, July, 1879. 

Harvie-Brown, John A.— Ornithological Journal of the Winter of 
1878-79, with Collected Notes regarding its Effects upon Animal 
Life, including Bemarks on the Migration of Birds in the Autumn 
of 1878, and the Spring of 1879. By Mr. John A. Harvie-Brown, 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, 1879, pp. 123- 
190. 

The winter of 1878-79 proved of unusual severity, and its effect 

upon animal life, and especially upon bird life attracted the attention 
of many careful observers, Mr. Harvie-Brown giving a list of more than 
a dozen published papers relating to the subject. These with his own 
observations and the collected notes of his many correspondents, form 
the basis of the paper above cited, .... nearly fifty pages being devoted 
to birds ...— J. A. A., Bull Nutt. Ornith. CM, Vol. V, pp. 233, 234, 
October, 1880. 

Harvie-Brown, John A. — The Capercaillie in Scotland. By J. A. 
Harvie-Brown, F.Z.S., Member of the British Ornithologists' 
Union, etc. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1879, 8vo., pp. i-xv, 
1-155, map and pll. 

. . . .Mr. Harvie-Brown treats the general subject of the Capercaillie 
in Scotland exhaustively. Beginning with such prehistoric evidence 
as is afforded by the bone-caves and Kitchen-middens. . . .He then pre- 
sents its history prior to extinction, followed by that of its restora- 
tion, and a detailed account of its increase and extension, illustrated 
by a map He later discusses the influences which govern its increase, 
its relation to the decrease of Black Game, its damage to forests and 
grain, etc. Of special interest also are his chapters on the derivation, 
significance, and proper orthography of the word Capercaillie. In 
short, every point of the subject is elaborated with the utmost thorough- 
ness, the work forming a model of its class. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. V, pp. 110, 111, April, 1880. 

Ingersoll, Ernest. — Nests and Eggs of American Birds. By Ernest 
Ingersoll. S. E. Cassino, Naturalists' Agency, Salem, Mass. (No 
date.) Large 8vo. Part I., pp. 1-24, pll. i, ii., March, 1879. 

. . .treats of ten species of Thrushes, and gives illustrations of 
their eggs. The text includes, not only descriptions of the nests and 
eggs of the species treated, but a full and pleasantly written account of 
their habits and breeding range ...We wish that we could speak in 
terms of equal commendation ot the chromo-lithographic plates, which 
are sadly defective in point of faithfulness to nature and in artistic ex- 
ecution.— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Ctub, Vol IV., p. 172, July, 1S79. 

Part II., pp. 25-48, pll. iii, iv., published August, 1879. 

. . . .we regret to perceive that the parts continue to appear with- 
out dating, or any indications whatever of the time of their publication; 



65 

and that textual references to the figures of the plates are still insuffi- 
ciently explicit . . .Mr. Ingersoll has his subject well in hand now; he 
confines himself strictly to the announced scope of the treatise, and 
holds his subject fairly abreast of the information we have acquired re- 
specting it— E. C, Bull. Null Orrdih. Club, Vol. V., pp. 38, 39, January, 
1880. 

Part III., pp. 49-72, pll. v., vi., published October, 1879. 



Krider, John. — Forty Years' Notes of a Field Ornithologist, by John 
Krider, Member of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences 
and author of Krider's Sporting Anecdotes, Philadelphia. Giving 
a description of all birds killed and prepared by him. Philadel- 
phia, 1879, 8vo., pp. i-xi., 1-84. 

Mr. Krider has "endeavored to describe and give the history 

of only those species of birds of the United States " which he has "col- 
lected and mounted," and whose nests have come under his personal 
observation . . But a casual glance through the pages of his work is 
enough to show that these opportunities have been sadly neglected . . . 
In short, it is only too evident that Mr. Krider's "Motes" are the off- 
spring of a fading memory rather than the carefully kept data of a sys- 
tematic worker. . . .Of the literary execution of the present work we can 
say nothing favorable. . . . — -W. B., Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 
49, 50, January, 1882. 

Kumlien, Ludwig. — Contributions to the Natural History of Arctic 
America, made in Connection with the Howgate Polar Expedition, 
1877-78. By Ludwig Kumlien, Naturalist of the Expedition. 
Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 15, 1879. Birds, pp. 69-105. 

... Of the 84 species noted, seven or eight relate to localities not 
Arctic, being species that visited the ship while off Newfoundland and 
neighboring points. Of the remainder only about twenty are land 
birds. The notes respecting many of the species are quite extended, 

and embrace many points of interest — J. A. A., Bud. Nutt. Ornith. 

Club, Vol. V., pp. 1U9, 11U, April, 1880. 

Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of the Birds of Dominica, from 
Collections made for the Smithsonian Institution by Frederick A. 
Ober, together with his Notes and Observations. By George N. 
Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 48-69. 

Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of the Birds of St. Vincent, from 
Collections made by Mr. Frederick A. Ober, under the Directions 
of the Smithsonian Institution, with his Notes thereon. By 
George N. Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 
185-198. 

Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of the Birds of Antigua and Bar- 
buda, from Collections made for the Smithsonian Institution, by 
Mr. Fred. A. Ober, with his Observations. By George N. Law- 
rence. Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. L, 1879, pp. 232-242. 



66 



Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of the Birds of Grenada, from a 
Collection made by Mr. Fred. A. Ober for tbe Smithsonian Insti- 
tution, including others seen by him, but not obtained. By 

George N. Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 

265-278. 

Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of the Birds collected in Mar- 
tinique by Mr. Fred. A. Ober for the Smithsonian Institution. 
By George N. Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, 
pp. 349-360. 

Lawrence, George N. — Catalogue of a Collection of Birds obtained 
in Guadeloupe for the Smithsonian Institution, by Mr. Fred. A. 
Ober. By George N. Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , Vol. I. , 
1879, pp. 449-462. 

Lawrence, George N. — A General Catalogue of the Birds noted from 

the Islands of the Lesser Antilles visited by Mr. Fred. A. Ober ; 

with a Table showing their Distribution, and those found in the 

United States. By George N. Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Vol. I., 1879, pp. 486-488. 

.... he has concluded his series of reports upon Mr. Ober's collec- 
tions, made at various points of the Antillean chain (see above). 
The birds reported from Antigua and Barbuda number respectively 

42 and 39 species, of which one from Antigua, is described as new. 

. . . .The list of birds from the island of Grenada numbers 54 species, 
. The birds reported from Martinique number 40 species . . The 
Guadeloupe species number 45. . . . — J. A. A., Bu'l. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
IV., pp. 228-230, October, 1879. 

Langdon, Frank W. — A Revised List of Cincinnati Birds. By Frank 
W. Langdon. Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. I., No. 4, 
January, 1879, pp. 167-193. 

. . . .The 256 identified species are of the following categories : Con- 
stant residents, 27 ; summer residents, 62 ; winter visitants, 10 ; regu- 
lar migrants, 82; irregular migrants, 37; casual visitants, 31 ; species 
that have disappeared within forty years, 7 . It is a very good piece 
of work, based in greatest part on original personal observations, very 
carefully elaborated, with attention not only to the material facts pre- 
sented, but to those niceties of workmanship which are too often neg- 
lected. . . . We are glad to see, especially among our younger writers on 
ornithology, evidence of increased attention' to details of execution. . . . 
an article may be made a contribution to letters as well as to science. 
It is even worth while to spell correctly. — E. C., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. IV., pp. 112, 113, April, 1879. 

Mearns, Edgar A. — A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, 
with Annotations. By Edgar A. Mearns. ' Bull. Essex Institute, 
Vol. X., pp. 166-179 (Introduction and Turdus migratorius to 
Parus atricapillus, inclusive), October-December, 1878. 



6; 

Mearns, Edgar A.— A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, 
with Annotations. By Edgar A. Mearns. Bull. Essex Institute. 
Vol. XI., pp. 43-52 [Sitia carolinensis to Dendroeca coeridescens) , 
January-March, 1879. 

Bull. Essex Institute, Vol. XL, pp. 154-168 {Dendroeca ccerulea 

to Myiodioctes mitrata), July-September, 1879. 
Bull. Essex. Institute, Vol. XL, pp. 189-204 (M. canadensis to 



Loxia curvirostra,), October-December, 1879. 

The first part . appeared early in 1879, and three later instalments 

carry the list through the genus Loxia while^he writer draws mainly 

from his own experience, he occasionally indulges in quotations from 
other authors, his notices of some of the species amounting to nearly 
complete biographies . . .Two important features of the paper are the 
dates of arrival and departure, .... The future instalments of Mr. 
Mearns's highly praiseworthy memoir may well be anticipated with 
interest. -J. A. A., Bull. Nail Omith. Club, Vol. V., p. 175, July, 1880. 

McChesney, Charles E. — Notes on the Birds of Fort Sisseton, 
Dakota Territory. By Chas. E. McChesney, Acting Assistant 
Surgeon, U. S. A. Bulletin U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. Ten:, 
Vol. V., pp. 71-104, February 28, 1879. 

.... form a valuable contribution to the ornithology of a little 
known portion of the Northwest, namely, the elevated plateau in Da- 
kota, known as the " Coteau des Prairies." . . The " Notes " are based 
on an experience of three years in the neighborhood of Fort Sisseton, 
and record 157 species, respecting most of which there are copious and 

interesting annotations Dr. McChesney's report was transmitted to 

Dr. Coues for publication, and appears to have had the benefit of his 
revision —J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Omith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 42, 43, Jan- 
uary, 1880. 

McChesney, Charles E. — Keport on the Mammals and Birds of the 
General Region of the Big Horn River and Mountains of Montana 
Territory. By Charles E. McChesney, U. S. A. Being Appendix 
SS 3 of the Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1879. 

proves an interesting addition to the faunal records of the 

West . . The list of 100 species of birds is the result of less than a 

month's investigation— from August 15 onward — The notes, though 

brief, are usually sufficient to indicate the occurrence of each species, 
and, as in the greater number of cases they result directly from the 
author's own observations, they carry with them the value of perfect 
authenticity . . . contains the name of not a single exclusively Eastern 
species ...— H. W. H. , Bull. Nutt. Omith. Club, Vol. V, pp. 107, 108, 
April, 1880. 

Merrill, James C. — Notes on the Ornithology of Southern Texas. 
Being a List of Birds observed in the Vicinity of Fort Brown, 
Texas, from February, 1876, to June, 1878. By James C. Merrill, 
Assistant Surgeon U. S. Army. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 
1879, pp. 118-173. 

Two hundred aud fifty-two species and varieties are given in 

all, and the character of their presence is in most cases satisfactorily de- 



68 

fined the nests, eggs, and breeding habits of Texan birds receive 

the larger share of attention, and much of the matter pertaining thereto 
is as valuable as it is new. . . .Numerous notes by Mr. Ridgway and Dr. 
Brewer occur throughout the paper and greatly enhance its value. ... In 
a few details of arrangement the paper is opeu to adverse criticism .... 
Altogether, however, the paper is a most excellent one, and its contents 
supply a fund of information the lack of which has been long felt. — 
VV. B., Bull. Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV., pp. 50-52, January, 1879. 

Rathbun, Frank R. — A Revised List of Birds of Central New York. 
Based on the Observations of Frank R. Rathbun, H. Gilbert 
Fowler, Frank S. Wright, Samuel F. Rathbun, in the Counties of 
Cayuga, Onondaga, Seneca, Wayne, and Yates. Collated and 
prepared for Publication by Frank R. Rathbun. Auburn, N. Y. : 
Daily Advertiser and Weekly Journal Book and Job Printing 
House, April 17, 1879. 

... .in the present "Revised List" are enumerated 236, showing an 
addition of 46 species. . . .In conclusion, it is but just to say that " The 
Ornithological Four" have in their "Revised List of Birds of Central 
New York," not only done themselves great credit, but have made a 
contribution to our science which must long remain authority concern- 
ing the region of which it treats. I consider it the best list of the birds 
of any part of this State that has appeared for many years. — C. H. M., 
Bull. Hutt. Ornith. Club,Yol. IV., pp. 172-175, July, 1879. 

Ridgway, Robert. — On a new Humming-bird (Atthis ellioti) from 
Guatemala. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , Vol. 
I., 1879, pp. 8-10. 

Ridgway, Robert. — A Review of the American Species of the Genus 
Scops, Savigny. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. I., 1879, pp. 85-117. Author's separates issued August 6, 
1878. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Description of Several New Species and Geo- 
graphical Races of Birds Contained in the Collection of the United 
States National Museum. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. 
r Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 247-252. Author's separates issued 
December 10, 1878. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Descriptions of Two New Species of Birds from 
Costa Rica, and Notes on other Rare Species from that Country. 
By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 
252-255. Author's separates issued December 10, 1878. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Descriptions of New Species and Races of Amer- 
ican Birds, including a Synopsis of the Genus Tyrannus, Cuvier. 
By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. I., 1879, pp. 
466-486. Author's separates issued April 25, 1879. 

These (five) papers all notably evince Mr. Ridgway's well-known 
acuteness of discrimination and critical care in description and diag- 
nosis.... — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 41, 42, Januaiv, 
1880. 



6 9 

Eoosevelt, Theodore. — Notes on some of the Birds of Oyster Bay, 
Long Island. By Theodore Roosevelt. 8vo., 1 p. March, 1879. 

This is a brochure of a single leaf, containing notes on seventeen 
species, observed at the above-named locality, by Mr. Theodore Roose- 
velt . ..— J. A. A., Ball. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. IV., p. 171, July, 1879. 

Sennett, George B. — Further Notes on the Ornithology of the Lower 

Rio Grande of Texas, from Observations made during the Spring 

of 1878. By George B. Sennett. Edited, with Annotations, by 

. Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. TJ. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. 

of Terr., Vol. V., No. 3, pp. 371-410, November 30, 1879. 

The report of Mr. Sennett's three months' work (in April, May, and 
June) in 1878, near Hidalgo, Texas, adds greatly to our knowledge of 
the life-histories of many species of which we previously knew but little. 
... .In addition to the notes on the habits of the birds observed, which 
iu the case of the less known species amounts in some instances to full 
biographies, the author presents us with extended tables of measure- 
ments, gives detailed descriptions of nest and eggs, and occasionally 
discusses points of relationship and nomenclature. .. .The "Notes" 
relate to 168 species, and altogether form one of the most valuable of 
the many recent contributions to local ornithology. — J. A. A., Bull. Null. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. V., p. Ill, April, 1880. 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler. — Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. 
Vol. IV. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, in 
the British Museum. Cichlomorphse : Part I., containing the 
families Campophagidse amd Muscicapid?e. By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe. London, 1879. 8vo., pp. xvi., 494, pll. xiv. 

Of the Campophagidce 148 species are described, of the Muscicapidce 
391. In style of treatment and general character this volume is similar 
to the earlier ones. . . .—J. A. A., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VI II., p. 
99, April, 1883. 

Vogt, M. C. — L'Archseopteryx macroura. — Un intermediaire entre 

les oiseaux et les reptiles. Par M. C. Vogt. La Revue Scienti- 

fique, 2e Series, 9e Annee, No. 11, 13 Sept. 1879, pp. 241-248, 
figg. 18-21. 

This specimen was found by M. Haeberlein in the same slates as 
the first. .. .From what Professor Vogt has discovered by a cursory 
examination there can be no doubt that much of great interest will be 
learned when this fossil is properly worked out from the matrix. — J. A. 
Jeffries, Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., pp. 107-109, April, 1881. 

1880. 

Bell, Robert. — List of Birds from the Region between Norway 
House and Forts Churchill and York. [By Robert Bell. ] Geolog- 
ical Survey of Canada. Report of Progress for 1878-79 (1880). 
IV., Appendix vi., pp. 676-706. 

an annotated list of 55 species, of much interest from the 

localities of observation —J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. II., p. 209, April, 

1885. 



7o 

Brayton, Alembert W.— A Catalogue of the Birds of Indiana, with 
Keys and Descriptions of the Groups of greatest Interest to the 
Horticulturist. By Alembert W. Brayton, B.S., M.D. Trans- 
actions of the Indiana Horticultural Society for 1879, pp. 89-166. 
Indianapolis, 1880. 

... is intended as a "practical hand-book" of the Birds of Indiana, 
and seems well calculated to meet this requirement. It is avowedly a 

compilation we note little in Dr. Brayton's paper that is new to 

ornithologists, but much that is given from good authorities. Short 
notes are added relative to the abundance, habits, and season of 
occurrence of the 306 species enumerated . The paper closes with an 
index to the names of the genera and higher groups, with their deriva- 
tions, a "glossary" of the specific names, and an index of English 
names. ...—J. A. A., Bull Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 174, 175, 
July, 1880. 

Brewer, T. M. — Notes on the Nests and Eggs of the Eight North 
American Species of Empidonaces. By T. M. Brewer. Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II., 1880, pp. 1-10. Author's separates 
issued April 29, 1879. 

. . . Following the measurements and descriptions of the nests and 
eggs of these eight species are several pages devoted to a consideration 
of the nests and eggs of E. flaviventris . . . . — J. A. A., Ball. Null. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. IV, p. 232, October, 1879. 

Cooper. J. G. — On the Migrations and Nesting Habits of West- Coast 
Birds. By J. G. Cooper, M.D. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II., 
1880, pp. 241-251. Author's separates issued Jan. 20, 1880. 

. . . .Dr. Cooper has tabulated a large amount of valuable information 
respecting the times of arrival, departure, and nesting of many of the 
common West-Coast land birds, based mainly on his own observations 
The number of species tabluated is 73. . . Dr. Cooper has here be- 
gun a good work in a praiseworthv way,. . . . — J. A. A., Bull. Null. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. V, p. 232, October, 1880. 

Cory, Charles B. — Birds of the Bahama Islands; containing many 
Birds new to the Islands, and a Number of undescribed Winter 
Plumages of North American Birds. By Charles B. Cory, Author 
of "A Naturalist in the Magdalen Islands," etc. Illustrated. 
Boston : Published by the Author, 8 Arlington Street, Boston. 
1880. 4to., pp. 350, with 8 colored plates. 

. . . .forms a valuable addition to our knowledge of the birds of these 
islands. Of the 149 species recorded, all but about 30 were met with by 
Mr. Cory, . . .In addition to the short descriptions of the species, the 
relative abundance and distribution of the species is noted, to which is 
frequently added a short account of their habits ...—J. A. A., Bull. 
Null Ornith. Club, Vol. V, p 107, April, 1880. 

Coues, Elliott. — Third Instalment of American Ornithological Bib- 
liography. By Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. 



7i 

and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. V., No. 4, 1879, pp. 521-1,066. 

Published Sept. 30, 1880. 

. . .is by far the largest of the three, .... and completes his " Bib- 
liography of Ornithology so far as America is concerned"... The 
present third instalment consists of a selection of titles belonging to the 
"systematic" department. . . .In reference to the character of the work, 
it is enough to say that it is fully up to the high standard of excellence 
of the previous instalments . . Its utility no working ornithologist can 
fail to highly appreciate, while it will form an enduring monument to 
the author's patience, industry, and thoroughness of research.— J. A. A., 
BuU. Nutt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. VI., pp. 44-46, January, 1881. 

Coues, Elliott. — Fourth Instalment of Ornithological Bibliography: 

being a list of Faunal Publications relating to British Birds. By 

Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. II. , 

1880, pp. 359-476. Published May 31, 1880. 

This "Fourth Instalment" is of the same character as the first two, 
and attempts to do for British Birds what those did for American Birds 
... As it is, being accurate as far as it goes, it will prove of great use- 
fulness, and is entitled to the cordial welcome it will doubtless receive. 
—J. A. A., Bull Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., p. 16, January, 1881. 

Fobbes, S. A. — Studies of the Food of Birds, Insects, and Fishes, 
made at the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History, at 
Normal, Illinois. By S. A. Forbes. Illinois State Laboratory of 
Natural History Bulletin, No. 3, November, 1880, 8?o., pp. 1-160. 

. . a further report of his studies, about seventy pages of which 
relate to birds. . . .The species of birds investigated are, as before, the 
Thrushes and the Bluebird .... — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
VI., p. 110, April, 1881. 

Fbeke, Pebcy Evans. —A Comparative Catalogue of Birds found in 
Europe and North America. By Percy Evans Freke. Dublin, 
1880. 8vo., pp. 44. From the Scientific Proceedings of the Royal 
Dublin Society. 

. . . .forms an important contribution to geographical ornithology, 
About 225 North American species are enumerated. .. .Of about 100 
species tbat may be considered as merely stragglers from one continent 
to the other, fully four-fifths are North American. . . . Despite a fewtypo- 
pographical errors. .. .the paper gives evidence of careful preparation 
and admirably fills a long-standing gap in ornithological literature. — 
J. A. A., Bull Nutt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. V., pp. 173, 174, July, 1880. 

Gentry, Thomas G. — Illustrations of Nests and Eggs of Birds of the 
United States, with Text, by Thos. G. Gentry. Philadelphia . 
J. A. Wagenseller, Publisher, No. 23 North Sixth Street. Copy- 
right by J. A. Wagenseller, 1881. 4to., parts 1-25, pp. 1-300. 54 
colored chromo -lithographs and chromo-portrait frontispiece of 
the author. 1880-82. 

the plates were executed by Mr. Edwin Sheppard, " subject to 

the suggestions and dictations of the author." The title is misleading 



72 

for instead of treating of all the species found in the United States it 
deals with but fifty . . . The typography and press work are good, but 
the plates fall far short of deserving the same praise. . . .of most of the 
plates. . . .the perspective is very bad. . . .and . . nearly all have the ap- 
pearance of cheap chromo-lithographs . . . . the work does not contain 
anything approaching a complete '• detailed account of the habits" of 

a single species . . .instead of becoming an authority Mr. Gentry's 

book on nests and eggs must inevitably find its level alongside such 
unreliable and worthless productions as Jasper's "Birds of North 
America". . . .— 0. H. M., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 246-248, 
October, 1882. 

Gregg, W. H. — Revised Catalogue of the Birds of Chemung County, 
New York. By W. H. Gregg, M.D., Elmira, N. Y.: O. H. 
Wheeler. 1880. 

... .we have a list of the birds of a locality to which little attention 
has been paid by ornithologists. The list of which this is a revision 
was issued ten years ago ... In all. 217 species are enumerated. ... A few 
lines of notes accompany each name ... — E. I., Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. V., p. 173, July, 1880. 

Harvie-Brown, J. A. — The Capercaillie in Scotland. By J. A. 
Harvie-Brown, F.R.S. Scottish Naturalist, July, 1880. 

. . . .Mr. Harvie-Brown published last year an exhaustive little work 
on the Capercaillie in Scotland . The present paper is a continuation 
of the Appendix of that work, giving an account of its extension in 1879, 
with a few additional references to early records of its presence in 
Scotland and Wales.— J. A. A., Bull Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., p. 46, 
January, 1881. 

Harvie-Brown, John A., and Cordeatjx, John. — Report on the Mi- 
gration of Birds in the Autumn of 1879. By John A. Harvie- 
Brown and John Cordeaux. Zoologist, May, 1880, pp. 161-204. 

. . . two well-known British ornithologists, have set themselves 
seriously at work in the matter of collecting exact data respecting the 
movements of birds during their migrations along the coasts of Great 
Britain Observations made at other points are incidentally incor- 
porated, including Herr G'atke's report from Heligoland. The work so 
earnestly begun. . . .should be a stimulus to concurrent action on the 
part of others, and nowhere are the conditions more favorable for sys- 
tematic work than in the United States. — J. A. A ., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. V., pp. 175-177, July, 1880. 

Harvie-Brown, John A. - Second Report on Scottish Ornithology — 
October 1, 1879, to September 30, 1880. Compiled by Mr. John 
A. Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E., etc. Proc. Nat. Hist. Soc. of Glas- 
gow, Vol. IV., Part II., April, 1880, pp. 291-326. 

The report gives a " Journal of the Winter of 1879-80 " . . the 

report gives observations on some 65 to 70 species. .. .The report 
abounds with especially suggestive observations in relation to little 
understood points of bird-life. . . .—J. A. A., Ball. Nail Ornith. Club. Vol. 
VT, p. 174, July, 1881. 



73 

Henshaw, H. W. — Ornithological Report upon Collections made in 
Portions of California, Nevada, and Oregon. By H. W. Henshaw. 

Annual Report of the U. S. Geogr. Surveys west of the Hundredth 

Meridian, for 1879. Appendix L of the Keport of the Chief of 

Engineers, February, 1880, pp. 282-835. 

Mr. H. W. Hensbaw's " Ornithological Report" for the field seasons 
of 1877 and 1878 is much more than a record of field observations for 
the seasons named, treating as it does most ably, though briefly, of the 
relationships of the members of several of the most puzzling groups of 
North American birds. In addition to having access to a large amount 
of material, much of which the author collected himself, he is able to 
bring to bear upon the questions at issue an intimate knowledge of the 
birds in life, and of the varying conditions of environment which sur- 
round the forms treated . . .In relation to the habits of the species men- 
tioned, the Report contains much that is new, . . . — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 105-107, April, 1880. 

Langdon, Fr.ink W. — Ornithological Field Notes, with five Additions 
to the Cincinnati Avian Fauna. By Frank W. Langdon. Journ. 
Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., July, 1880, pp. 121-127, 1 pi. 

These notes . . .virtually form a supplement to the same author's 
excellent "Revised List of Cincinnati Birds" published in 1879.... 
They relate to 40 species . . Among the points of special interest are 
the capture of two specimens (male and female) of Kirtland\s Warbler 

( Dendrceca kirtlandi) near Cleveland, May 4 and 12, 1880 The paper 

is preceded by Dr. Langdon's description of a new species of Helmintho- 
phaga....—3. A. A., Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 232, 233, Octo- 
ber, 1880. 

Marsh, Othniel Charles. — Odontornithes : a Monograph on the 
Extinct Toothed Birds of North America ; with thirty-four Plates 
and forty Wood-cuts. By Othniel Charles Marsh, Professor of 
Palaeontology in Yale College. 1 vol. 4to. Pp. i-x., 1-201, 
figg. 1-40, pll. i-xxxiv., each with 1 explanatory leaf. Forming 
Vol. VII. of the Reports of the Survey of the 40th Parallel. 

... .It is the first of a series of monographs designed to make known 
to science the extinct vertebrate life of North America, in the investiga- 
tion of which the author has passed the last ten years. It is unques- 
tionably the most magnificent contribution ever made to our knowledge 
of extinct birds . . .it is safe to say that no single memoir on fossil birds 
hitherto published can be compared with this in accuracy of detail, in 
beauty of illustration, and in value of results attained . /.The present 
volume is based on the remains of more than one hundred different 
individuals of the Odontornithes procured in the Cretaceous deposits of 
the "West during the last ten years . . .The work of Professor Marsh, as 
a whole, is an unmeasured advance upon all previously obtained 
knowledge of Cretaceous birds. The present volume is divided into 
two parts, the first treating of Hesperornis, the second of Ichthyornis and 
Apatornis, the entire skeleton of typical species being described with 
elaborate detail, and figured in the most perfect manner. .. .The Ap- 
pendix presents a synopsis of the nine genera and twenty epecies of 
American Cretaceous Birds, , . .— E. O, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., 
pp. 234-236, October, 1880. 



74 

Maynard, C. J. — The Birds of Florida, with the Water and Game 
Birds of Eastern North America. By C. J. Maynard. Illustrated. 
Published by C. J. Maynard & Co., Newtonville, Mass. 

the eighth part has just been received The text is by far the 

most satisfactory part of the work, and contains much of interest, 
though, perhaps, too much space is given to the habits of some species 
as observed in New England and elsewhere ...Certain changes are 
made in nomenclature and classification, notably raising the Kingfish- 
ers and Nighthawks to the rank of orders . . .Plates i., ii., iii., and xii. 
are passable, . . but the others are extremely poor, Plate vii., in 

Part vi., has figures of sixty-six eggs of sixty-four species — J. C. M., 

Bull. Nvtt. Omith. Club, Vol. IV., pp. 114, 115, April, 1879. 

Maynard, C. J. — The Birds of Eastern North America, with original 
Descriptions of all the Species which occur east of the Mississippi 
Biver between the Arctic Circle and the Gulf of Mexico, with full 
Notes upon their Habits. By C. J. Maynard. Containing thirty 
Plates drawn on Stone by the Author, C. J. Maynard & Co., 
Newtonville, Mass. 4to. (Thirteen Parts issued,) 

See above, same work under another title. 

. . . the peninsula (of Florida) has never received so much atten- 
tion at the hands of any one ornithologist, not excepting Audubon, as 
from Mr. Maynard. It is a matter for regret that the later plans of the 
work had not been its original one. Had such been the case, the author 
would have bern spared the necessity— if indeed it be a necessity— of 
repeating verbatim in the "BirJs of Eastern North America" many 
pages of descriptive matter and biography which appeared in the 
" Birds of Florida "... .In his classification Mr. Maynard has departed 
in many particulars from beaten paths, the basis for most of his 
changes being anatomical ...It is evident that the "Birds of Eastern 
North America'' was written more with a view of striking the popular 
taste than as a hand-book for the systematic ornithologist, . . In con- 
clusion, we may be permitted to express the feeling that the portions 
of the work now before us do not by any means represent the author's 
best efforts, and that in certain particulars, but especially as regards 
the plates, he is capable of placing the work on a far higher plane than 
can at present be accorded it. — H. W. H, Bull. Natl. Omith. Club, Vol. V., 
pp. 170-173, July, 1880. 

Mearns, Edgar A. — A List of the Birds of the Hudson Highlands, 
with annotations. By Edgar A. Mearns. Bull. Essex. Institute, 
Vol. XII., pp. 11-25 [JEgiothus linaria to Quiscalus purpureus), 
January-June, 1880. 

Bull. Essex. Institute, Vol. XII., pp. 109-128 {Corvusfrugivorus 



to Ortyxvirginiana), July-September, 1880. 

The high praise accorded the earlier instalments is equally 
merited by those now under notice, Mr. Mearns's "List of the Birds of 
the Hudson Highlands " ranking easily among the best of our long list 



75 

of contributions to local ornithology. ... In respect to nomenclature, the 
list is abreast with the latest well-grounded innovations. — J. A. A., Bull. 
Nutt. Orniih. Club, Vol. VI., p. 172, July, 1881. 

Minot, H. D.— The Diary of a Bird. By H. D. Minot. Boston: A. 

Williams & Co., 1880, 8vo., pp. 38, cuts. 

This entertaining and pleasantly written piece of bird-gossip is re- 
presented to be a translation of a " Diary ' : of a "Black-throated Green 
Warliler," and recounts, among other things the doings of "a grand 
mass meeting" of the birds to discuss '-The Destruction and Extermi- 
nation of Birds; how caused and how to be prevented," in which various 
members of the great bird convention relate their grievances. .. .The 
object of tbis attractive little brochure is to awaken popular interest in 
the general subject of the better protection of our birds, not only 
against the professional market gunner, but from their wholesale de- 
struction to meet the demands of the milliner. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. V., p. 112, April, 1880. 

Nehrling, H. — Ornithologische Beobachtungen aus Texas. I. Von 
H. Nehrling. Monatsschriftdes Deutschen Vereins zum Schutze 
der Vogelwelt, V Jahrgang, No. 7, Juli, 1880, pp. 122-139. 

These observations consist of a running commentary on the more 
common birds met with by Dr. Nehrling in March, April, and May, 
1879, in Lee and Fayette Counties, Texas. It is apparently the first of 
a series of papers on the birds of Texas. . . .with, incidentally, notes on 
the mammals, the plants, and the general character of the country. . . . 
—J. A. A., Ball. Nuti. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., p. 109, April, 1881. 

Obek, Frederick A. — Camps in the Caribbees: The Adventures of a 
Naturalist in the Lesser Antilles. By Frederick A. Ober. Boston: 
Lee and Shepard. New York: Charles T. Dillingham. 1880. 
8vo., pp. xviii, 366, with 34 illus. 

....The general text introduces a good deal of ornithological 
matter, which will be found of interest and value, and the appendix is 
entirely devoted to this subject. It gives Mr. Lawrence's summary list 
of the species, 128 in number and also reproduces the original de- 
scriptions of all the new species discovered by the energetic and suc- 
cessful explorer.--E. C, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., p. 179, July, 
1880. 

Reichenow, Anton, and Schalow, Hermann.— Compendium der neu 
beschriebenen Gattungen und Arten. Von Anton Reichenow und 
Hermann Schalow. Journal fiir Ornithologie, 1879, pp. 308-329, 
■ 420-437; 1880, pp. 97-102, 194-209, 314-324. 

The authors of the "Compendium" are placing ornithologists 
under a debt of gratitude in promply bringing together the diagnoses 
of the new genera and species of current ornithological literature. The 
last instalment apparently covers the first half of the year 1880, and the 

families from Caculidce upward through the Oscines — J. A. A., Bull. 

Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI, p. Ill, April, 1881. 

Reichenow, Anton, and Schalow, Hermann. — Zoologischer Jahres- 
bericht fiir 1879. Herausgegeben von der Zoologischen Station 



7 6 

zu Neapel. Kedigirt von Prof. J. Victor Cams (W. Englemann, 
Leipzig). 5. Aves. Bd. II., pp. 1108-1161. Referenten Dr. 
Aut. Reichenow und H. Schalow. 

. . . .The report appears to be very carefully and satisfactorily pre- 
pared, the annotations bein« sufficiently full and explicit. — J. A. A., 
Ball. NuU. Ornilh. Club, Vol. VI , p. Ill, April, 1881. 

Roberts, Thomas S. — The Convolutions of the Trachea in the Sand- 
hill and Whooping Cranes. By Thomas S. Roberts, M.D. Amer- 
ican Naturalist, Vol. XIV., February, 1880, pp. 108-114, figg. 

. . . Mr. Roberts has given an admirable presentation of the tracheal 
characters of our two larger species of Cranes, illustrated with cuts 
. . . .—J. A. A., Ball Xatt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. V., pp. 179, 180, July, 1880. 

Stearns, Winfrid A.— -List of Birds of Fishkill on Hudson, N. Y. 
By Winfrid A. Stearns. 8vo., pp. 16, without date or publisher's 
impress. Published July 10, 1880. 

This is a briefly annotated list of about 130 species, based on ten 
months' observations by the author in the vicinity of Fishkill .... the 
list, though very incomplete, is doubtless trustworthy .. .—J. A. A., 
Bull. Nalt. Ornilh. Club, Vol. V , p. 233, October, 1880. 

Steere, J. B. — A List of the Mammals and Birds of Ann Arbor and 
Vicinity. By Professor J. B. Steere. 8vo., pp. 8, 1880. 

This briefly annotated list of 111 species (of birds) is good as far as 
it goes "... .with the exception of a few, given upon the authority of 
labeled specimens ia the Museum, it is the result of about three years' 
collecting and observation in this vicinity."— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. VI., p. 46, January, 1881. 

1881. 

Bailey, H. B. — ''Forest and Stream" Bird Notes. An index and 
summary of all the ornithological matter contained in "Forest 
and Stream," Vols. I-XII. Compiled by H. B. Bailey. New 
York : F. & S. Pub. Co., 39 Park Row, 1881. 8vo., paper, pp. 
iv., 195. 

His work is more than a mere alphabetical list of names, fol- 
lowed by reference figures ; for it includes ... a summary of each article 
indexed . . .The Index also includes author's names, and among these 
the authorship of many pseudonyms and initial-signatures are for the 
first time properly exposed. The summation of the bird -matters seems 
to be quite complete and is certainly extensive. . . — E. C, Ball. Xuit. 
Ornith. Clab, Vol. VII., pp. 175, 176, July, 1882. 

Freke, Percy Evans.— On Birds observed in Amelia County, Virginia. 
By Percy E. Freke. Scientific Proc. Royal Dublin Society, Vol. 
III. Part III. [Read February 21, 1881. j 

. . . Mr. Freke has done good service in publishing the results of 
six years' observations in Amelia County, at a point about thirty 



77 

miles south of Richmond. His list, which is freely annotated, includes 
112 species . . .The author has evidently fallen into some confusion re- 
garding the spotted-breasted Thrushes of the genus Turdus. . . .will be 
read with interest, not only as an exponent of the ornithology of a pre- 
viously un worked section, but also as embodying a foreigner's pleas- 
antly told impressions of many of our familiar birds — W. B., Bull. 
Nutt. Omith. Club, Vol. VII., p. 48, January, 1882. 

Freke, Percy Evans. — North American Birds crossing the Atlantic. 

By Percy Evans Freke. 8vo., pp. 11. Scientific Proc. Royal 

Dublin Society, Vol. III., 1881. 

This paper is based on the author's "Comparative Catalogue of 
Birds found in Europe and North America". . . of which it may be re- 
garded as in part a summary, as also a most valuable lesume of the 
general subject of North American birds occurring in Europe. The 
number of species is 69; the total number of occurrences, 494... — 
J. A. A., Bull. Null. Ormlh. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 114, 115, April, 1883. 

Freke, Percy Evans. —On European Birds observed in North 
America. By Percy E. Freke. Zoologist, September, 1881. 

The total number of species included in this list is 56, of which 9 
are regarded as artificially introduced. . . .The list seems to have been 
most carefully worked out, and may deservedly stand as a companion 
piece to Mr. J. J. Dalpleish's "List of Occurrences of North American 
Birds in Europe," published in Volume V. of this Bulletin . . . .—J. A. A., 
Bull. Null. OrnHh. Club, Vol. VIII, p. 115, April, 1883. 

Garrod, Alfred Henry, and Forbes, W. A. — In Memoriam. The 
Collected Scientific Papers of the late Alfred Henry Garrod, M.D., 
F.R.S., etc. Edited, with a biographical memoir of the author, 
by W. A. Forbes, B.A., etc. London : R. H. Porter, 6 Tenter- 
den Street. 1881. 1 vol., 8vo., pp. xxvi., 538, pll. 33, frontis- 
piece (portrait) and many cuts in text. 

. ,..Of the anatomical papers in the present volume, some 73 in 
number, more than half relate to birds, describing conditions of the 
osseous, muscular, respiratory, vascular, digestive, and nervous systems 
. . . .and discussing in candid and scientific spirit . . . the bearing of the 
anatomical points upon classification. Of the accuracy and high rate of 
reliability of these papers there can be no question among them is 
an entirely new classification of birds, based primarilv upon the am- 
biens [muscle] .... —E. O, Bull. Nutt. Omith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 43, 
44, January, 1882. 

Godman, F. Ducane, and Salvin, Osbert. — Biologia Centrali- 
Americana ; or, Contributions to the knowledge of the Fauna 
and Flora of Mexico and Central America. Edited by F. Ducane 
Godman and Osbert Salvin. Zoology, Parts I-X. Aves, by O. 
Salvin and F. D. Godman, pp. 1-152, pll. i-x. 4to. London : 
Published for the Editors by R. H. Porter, 10 Chandos Street, 



78 

Cavendish Square, W., and Dulau & Co., Soho Square. Septem- 
ber, 1879-April, 1881. 

... .As the title indicates, the work treats of the fauna and flora of 
Mexico and Central America. .. .The ornithological portion is by the 
editors . Of each species a short Latin description is given, and all 
the more important references to the literature are duly cited. . .The 
ten plates thus far published contain figures of 25 hitherto unfigured 
species . . The importance and usefulness of the present work cannot 
be easily overestimated The execution of the "Biologia" as re- 
gards typography and illustrations. . . is excellent. . . .■ — J. A. A. * Bull. 
Nutt Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp 174-176, July, 1881. 

Harvie-Brown, John A., Cobdeaux, John, and Kermode, Philip.— 

Report on the Migration of Birds in the Spring and Autumn 

of 1880. By John A. Harvie-Brown, F.L.S., F.Z.S., John Cor- 

deaux, and Philip Kermode. London : W. S. Sonnenschein 

& Allen, 15, Paternoster Square. 1881. 8vo., pp. 120. 

.... we now. . . . call attention to several late reports and papers on 
the same subject [migration of birds]. The report for 1880 forms a 
pamphlet of 120 octavo pages ...printed schedules and letters of in- 
struction were sent to 39 stations ..on the east coast of Scotland . . 
to 44 on the east coast of England ; to 38 on the west coast of Scotland 

and to 39 on the west coast of England, or to 160 stations in all. 

from 106 of which reports were received .... The report for 1881 is of 

similar scope and character — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 

VIII., pp. 228, 229, October, 1883. 

Harvie-Brown, John A. — Paper on the Migration of Birds upon our 
British Coasts, read before the Stirling Field Club, on Tuesday, 
13th December, 1881, by J. A. Harvie-Brown, F.R.S.E., F.Z.S., 
etc. Stirling : Printed at the Journal and Advertiser Office. 1881. 
12mo., pp. 12. 

Hatch, P. L. — A List of the Birds of Minnesota. By Dr. P. L. 
Hatch. Ninth Ann. Rep. GeoL and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., for 
1880. 1881, pp. 361-372. 

.. a list of 281 species, briefly annotated ...— E. C, Ball. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., p. 47, January, 1882. 

Holterhoff, G., Jr. — A Collector's Notes on the Breeding of a few 
Western Birds. By E. [i, e., G.J Holterhoff, Jr. American 
Naturalist, March, 1881, pp. 208-219. 

... .The observations here recorded were made in Southern California 

in the spring of 1880 and have reference to some 40 species — 

J. A. A., BulL Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., p. 173, July, 1881. 

Hoffman, W. J. — Annotated List of the Birds of Nevada. By W. J. 
Hoffman, M.D., Bull. V. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., 
Vol. VI., No. 2, Sept. 19, 1881, pp. 203-256, and Map. 

The list is based partly upon the writer's personal experience 

in the field during the season of 1871, but mainly upon. . . . previously 



79 

published reports . . .It hence partakes largely of the nature of a com- 
pilation, although the author's original notes are by no means few or 
uninteresting . . .The paper. . . . closes with a bibliographical list of the 
chief publications relating to the region considered, and an excellent 

map of the State Dr. Hoffman's paper . . should find a place in the 

hands of every working ornithologist. — W. B., Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VII., p. 51, January, 1882. 

Krukenberg, C. Fr. W. — Die Farbstoffe der Federn, in dessen 
vergleichend-physiologische Studien. Von Dr. C. Fr. W. Kruken- 
berg. I Reihe, V Abth., 1881, pp. 72-92. Plate iii. 

This paper, the first of a series, seems to be the product of more 
careful work than previous publications on the subject [coloring matter 

of feathers] — J. Amory Jeffries, Bull. Null. Ornilh. Club, Vol. VII., 

pp. 114, 115, April, 1882. 

Langdon, F. W. — Field Notes on Louisiana Birds. By Dr. F. W. 

Langdon. Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist.. July, 1881, pp. 145- 

155. 

.... "a record of. . . .the month ending April 17, 1881 at 'Cinclaire' 

in the parish of West Baton Rouge" the paper will be welcomed 

as an acceptable contribution to our knowledge of a region which has 
been nearly a terra incognii'1 to ornithologists since the days of Audubon. 
— W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 40, 49, January, 1882. 

Langdon, F. W.— Zoological Miscellany, edited by Dr. F. W. 
Langdon. Jour. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. IV., Dec, 1881, 
pp. 336-346. 

..-.." facts .... respecting the structure, the life history, or the 
geographical distribution of the various species of animals constituting 
the Ohio Valley Fauna." The part before us includes sections on 
mammalogy, ornithology, herpetology, ichthyology, conchology, and 
entomology .... the editor contributes a short but useful paper on the 
" Introduction of European Birds" ...— W. B., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VII., pp. 50, 51, January, 1*82. 

Lawrence, George N. — Description of a New Subspecies of Loxigilla 
from the Island of St. Christopher, West Indies. By George N. 
Lawrence. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 204, 205. 

. . . .Mr. Lawrence describes a new subspecies of Loxigilla (L. por- 
toricensis var grandis) . . . . ■ — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith Club, Vol. VIII., 
p. 114, April, 1883. 

Macoun, John. — Extract from a Report of Exploration by Professor 

John Macoun, M.A., F.L.S. Report of Department of Interior 

(Ottawa, 1881 ?) 8vo., pp. 48. 

...chiefly (pp. 8-40) of Professor Macoun's own report of his 
explorations during the summer of 18b0. . . .north of our territories of 
Dakota and Montana. . . .the present paper possesses decided value, as 



8o 



the observer appeared to have paid special attention to the distribution 
of birds in the wide area traversed. After a resume of the leading 
ornithological features of the region is presented an annotated list of 
the species secured, 109 in number. . . . We feel at liberty to call atten- 
tion to some manuscript alterations made by the author in our copy. 
For Coturnicidus passerinus read Zonotrichia albicollis • for Myiarchus 
criniius, read Tyrannus veiticalis ; for Archibuteo lagopvs. read A. jerru- 
gineus . . for Tringa canulus read T. bairdi; for Podi'ymbus pcdiceps, read 
Podiceps calif ornicus. . . — EC, Bali. Suit. Ornifh. Club, Vol. VII , p. 113, 
April, 1882. 

Rathbun, Frank R.— Bright Feathers or some North American 
Birds of Beauty. By Frank R. Rathbun; Illustrated with Draw- 
ings from Nature, and carefully colored by hand. Auburn, N. Y. 
Published by the Author, 1880. 4to. Part I., pp. i-viii, 9-24, 
colored Plate and colored Yignette. 

is an attractive piece of book making; the drawing of the plate 

is passable, and the coloring is not more highly exaggerated than in 
many plates by authors of reputation for accuracy. The text more 
clearly betrays the haud of inexperience . . The author is evidently 
not wanting in knowledge of his subject; the faults of style he will 
doubtless be able to overcome as the work proceeds. . . —J. A. A., Bull. 
Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol V., p. 234, October, 1880. 

Part II. 

Part II. of this work, .... is devoted to the Rose-breasted Grosbeak 
(Goniaphea ludoviciana.) The colored plate illustrates the adult male 
and female, but the sixteen quarto pages (pp. 25-40) of text leave the 
history of the species still unfinished. In noticing Part I .... we were 
compelled to speak unfavorably of the literary execution of the work, 
and regret that the present issue will not permit of a more favorable 
notice . . .—J. A. A., Bill. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., pp. 172, 173, Julv, 
1881. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Revisions of Nomenclature of certain North 
American Birds. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
Vol. III., 1881, pp. 1-16. Author's separates issued March 27, 
1880. 

....Mr. Ridgway takes as a starting-point Dr. Coues's "Check 
List" published in 1873, and formally notices many of the changes from 
the nomenclature there adopted ... and proposes many additional ones, 
the whole number here receiving attention amounting to upward of 
eighty....— J. A. A., Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V., pp. 177, 198, July, 
1880. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Nomenclature of North American Birds chiefly 
contained in the United States National Museum. By Robert 
Ridgway. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 21. Published under the 
direction of the Smithsonian Institution. Washington : Gov- 
ernment Printing Office, 1881. 8vo., pp. 1-94. 

its publication marks an epoch in North American ornitho- 
logy The actual number of names in the present catalogue (1881 ), 



"924" the system is trinominal The work evinces the exer- 
cise of the utmost care in its preparation. — J. A. A., Bull. Nuti. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. VI., pp. 164-171, July, 1881. 

Ridgway, Robert. — A Revised Catalogue of the Birds ascertained to 
occur in Illinois. By Robert Ridgway. Illinois Stale Laboratory 
of Natural History. Bulletin No. 4. Blooruington, 111., May, 1881. 
8vo., pp. 161-208. 

based primarily upon the same author's "Catalogue of the 

Birds ascertained to occur in Illinois," published in 1874, but adds 

M species. . . .341 now enumerated, besides 11 additional varieties. . . . 
The species known to breed (213 in number) are distinguished by an 
asterisk. . . .The nomenclature is that of Mr. Kidgway's recently pub- 
lished " Catalogue of North American Birds " . . Illinois takes the lead 
among the States in respect to number of species of birds . . . — J. A. A., 
Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI , pp. 171, 172, July, 1881. 

Roberts, Thomas S. — The Winter Birds of Minnesota. By Thomas 

S. Roberts. Ni?ith Ann. Rep. Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. Minn., 

for 1880, 1881, pp. 373-383. 

. . . .treats. . . .of 52 species known to occur in the State in winter 
. . . .the information given conveying a good idea of the bird-fauna at 

that season of the year — E. C, Bull. Nutl. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., 

p. 47, January, 1882. 

Seebohm, Henry. — Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. 
Vol. V. Catalogue of the Pass'eriformes, or Perching Birds in the 
British Museum. Cichlomorplise : Part II., containing the family 
Turdidre (Warblers and Thrushes). By Henry Seebohm. Lon- 
don, 1881. 8vo., pp. xvi, 426, pll. xviii. 

. . . .this group is defined in Mr. Sharpe's scheme of classification, 
with limits rather different from those usually assigned to it ...we 
admire most heartily his [Mr. Seebohm 's] thorough treatment of the 
subject in hand and the philosophic spirit in which he has approached 
his task....— J. A. A., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 99-104, 
April, 1883. 

Shabpe, R. Bowdler. — Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. 

Vol. VI. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds, in 

the collection of the British Museum. Cichlomorphse : Part III., 

containing the first portion of the family Timeliidse (Babbling 

Thrushes). By R. Bowdler Sharpe. London, 1881. 8vo., pp. 

xiii, 420, pll. xviii. 

... .In respect to the classification followed in these volumes, Mr. 
Sharpe states that it is based on that of the late Professor Sundevall. 
.... —J. A. A., Bull. Nutl. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII, pp. 104, 1C5, April, 1883. 

Shueeldt, R. W. — Osteology of Speotyto cunicularia var. hypogsea. 
By R. W. Shufeldt, [First Lieutenant and] Assistant Surgeon, 



82 



U. S. Army. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. 

VI., No. 1, February 11, 1881, pp. 87-117, pll. i-iii. 

SHUFEiiDT, R. W. — Osteology of Eremopbila alpestris. By R. W. 

Shufeldt, [First Lieutenant and] Assistant Surgeon, U. S. Army. 

Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Surv. of Terr., Vol. VI., No. 1, 

February 11, 1881, pp. 119-147, pi. iv. 

As memoirs of descriptive osteology these papers merit high praise, 
and may well be welcomed as valuable contributions in a little worked 
field.— J. A. A., Ball. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., pp. 109, 110, April, 

1881. 

Shufeldt, R. W.— Osteology of the North American Tetraonidse. 
By Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 
Surv. of Terr., Vol. VI., No. 2, pp. 309-350, pll. v-xiii. 

... .so far as we know, the most complete of any [paper] on American 
birds of one group ... — J. Amory Jeffries, Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VII, pp. 44, 45, January, 1882. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — Osteology of Lanius ludovicianus excubitoroides 

By Dr. R. W. Shufeldt, U. S. A. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. 

Surv. of Terr., Vol. VI., No. 2, pp. 351-359, pi. xiv. 

The description ... .is short, concise, and may be summed up in 
the statement that the skeleton of this bird is strictly Passerine. — J. 
Amory Jeffries, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., p. 45, January, 1882. 

Shufeldt, R. W. — The Claw on the Index Digit of the Cathartidse. 
By R. W. Shufeldt, M.D. American Naturalist, November, 1881, 
pp. 906-908. 

this paper contains such important errors, both in regard to 

structure of birds and the literature of the subject that some rectifica- 
tion seems necessary. Dr. Shufeldt describes the claw at the end 
of the first finger of Catharlsta alrala as a new discovery, considering 
that claws outside of the Ostrich groups have not hitherto been de- 
scribed, and also states that it is a point of distinction between the Old 
and New World Vultures. ... the claw on the first finger is anything 
but an unknown object . . .That the claw is absent iu the Old World 
Vultures is also an error if we may trust the high authority of Nitzsch . . . 
as a rule the claws are muGh more conspicuous in voung than in adult 
birds.— J. Amory Jeffries, Bull. Mitt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 46, 47, 
January, 1882. 

Stearns, Winfeid A., and Coues, Elliott. — New England Bird Life, 

being a Manual of New England Ornithology, revised and edited 

from the manuscript of Winfrid A. Stearns, Member of the Nuttall 

Ornithological Club, etc., by Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., Member 

of the Academy, etc. Part I.-Oscines. Boston: Lee and Shepard, 

Publishers. New York: Charles T. Dillingham. 1881. 8vo., pp. 

324, numerous woodcuts. 

we at length have a work on New England Birds of which no 

ornithologist need feel ashamed The main body of the work com- 



83 

prises two hundred and seventy pages and treats the whole order 

Oscines. . . .The claims of each species to be considered a member of the 
New England Fauna are critically examined. . . .the design being to give 
a thoroughly reliable list of the Birds, with an account of the leading 
facts in the life-history of each species. The plan of the work includes 
brief descriptions of the birds themselves, enabling one to identify any 
specimen .To say that the book is exceedingly well-written would be 
doing it scant justice. Dr. Coues's brilliant talents in this respect are 
already well known, but we have perhaps never had so striking a proof 

of them as is afforded by the present volume Mr. Stearns may be 

congratulated on his wise choice of an editor.- W. B., Bull. Null Ornith. 
Clnb, Vol. VI., pp. 236-240, October, 1881. 

1882. 

Bicknell, Eugene Pintard. — A Review of the Summer Birds of a 
part of The Catskill Mountains, with prefatory remarks on the 
faunal and floral features of the region. By Eugene Pintard 
Bicknell. Transactions of the Linncean Society of New York. 
Vol. L, pp. 113-168, December, 1882. 

is based on observations made " during brief explorations of 

the more southern Catskills in three successive years, from June 6-15, 
1880; 12-18, 1881; 24-27, 18*2. . . . Twenty-five of the total fifty-six 

pages are devoted to prefatory remarks Mr. Bicknell evidently has 

a penchant for the analysis and comparison of faunas, and his remarks 
iu the present connection are decidedly interesting . . The list proper 
includes eighty-nine species and varieties. It is very fully annotated. 
....— W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 53, January, 1883. 

Blasius, Rudolph. — V. Jahresbericht (1880) des Ausschlusses fiir 
Beobachtungs-stationen der Vogel Deutschlands. Journal fiir 
Ornithologie, XXX Jahrg., Heft I, Jan., 1882, pp. 18-110. 

The fifth annual report of the German observers for the year 1880 
.... is presented in the form of au annotated list of 280 species, com- 
piled from the reports of the various observers The notes relate to 

nesting of many of the species, as well as to their migrations There 

are . . . reports from no less than 36 stations, and the resume of the obser- 
vations taken forms a paper of great interest and value. — J. A. A., Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 229, 230, October, 1883. 

Brown, Nathan Clifford. — A Catalogue of the Birds known to occur 
in the vicinity of Portland, Me. [etc. ] By Nathan Clifford 
Brown. Proc. Portland Soc. Nat. Hist., Dec. 4, 1882. 

This excellent local list is stated to be prepared from notes sys- 
tematically taken during the past twelve years, and to contain the 
names of scarcely any species which have not passed under the author's 
personal observation. Its reliability is therefore evident. The number 
of species given is 250. . . .The annotations, though not extensive, are to 
the point and seem judiciously adapted to convey a fair idea of the part 
each species plays in the composition of the Avifauna. .. — E. C, 
Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 112, 113, April, 1883. 



8 4 

Chambeklatn, Montague. — A Catalogue of the Birds of New Bruns- 
wick, with brief notes relating to their migrations, breeding, rela- 
tive abundance, etc. By Montague Chamberlain. Bulletin of the 
Natural History Society of New Brunswick. No. 1, pp. 23-68. 
Published by the Society. Saint John, N. B., 1882. 

. .This paper comprises some forty-three pages, which are di- 
vided into two sections ; "Section A" being restricted to species which 
occur in St. John and King's Counties; while " Section B" embraces 
" species which have not been observed in Saint John or King's Counties 
but which occur in other parts of the Province." The former division 
treats of a region to which the author has evidently paid special atten- 
tion, and the text, being mainly based on his personal observations or 
investigations, includes many interesting and several important notes 
and records . . . Section B is almost wholly compiled . . . Mr. Chamber- 
lain's work, so far as it has gone, has evidently been done carefully 

and well in many respects it lacks the completeness that is desirable 

in a paper of its kind — W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 

176, 177, July, 1882. 

Collins, J. W. — Notes on the Habits and Methods of Capture of vari- 
ous species of Sea Birds that occur on the Fishing Banks off the 
Eastern Coast of North America, and which are used as bait lor 
catching Codfish by New England Fishermen. By Capt. J. W. 
Collins. Ann. Rep. of the Gomm. of Fish and Fisheries for 1882, 
pp. 311-338, pi. i. 

.... particularly welcome, not only for the information they convey 
on these points [sea-birds captured and used as bait], but also respect- 
ing the relative abundance of the sea-birds met with on the fishing 
banks, their habits, seasons of occurrence, and migrations. . . . The spe- 
cies captured in largest numbers is the Greater Shearwater (Pufilnus 
major).... -J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., pp. 380, 381, October, 1884. 

Coues, Elliott. — The Coues Check List of North American Birds, 
revised to date and entirely rewritten under direction of the 
author, with a Dictionary of the Etymology, Orthography and 
Orthoepy of the scientific names, the Concordance of previous 
lists, and a Catalogue of his Ornithological Publications. Boston : 
Estes and Lauriat. 1882. 1 vol. Royal 8vo., pp. 165. 

.... it is much more than a catalogue of North American birds 

the erudition and scholarly research involved in this undertaking must 
be apparent to the most casual reader. The practical value of the work 
is equally plain The total number of species and varieties enumer- 
ated is eight hundred and eighty-eight ... . — W. B.. Bull. Nutt. Ornith. 
Club, Vol. VII., pp. Ill, 112, April, 1882. 

The purpose of the present 'Check List' is, First to present 

a complete list of the birds now known to inhabit North America, north 

of Mexico and including Greenland . . . Secondly to take each word 

explain its derivation, significance, and application, spell it correctly 
and indicate its pronunciation. . . .Concerning the whole work we can 
say nothing stronger than that it is in every way worthy of its brilliant 
and distinguished author, who has evidently made it one of his most 



85 

mature and carefully studied efforts .... it fills a field of usefulness 

peculiarly its own — W. B., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 

242-246, October, 1882. 

Dubois, Alphonse. — De la Variability des Oiseaux du genre Loxia. 
Par M. Alph. Dubois, Conservateur au Musee royal d'histoire 
naturelle de Belgique. Extrait du Bulletin du Musee royal d'his- 
toire naturelle de Belgique. Tome I. Oct., 1882. 

. . . .These varieties, races, or subspecies, he holds to be the result 
of the action of climate, food, or other "fortuitous causes" upon size 
and coloration, and states that his morphological studies have demon- 
strated that species are variable in proportion to the extent of their area 

of dispersion —J. A. A., Bull. Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII. , p. 170, 

. July, 1883. 

Dutches, William. — Is Not the Fish Crow (Oorvus ossifragus Wil- 
son) a winter as well as a summer resident at the northern limit 
of its range ? By William Dutcher. Transactions of the Linncean 
Society of New York. Vol. I., pp. 107-111, December, 1882. 

... .is short, occupying less than three pages. . . .The evidence cited 
is apparently conclusive. . . . — VV. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII. , 
p. 54, January, 1883. 

Forbes, S. A. — The Regulative Action of Birds upon Insect Oscilla- 
tions. By S. A. Forbes. Bull. No. 6, Illinois State Laboratory of 
Nat. Hist, Dec, 1882, pp. 1-^1 . 

Our best authority upon the insect food of birds has continued his 
observations upon the subject ...The paper is very carefully worked 
up to show how effectively birds may restore a disturbed balance of life 
....We trust Professor Forbes will not desist from his good work. 
Such exact data as these are just what is required for the solution of the 
general problem which is offered by the relations of the bird-world to 
agriculture.— E. C, Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 105-107, 
April, 1883. 

Gentry, Thomas G. — Nests and Eggs of the Birds of the United 
States [Pennsylvania] . 4to. 50 colored Plates. 1882. 

Part I. of this new enterprise. .. .has reached us .. The text of 
this number is meritorious, and the plates are not. . . . — E. C, Bull. Nutt. 
Ornith. Club, Vol. V., p. 179, July, 1880. 

Harvie-Brown, John A., Cordeaux, John, and Newton, Alfred. — 
Report of the Committee, consisting of Mr. J. A. Harvie-Brown, 
Mr. John Cordeaux, and Professor Newton, appointed at Swansea 
" for the purpose of obtaining (with the consent of the Master and 
Brethren of the Trinity House, and of the Commissioners of 
Northern Lights) observations on the Migration of Birds at 
Lighthouses and Lightships, and of reporting on the same, at 
York, in 1881." London: Printed by Spottiswoode and Co., 
New-Street Square and Parliament Street. [1882.] 8vo., pp. 8. 



86 



Harvie-Bbown, John A., [etc. J — Report on the Migration of Birds in 
the Autumn of 1881. By John A. Harvie-Brown, Mr. John Cor- 
deaux, Mr. Philip M. C. Kermode, Mr. R M. Barrington, and 
Mr. A. G. More. London : Printed by West, Newman & Co., 
54, Hatton Garden. 1882, 8vo., pp. 101. 

Hoffman, W. J.— List of Birds observed at Ft. Berthold, D. T., 
during the month of September, 1881. By W. J. Hoffman, M.D. 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Feb. 1, 1882. 

. . . .the result of some observations made during September, 1881 
. . . .Fifty-seven species were identified . The annotations are usually 
very brief . . . A novel feature of the list is that of the Indian names 
which are given for many of the common birds . . — W. B., Bull. Xutt: 
Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 54, 55, January, 1883. 

Ingersoll, Ernest. — Birds'-Nesting : A Handbook of Instruction in 
Gathering and Preserving the Nests and Eggs of Birds for the 
Purposes of Study. By Ernest Ingersoll. Salem, 1882. 

This little book is intended for a guide to the beginner. . . The 
book may be summarized as a readable account of the various modes of 
collecting birds' eggs and nests . . A long account of the various para- 
phernalia for blowing and marking eggs is given ... A list of unknown 
nests. contains faults of admission, though these are not numerous 
... .—J. A. J., Bull. Nuti. Orniih. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 179, 180, July, lfc82. 

Knowlton, F. H.— A Revised List of the Birds of Brandon, Vt., and 
vicinity. By F. H. Knowlton. The Brandon Union (newspaper], 
February 10, 1882. 

This is a briefly annotated list of 149 species. . . .The chief interest 
of the list lies in its bearing upon the extent of the Alleghanian fauna 

in the Champlain valley Mr. Knowlton has recorded Wilson's Plover 

....instead of Wilson's Snipe.— C. F. B., Bull. Xutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
VII., pp. 113, 114, April, 1882. 

Krukenberg, C. Fr. W. — Die Farbstoffe der Federn in Dessen verg- 
leichend-physiologische Studien. Von Dr. C. Fr. W. Kruken- 
berg. II Reihe, I Abth., 1882, pp. 151, 171, 

. . . .the author describes the yellow pigment, Coriosulfurin, found 
in the tarsus of the birds of prey . . . — J. A. J., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VII., pp. 177, 178, July, 1882. 

Lawrence, George N.- — Description of a New Species of Swift of the 
genus ChaBtura, with Notes on two other little-known Birds. By 
George N. Lawrence. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. II., No. 
8, pp. 247, 248. March, 1882. 

Lawrence, George N. — Descriptions of New Species of Birds from 
Yucatan, of the Families Columbidse and Formicariidse. By 
George N. Lawrence. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. II., No. 9, 
pp. 287, 288. May, 1882. 



87 

La whence, Geokge N. — Description of a New Species of Bird of the 
Family Cypseliche. By George N. Lawrence. Ann. New York 
Acad. Sci., Vol. II. , No. 11, pp. 355, 356. December, 1882. 

Linden, Charles. — On the Domestication of some of our Wild Ducks. 

By Charles Linden. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sciences, Vol. IV. , 

No. 2, pp. 33-39, 1882. 

After brief reference to the various species of wild Ducks that 
formerly frequented Lake Chautauqua, Western New York, which have 
now mostly become rare, Mr. Linden summarizes the results of syste- 
matic efforts continued for nearly thirty years by Mr. George Irwin at 
the above-named locality to domesticate several of the species. The.se 
were the Mallard, Dusky Duck, Wood Duck, Blue-winged Teal, and 
American Swan. All of these bred freely and reared their young in con- 
finement. . . .— J. A. A.. Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 233, Octo- 
ber, 1883. 

Merriam, Clinton Hart. — The Vertebrates of the Adirondack Region, 
Northeastern New York. By Clinton Hart Merriam, M.D. [First 
Instalment.] Transactions of the Linncean Society of New York. 
Vol. I. , pp. 5-106, December, 1882. 

The present instalment of Dr. Merriam's paper does not extend 

to birds its introductory portion has a direct bearing on everything 

to follow As a contribution to our knowledge of the habits, food, 

times and manner of breeding, etc., of many of the northern mammals 
this paper is an important one . . . — W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. 
VIII., pp. 50-53, January, I883 v 

Morden, J. A., and Saunders, W. E. — List of the Birds of Western 
Ontario. By J. A. Morden and W. E. Saunders. Canadian 
Sportsman and Naturalist, Vol. II., Nos. 11 and 12, pp. 183-187, 
192-194. November and December, 1882. 

.... a briefly annotated list . . . numbering 236 species ... a valuable 

addition to our knowledge of the distribution of Canadian birds — 

J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., p. 85, January, 1884. 

Reichenow, Anton. — Conspectus Psittacorum. Systematische Ueber- 
sichte aller bekannten Papageienarten. Von Dr. Ant. Reichenow. 
8vo., Berlin, 1882, pp. 234. (Sonderabdruck aus Journal fur 
Ornithologie, XXIX Jahrg., 1881, pp. 1-49, 113-177, 225-289, 
337-398.) 

The order Psitiaci is divided into 9 families and 45 genera (includ- 
ing 27 subgenera); 444 species and subspecies are recognized.... 
English and French, as well as German, vernacular names are given. . . 
It originally appeared in parts in the "Journal fur Ornithologie " for 
1881. -J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VEIL, p. 169, July, 1883. 

Reichenow, Anton. — Die Vogel der Zoologischen Garten. Leitfaden 
zum Studium der Ornithologie mit besonderer Beriicksichtigung 
der in Gefangenschaft gehaltenen Vogel. Ein Handbuch fur 



Vogelwirthe. Von Dr. Ant. Reichenow. In zwei Theilen. 
[Theil I.] Leipzig, 1882, 8vo., pp. xxx., 278. 

Dr. Reichenow's handbook for bird-keepers is designed to furnish 
. . . .the means of readily identifying such species as are kept in zoolog- 
ical gardens, park?, and aviaries, and seems to be well adapted to that 
end. The first part . . treats of 695 species . . Concise diagnoses are 
given . . and English and French, as well as German, vernacular names 
are supplied for the species. As a popular hand book for German 

readers the work seems worthy of generous commendation. — J. A. A., 

Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII, p. 232, October, 1883. 

Reichenow, Anton. — Die Entenvogel der Zoologischen Garten. Von 
Ant. Reichenow. Ornithologisches Centralblatt, VII Jahrg., 
Nos. 1-6. Jan.-May, 1882, pp. 1-5, 17-23, 35-40. 

enumerates the species of Lamellirostres giving brief diag- 
noses of the species kept in zoological gardens — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. 

Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 232, October, 1883. 

Reichenow, Anton, and Schalow, Hekman. — Compendium der neu 
beschriebenen Gattungen und Arten. Von Anton Reichenow und 
Herman Schalow. Journal fiir Ornithologie, XXIX Jahrg., 
1881, pp. 70-102, 417-423; XXX Jahrg., 1882, pp. 111-120, 
213-228. 

This convenient summary. .. .is still continued. .. .it gives tran- 
scripts of the original diagnoses, when such are given, and in other 
cases mentions the types of the genera and the alleged characteristics 
of the species.— J. A. A., Butt. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 169, July, 
1883. 

Ridgway, Robekt. — On a Duck new to the North American Fauna. 

By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 

22-24. Author's separates issued April 13, 1881. 

Mr. Ridgway records an immature male Rufous-crested Duck 

(Fuligula rufina, Steph. ) supposed to have been shot on Long Island 
Sound. . In making the record Mr. Ridgway takes occasion to describe 
the species in its various phases of plumage, and adds a few critical 
remarks on the generic synonomy of the group to which it belongs. — 
J. A. A., Butt Nuit. Ornith. Club, Vol. VI., p. 173, July, 1881. 

Ridgway, Robert. — On Amazilia yucatanensis (Cabot) and A.cervini- 

ventris, Gould. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 25, 26. Author's separates issued April 13, 

1881. 

. . . .Comparative diagnoses are given of the two species, with some 
remarks respecting their distribution. — J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VI., pp. 173, 174, July, 1881. 

Ridgway, Robert. — A Review of the genus Centurus, Swainson. By 

Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 93- 

119. Author's separates issued June 2, 1881. 

This revision is based on an examination of 227 specimens, repre- 
senting 12 of the 14 forms considered as sufficiently distinct for rccog- 



8 9 

nition Each form recognized is described in detail, and the whole 

subject is treated with Mr. Eidgway's usual care and completeness. — 
J. A. A., Bull Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII. , p. 114, April, 1883. 

Ridgway, Robert. — List of Species of Middle and South American 

Birds not contained in the United States National Museum. By 

Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 165- 

203. Author's separates issued Aug. 11 and Nov. 18, 1881. 

. . . .The species wholly unrepresented are very few. . . . — J. A. A., 
Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 170, July, 18*83. 

Ridgway, Robert. — List of Special Desiderata among North Ameri- 
can Birds. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 
IV., 1882, pp. 207-223. Author's separates issued Nov. 18, 1881. 

Ridgway, Robeet. — Catalogue of Old World Birds in the United 
States National Museum. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., Vol IV., 1882, pp. 317-333. Author's separates issued 
March 8, 1882. 

....The numeration and classification adopted is that of Gray's 
well-known "Hand-list,"— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., 
p. 231, October, 1883. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Notes on some Costa Rican Birds. By Robert 
Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 333-337. 
Author's separates issued March 10, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Description of a new Flycatcher and a supposed 
new Petrel from the Sandwich Islands. By Robert Ridgway. 
Proc. V. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 337,338. A_uthor's 
separates issued March 29, 1882 . 

Ridgway, Robert. — Description of anew Owl from Porto Rico. By 
Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. 8. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 366- 
371. Author's separates issued April 6, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Description of two new Thrushes from the United 
States. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. IV., 
1882, pp. 374-379. Author's separates issued April 6, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert. — On two Recent Additions to the North American 
Bird Fauna, by L. Belding. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mas., Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 414, 4] 5. Author's separates issued 
April 24, 1882. 

In numerous papers published in the "Proceedings" of the Na- 
tional Museum for 1881 and 1882, Mr. Ridgway has described a con- 
siderable number of new species and races of birds and several new 
genera, chiefly from North and Middle America. They also contain 
notes on a few other hitherto little known species. . . .— J. A. A., Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 168, 169, July, 1883. 



90 

Saunders, Howard. — On some Laridre from the coasts of Peru and 
Chili, collected by Capt. Albert H. Markham, R.N. , with Remarks 
on the Geographical Distribution of the Group in the Pacific. By 
Howard Saunders, F.L.S., F.Z.S. Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, 
June 6, 1882, pp. 520-530; with colored plate of Xema furcatum 
adult and young. 

...Fifteen species are represented: among these is a specimen 
(the third one known) of Xema furcatum, . now rediscovered after an 
interval of forty years' fruitless search Mr. Saunders is one of the few 
scientific writers who possess the happy faculty of making a technical 
treatise interesting to the average reader. The present paper. . . .has a 
direct value to the student of North American ornithology, for much of 
its subject-matter. . . relates to species which are included in the North 
American Fauna.— W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 54, Jan- 
uary, 1883. 

Shufeldt, R. W.~ Contributions to the Anatomy of Birds. By R. 
W. Shufeldt, M.D. [etc.] Author's edition, extracted (in advance) 
from the Twelfth Annual Report of the late U. S. Geological and 
Geographical Survey of the Territories (Hayden's). Washington : 
Government Printing Office, October 14, 1882. 8vo., title and pp. 
593-806, pll. i-xxiv., many woodcuts in text. 

It includes chapters on the osteology of Spectylo cuvicvlaria hypogcva, 
Dremophih alpeslris, the North American Tetraonidce and the Cathariidce. 
These subjects have been already treated by Dr. Shufeldt in previous 
papers ; but its subject-matter has been largely, if not entirely re- 
written, and some unfortunate errors. .. .corrected. .. .The paper on 
the Galharlidce with its accompanying plates, is entirelv new matter. 
— W. B., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII. , p. 56, January, 1883. 

Under this title a meritorious and very promising ornithotomist 
has brought together the greater part of what he has thus far accom- 
plished in the way of avian anatomy .... It would scarcely be fair, how- 
ever, to judge their reappearance by their original character, all of them 
having been carefully revised and to some extent rewritten. . . .The text 
is a faithful and on the whole an accurate description of the objects 
under designation, and the fidelity with which the plates are executed 
is most commendable... — E. C, Bud. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. V11I. 
pp. 166-168, July, 1883. 

Stejneger, Leonhard. — Description of two new Races of Myadestes 

obscurus Lafr. By Leonhard Stejneger. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 

Vol. IV., 1882, pp. 371-374. Author's separates issued April 6, 

1882. 

. . . M. obscurus var. occidentalis, from the highlands of Southern 
i Mexico and Guatemala, and M. obscurus var. insularis, irom the Tres 
Marias "Islands.— J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 170, 
July, 1883. 

Wheaton, J. M.— Report on the Birds of Ohio. By J. M. Wheaton, 
M.D. Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio, Vol. IV., pt. i., 



9i 

pp. 188-628. Columbus, Ohio: Nevins & Myers, State Printers. 
8vo. 1882. 

.... a treatise on the ornithology of the State so extensive and so 
systematic that the time its preparation has occupied seems justified if 
not absolutely required . . Dr. VVheaton's report must at once take 
place at the head of State Faunas, so far as ornithology is concerned 
. . Ohioans have here, in fact, a correct history and description of their 
300 birds, systematically arranged and classified, with diagnoses of the 
genera and higher groups, a considerable synonomy of each species 
with special reference to State literature, and a local bibliography. . . . 
this volume of some 450 pages is no slight nor uncertain addition to our 
ornithological literature. . . .— E. C, Butt. Nutl. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., 
pp. 110-112, April, 1883. 

White, Geokge R, and Scott, W. L. — Commentary on the Bird- 
Fauna of the Vicinity of Ottawa. By Geo. R. White and W. L. 
Scott. Report of Ornithological and Oological Branch, Trans. 
Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, No. 3, pp. 26-34, and Appendix. 

. . The list is briefly annotated, and contains 169 species ..we are 
astounded to see in the list Harporhynchus cinereus I Parus rufescens ! 
Vireo pusillus I Glaucidium passerinvm var. calif ornicuml This of course 
puts the whole affair under a cloud as an incompetent and doubtless 
pretty nearly worthless performance. -E. 0., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. ClaU, 
Vol. VIII. , p. 55, January, 1883. 

[ . . . . The authors ... had no opportunity to correct the proof-sheets 
. . . .Edd.] Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIIL, pp. 115, 116, April, 1883. 

1883. 

Beckham, Charles Wickliffe. — A List of the Birds of Bardstown, 
Nelson County, Kentucky. By Charles Wickliffe Beckham. 
Journ. Cincinnati Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. VI., pp. 136-147, July, 

1883. 

the first paper on the birds of Kentucky, as such, which has 

yet appeared, and relating mainly to the birds of the immediate vicini- 
ty of Bardstown,". . . .no species has been admitted on any but the best 
of evidence ; out of the one hundred and sixty-seven enumerated, the 

writer is himself responsible for all but eight of them." The list is 

briefly annotated . .is well printed, and evidently carefully prepared 
. . . .—J. A. A., Bull. Nult. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 227, 228, October, 
1883. 

Cooke, W. W.— Mississippi Valley Migration. By W. W. Cooke. 
Ornithologist and Oologisl, Vol. VIII. , Nos. 4-7, April-July, 1883, 
pp. 25-27, 33, 34, 41, 42, 49-53. 

Mr. Cooke's scheme contemplates a large number of observing 

stations ... he appears to have correspondents at 44 stations . . . his 
matter is pertinent and in most cases well arranged; while his sum- 
maries respecting the movements of particular species, as given in his 
later papers, show at a glance what are the results attained. — J. A. A., 
Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIIL, pp. 230, 231, October, 1883. 



92 

Cooke, W. W.— Bird Migration in the Mississippi Valley. By W. W. 
Cooke. Forest and Stream, Vol. XIX., Nos. 15, 16, 20, pp. 283, 
284, 306, 384, November 9 and 16, and December 14, 1883. 

Cory, Charles B.— Beautiful and Carious Birds of the World. By 
Charles B. Cory. Published by the Author. Part IV. Elephant 
folio. Three Plates, with Text. 

contains plates of Pseudoqryphus californianus . . . ; Camptolamus 

lahradorius ; Asirapia nigra, the Incomparable Bird of Paradise — 

W. B., Bull. Xuit Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 55, 56, January, 1883. 

Cory, Charles B.— Beautiful and Curious Birds of the World. By 
Charles B. Cory. Published by the Author. Part V. Elephant 
folio. Three Plates, with Text. 

has illustrations of Epimachus magnus, the Magnificent Bird of 

Paradise, Epimachus elliotti, Elliott's Bird of Paradise and Pluvionua 

cvgyptius, the . .Crocodile Bird of the Nile — W. B., Bull. Nutt. 

Orniih. Club, Vol. VIII., pp. 55, 56, January, 1883. 

Cory, Charles B.— Beautiful and Curious Birds of the World. By 
Charles B. Cory. Published by the Author. Parts VI. and VII. 
Elephant folio, 

.... completes the work, which consists of twenty plates, with ac- 
companying text .... The plates . . are superb illustrations of some of the 

most striking forms of bird-life — W. B., 'lhe Auk, Vol. I., p. 81, 

January, 1884. 

Coues, Elliott. — A Hearing of Birds' Ears. By Elliott Coues. 
Science, Vol. II., Nos, 34, 38, and 39, pp. 422-424, 552-554, 586- 
589, Sept. 28, Oct. 26, Nov. 2, 1883, figg. 9. 

... .A clear and detailed account of the mechanism of the ear in 

birds, taking the human ear as the chief basis of comparison —J. A. 

A., The Auk, Vol. I, p. 182, April, 1884. 

Coues, Elliott, and Prentiss, D. Webster. — Bulletin of the United 
States National Museum, No. 26. Avifa-ma Columbiana : being 
a list of Birds ascertained to inhabit the District of Columbia, 
with the times of arrival and departure of such as are non- 
residents, and brief notices of habits, etc. The Second Edition, 
revised to date and entirely rewritten. By Elliott Coues, M.D., 
Ph.D., Professor of Anatomy in the National Medical College, 
etc., and D. Webster Prentiss, A.M., M.D. , Professor of Materia 
Medica and Therapeutics in the National Medical College, etc. 
Washington : Government Printing Office, 1883. 8vo., pp. 133, 
100 woodcuts, frontispiece, and 4 folded maps. 

The title of this interesting brochure, although explicit, fails to 
fully imply the scope of the work, 4 pages of which are devoted to the 
'Literature of the Subject,' 17 to the Location and Topography ot 



93 

District,' 5 to the 'General Character of the Avifauna,' 78 to the 'An- 
notated List of the Birds,' 8 to a 'Summary and Recapitulation,' and 3 
to the ' Game Laws of the District' .... The original ' List ' . . . . pub- 
lished in 1862, contained 226 species ... .The additions made in the 
twenty-two years which have intervened number 23. . . .The subject in 
general is treated not only with great fulness, but is very attractively 
set forth, and in general plan forms an excellent model of what a faunal 
list should be . . .— J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. L, p. 386, October, 1884. 

Gadow, Hans. — Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. Vol. 
VIII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds. Cich- 
lomorphie : containing the Families Parid?e and Laniidre (Titmice 
and Shrikes), and Certhiomorphre (Creepers and Nuthatches). By 
Hans Gadow, Ph.D. London: Printed by order of the Trus- 
tees. 1883. 8vo., pp. i-xiii., 1-386, pll. i-ix., and woodcuts in 
the text. 

....Dr. Gadow's volume opens with the Panda? (including the 
Regulidae auct), of which 10 genera and 82 species are recognized 
The Laniidas embrace five subfamilies The family Certhiidee in- 
cludes the Nuthatches as well as the Tree-Creepers ...In general, Dr. 
Gadow inclines to the recognition of comprehensive groups, from 
families downward. His reduction in genera and species from the 
hitherto current status is very marked. . . .In method of execution, the 
present volume is strictly in accord with its predecessors, and is 
neither less valuable nor less welcome. — J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., pp. 
279-281, July, 1884. 

Gill, Theodobe. — Kecord of Scientific Progress for 1881. Zoology. 
By Theodore Gill. Smithsonian Report, 1881 (1883), pp. 408- 
498. Birds, pp. 481-490. 

... a partial bibliography of noteworthy papers and works, and a 

synopsis of about half-a-dozen memoirs —J. A. A , The Auk, Vol. I., 

p. 84, January, 1884. 

Goss, N. S. — A Catalogue of the Birds of Kansas. By N. S. Goss. 
Published under the direction of the Executive Council. Topeka, 
Kansas : Kansas Publishing House, 1883. 8vo., pp. iv., 34. 

a carefully annotated list of the birds of the State, prepared at 

the request and under the direction of the State Executive Council . . . 
very few species are given on other authority than his own observations 
. . . .the list includes 320 species and races, 161 of which are marked as 

known to breed. The annotations are brief but pertinent the list 

attains in general a high grade of excellence. . . — J. A. A., Bull. 

Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII, p. 227, October, 1883. 

Jeffries, J. Amory. — The Epidermal System of Birds. By J. Amory 
Jeffries. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., Vol. XXII., pp. 203-240, 
pll. iv-vi. Dec, 1883. 

. . . .reports the results of his studies of the epidermal appendages 
in birds, with reference to their structure, development, and homolo- 
gies. . . .—J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. L, pp. 182, 183, April, 1884. 



94 

King, F. H. — Economic Relations of Wisconsin Birds. By F. H. 
King. Wisconsin Geological Survey, Vol. L, chap, xi., pp. 441-610, 
figg. 103-144. Royal 8vo. 

. . . .Prof King's field-work. . . .was commenced in 1873, and is appar- 
ently only just concluded— Ms attention during this long period being 
steadily and rigidly directed to discovering; what and how much food 
Wisconsin birds eat ... The facts recorded . . were obtained from an 
examination of the contents of over 1,800 birds.... The Introduction 
closes with "a Temporary Classification of Wisconsin Birds on an econ- 
omic basis "... The body of the report is primarily of the nature of an 
ordinary ''local list "for the State of Wisconsin, giving in systematic 
order 295 species. .. .The report is well written, giving in many cases 
extended biographies . . .The numerous woodcuts are chiefly taken from 
Baird, Brewer, and Ridgway.— E. 0., Bull. Nuit. Ornith, Club, Vol. VIII., 
pp. 107-110, April, 1883. 

Lawrence, George N. — Descriptions of New Species of Birds of the 

Genera Chrysotis, Formicivora, and Spermophila. By George 

N. Lawrence. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., Vol. II. , 1832, No. 

12, pp. 381-383. Issued June, 1883. 

The species here described are : 1. Chrysotis canifrons. . . .2. Formi- 
civora griseigula and 3. Spermophila parva —J. A. A., The Auk, 

Vol. I., p. 387, October, 1884. 

Morton, Thomas, and Adams, Charles Francis, Jr. — The New En- 
glish Canaan of Thomas Morcon. With Introductory Matter and 
Notes by Charles Francis Adams, Jr. Boston : Published by the 
Prince Society. 1883. Sm.4to., pp. vi, 381.— Chap. IV. Of 
Birds and Fethered Fowles, pp. 189-199. With notes by William 
Brewster and the Editor. 

....reprinting Thomas Morton's "New English Canaan" (pub- 
lished originally in 1637), with editorial notes ... The technical notes 
on the birds, by Mr. Brewster, form an excellent commentary on the 
species mentioned by Morton ...Morton's New English Canaan, as 
thus admirably edited, includes nearly everything of interest bearing 
upon the natural history of New England contained in these early 
accounts of New England . . .The work is limited to 250 copies, and in 
typography and paper is a noteworthy specimen of book-making. — 
J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., p. 84, January, 1884. 

Nelson, E. W . — Birds of Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean. By E. W. 
Nelson. Cruise of the Revenue-steamer Corwin in Alaska and 
the N. W. Arctic Ocean in 1881. Notes and Memoranda : Medical 
and Anthropological ; Botanical ; Ornithological. Washington : 
Government Printing Office. 1883. 1 vol., 4to., pp. 55, 56, 
56a-/, 57-118; with 4 colored plates. 

. . .It is a pity that so valuable and interesting a treatise as this of 
Mr. Nelson's should not have been more carefully printed ...After 
some pages concisely descriptive of the region and its avifauna, the 
author proceeds to treat, in more or Jess detail, no fewer than 192 spe- 
cies of birds, North American with few exceptions it is illustrated 



95 

with four colored plates, executed by Mr. [Robert] Ridgway, represent- 
ing Motacilla ocularis, Lanius cristaius, Eurynorhynchus pygmceus and Cire- 
ronia pusilla . . . — E. C, The Auk, Vol. I., pp. 76-81, January, 1884. 

Eidgway, Eobert. — A Review of the American Crossbills (Loxia) of 
the L. curvirostra type. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. Biol. Soc. 
of Washington, Vol. II.,. 1883, pp. 84-107. 

... .He recognizes three races of American Red Crossbills, one of 
which (L. cuv'fosira bendirei) is described as new ...In North America 
the Red Crossbills decrease in size from the north southward . . . Th^re 
are also remarks on other races of Red Crossbills, particu'arly the L. 
curvirostra and L. pityopsittacus of Europe. — J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. II., 
pp. 206, 207, April, 1885. 

Ridgway, Robert — Description of Several new Races of American 
Birds. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 
1883, pp. 9-15. Author's separates issued June 5, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert — On the genera Harporkynchus, Cabanis, and 
Metliriopterus, Reichenbach, with a description of a new genus of 
Mimime. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas. , Vol. V. , 
1883, pp. 43-46. Author's separates issued June 5, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert — Critical Remarks on the Tree-creepers (Certliia) 
of Europe and North America. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. 
S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 111-116. Author's separates is- 
sued July 8, 1882. 

... .he proceeds to characterize seven races as susceptible of defini- 
tion, three of which are for the first time named. . . .—J. A. A., Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 113, April, 1883. 

Ridgway, Robert — Description of some new North American Birds. 
By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 
343-346. Author's separates issued Sept. 5, 1882. 

Ridgway, Robert — Catalogue of a Collection of Birds made in the 
Interior of Costa Rica, by Mr. C. C. Nutting. By Robert Ridg- 
way. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 493-502. Au- 
thor's separates issued Feb. 28, 1883. 

The collection reported upon was made partly at Volcan de Irazu 

and partly at San Jose There are brief field-notes by the collector, 

and technical notes on a few species by Mr. Ridgway. —J. A. A., The 
Auk, Vol. I., p. 84, January, 1884. 

Ridgway, Robert.— Description of a New Warbler, from the Island 
of Santa Lucia, West Indies. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 525, 526. Author's separates issued 
March 21, 1883. 

Mr. Ridgway separates as a new subspecies the Warbler from Santa 



96 

Lucia, W. L, hitherto known as Dendroica adelaidce under the name of 
Dendroica addaidce ddicala — J. A. A, The Auk, Vol. I., p. 83 Jan- 
uary, 1884. 

Rtdgway, Robert. — Description of a supposed New Plover, from 
Chili. By Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 
1883, pp. 526, 527. Author's separates issued March 21, 1883. 

(JE'jialites albidipeclus, sp. nov. ) based on a single example from 
Chili.— J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., p. 83, January, 1884. 

Ridgway, Robert.— On the Genus Tantalus,. Linn., and its allies. By 
Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 550, 
551. Author's separates issued March 21, 1883. 

The genus Tonialus Linn., is restricted to T loculator, . .—J. A. A., 
The Auk, Vol. I., p. 83, January, 1884. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Description of a New Petrel from Alaska. By 
Robert Ridgway. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 656- 
658. Author's separates issued June 26, 1883. 

{CEstrelata fisheri, sp. nov.) from Alaska, a species most nearly 

allied to (F, defillipiana Mr. Ridgway is inclined to refer also the 
Petrel taken in Livingston County, N. Y., identified by Mr. Brewster 
... as (E. gularis, to (E. fisheri — J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., p. 83, Janu- 
ary, 1884. 

Ridgway, Robert. — Notes upon some Rare Species of Neotropical 
Birds. By Robert Ridgway, Curator Department of Birds, 
United States National Museum. The Ibis, October, 1883, pp. 
399-401. 

The species considered are Rarporhynchus oscellaius Scl., 
Pyranga erythrocephalus (Sw. ), Zonotrichia quinquestriata Scl. & Salv., 
Coniopus ochraceus Scl. & Salv., and Panypiiia cayeiwensis (Gm.), about 
which there are brief remarks respecting their affinities ... — J. A. A., 
The Auk, Vol. I., pp. 386, 387, October, 1884. 

Seebohm, Henry. — A History of British Birds, with colored Illustra- 
tions of their Eggs. By Henry Seebohm. London : Published 
for the author by R. H. Porter, 6 Tenterden Street, W., and Du- 
lau & Co., Soho Square, W. Royal 8vo., Vol. I., 1883, pp. xxiv., 
613, pll. 20 ; Vol. II., (Part 1, 1883, Part 2, 1884) pp. xxxiv., 600, 
pll. 22. 

The typographical execution of the work is excellent, and the 

plates are entitled to high praise In respect to nomenclature and 

classification Mr. Seebohm is conservative to a degree approaching ec- 
centricity, but in respect to the general subject his vi^ws are liberal, 

philosophic, and progressive As regards classification Mr. Seebohm 

seems inclined to ignore all recent progress, ... .In respect to the 'vex- 
ed question of nomenclature' he has throughout his work "set the 
Rules of the British Association at defiance " His panacea for the evil 



97 

is . . . the adoption of an ' auctorum plurimorum ' rule ; . . . For sub- 
species he adopts what may be termed a Seebohmian system of trinomi- 
als first instituted by him in his British Museum Catalogue of the Tur- 
didse. . ..As Mr. Seebohm says : "The real history of a bird is its life- 
history. The deepest interest attaches to every thing that reveals the 
little mind, however feebly it may be developed, which lies behind the 
feathers. The habits of the bird during the breeding season, at the two 
periods of migration, and in winter ; its mode of flight and of progres- 
sion on the ground, in the trees, or on the water ; its song and its various 
call- and alarm-notes ; its food and its means of procuring it at different 
seasons of the year ; its migrations, the dates of arrival and departure, 
routes it chooses, and the winter quarters it selects ; and above all, 
every particular respecting its breeding, when it begins to build its nest, 
the materials it uses for the purpose, the number of eggs it lays, the vari- 
ations in their color, size, and shape, — all these particulars are the real 
history of a bird ; and in the account of each species of British birds I 

endeavor to give as many of them as possible." Mr. Seebohm's work 

abounds in passages which invite comment . . . — J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. 
II, pp. 88-91, January, 1885. 

Shaepe, R. Bowdler. — Catalogue of the Birds in the British Museum. 
Vol. VII. Catalogue of the Passeriformes, or Perching Birds. 
Cichlomorphae : Part IV., containing the concluding portion of 
the Family Timeliidse (Babbling Thrushes). By R. Bowdler 
Sharpe. London : Printed by order of the Trustees. 1883. 
8vo., pp. i-xvi. , 1-698, pll. i-xv., and numerous woodcuts in the 
text. 

The family Timeliidce, an account of which was commenced in the 
preceding volume [Vol. VI.], is here [Vol. VII.] completed, with the 
enumeration and description of 687 species. .. .while many ornith- 
ologists may not agree with the author in his allocation of certain forms, 
none, we fancy, can feel otherwise than deeply grateful to him for the 
very useful monograph he has placed at their disposal. — J. A. A. , The Auk, 
Vol. I., pp. 278, 279, July, 1«84. 

Smith, Everett. — The Birds of Maine. With annotations of their 

comparative abundance, dates of migration, breeding habits, etc. 

By Everett Smith. Forest and Stream, Vol. XIX., Nos. 22-26; 

Vol. XX., Nos. 1-7 and 10-13. 

. . . .Passing to water birds it is gratifying to find a better quality 
of work. Mr. Smith is evidently at home here, and proofs of the 
general accuracy of his information and judgement are numerous and 
unmistakable. ... It is too good a paper to be wholly condemned, too 
faulty a one to be generously praised ..Its author. .. .has become 

almost an ornithologist — W. B., Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., 

pp. 164-166, July, 1883. 

Stearns, W. A. — Notes on the Natural History of Labrador. By W. 
A. Stearns. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. VI., 1883, pp. 111-137. 
Author's separates issued July 27 to Sept. 20, 1883. 

These "Notes" relate only in part to birds, which occupy pp. 116- 
123. The list of birds numbers 111 species, and is briefly annotated. . . . 
—J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I , p. 284, July, 1884. 



9 8 

Stearns, Winfrid A., and Coues, Elliott. — New England Bird Life : 
being a Manual of New England Ornithology. Revised and edited 
from the manuscript of Winfrid A. Stearns, Member of the Nut- 
tall Ornithological Club, etc. By Elliott Coues, Member of the 
Academy, etc. Part II. Non-oscine Passeres, Birds of Prey, 
Game and Water Birds. Boston : Lee & Shepard, Publishers. 
New York: Charles T. Dillingham. 1883. 8vo., pp. 409; 88 
woodcuts. 

Dr. Coues has gone bravely ou with the task of " editing" Mr. 

Stearns's manuscript, and the finished work, now complete in two 
volumes, is the gratifying result. Much that we said. . . of Part I. will 
apply equally to Fart II. . . .But among the Water Birds there are rather 
frequent evidences of hasty, and often positively iiieoirect conclusions 
. . . .New England Bird Life. . . .is, on the whole a wisely-conceived and 
admirably-executed book — by far the best, in fact, which has been so far 
published on New England birds.... — W. B., Bull. Null. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VIII., p. 161-164, July, 1883. 

Stejneger, Leonhard. — Synopsis of the West Indian Myiadestes. 
ByLeonhard Stejneger. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, 
pp. 15-27, pi. ii. Author's separates issued June 5, 1882. 

Eight species are recognized, two of which (M. sancicelucice, M. 
dominicanus) are described as new. —J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, 
Vol. VIII., p. 170, July, 1883. 

Stejneger, Leonhard. — On some generic and specific appellations of 

North American Birds. By Leonhard Stejneger. Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 28-43. Author's separates issued 

June 5, 1882. 

Proposing to use "the oldest available name in every case" the 
author shows that many of our current names must give way if the 
"inflexible law of priority" is to be observed. For ourselves we be- 
lieve that the surest way out of the nomenclatural difficulties that beset 
us is to be found in some such simple rule as this. . . .Still such a paper 
as this makes us wish... that some counteractive "statute of limi- 
tation" could come into operation . . . Stejneger's points seem to be well 
taken in the main; and. . . .we presume the restrictions and substitu- 
tions he proposes are avarlable if not indeed necessary under the 

priority statute E. C, .Ball. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VII., pp. 178, 179, 

July, 1882. 

Stejneger, Leonhard. — Outlines of a Monograph of the Cygninse. 
By Leonhard Stejneger. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus.. Vol. V., 1883, 
pp. 174-221, figg. 16. Author's separates issued July 25, 1882. 

The external and osteological characters are given in detail, with 
diagnoses of the genera and species. . . .the author recognizes four gen- 
era of Swans, namely Sthenelus (gen. nov. ), Cygnus, Olor, and Chenopsis. 
The two North American species are assigned to Olor. — J. A. A., Bull. 
Null Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 231, October, 1883. 



99 

Stejneger, Leonhard. — Remarks on the Systematic Arrangement of 
the American Turdidte. By Leonhard Stejneger. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mas., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 449-483, with numerous cuts. 
Author's separates issued February 13, 1883. 

....Dr. Stejneger's synopsis of the family extends only to the 
genera and higher groups as represented in America. The generic 
synonomy is fully given, and the generic diagnoses are supplemented 
by general remarks and figures illustrative of the principal generic 
characters.— J. A. A., The Auk, Vol. I., pp. 181, 182, April, 1881. 

Townsend, Charles H. — Notes on the Birds of Westmoreland County, 
Penna. By Charles H. Townsend. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- 
delphia, 1883, pp. 59-68. 

"The species enumerated represent perhaps not more than two- 
thirds of the actual birds of Westmoreland County " The list, num- 
bering 136 species, is rather too sparingly annotated . . .but we are led 
to hope that this may be the forerunner of a fuller report. —J. A. A., 
The Auk. Vol. I , p. 184, April, 1884. 

Tuelon, James A. — List of Birds observed near Bradford, Pa., by 
James A. Tuelon. Quarterly Jour. Boston Zool. Sgc, Vol. IV., 
January, 1883, pp. 8-11. 

As the whole number is only 77, without exception very common 
and well-known species, and as the annotations are of no special conse- 
quence, the reason whv the list is printed is not evident. — E. C, Bull. 
Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 171, July, 1883. 

Turner, Lucien M. — On Lagopus mutus, Leach, and its Allies. By 
Lucien M. Turner. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. V., 1883, pp. 
225-233. Author's separates issued July 29, 1882. 

The author believes that the European birds mutus and alpinus 

constitute " but a single species having the name L'igopus mutus Leach, 
while the American bird . . .to be called L'igopus mutus rup»slris (Grn.) 
Eidg. Four races are recognized . . . Detailed descriptions and meas- 
urements are given of a considerable number of specimens of each race. 
—J. A. A., Bull. Nutt. Ornith. Club, Vol. VIII., p. 232, October, 1883. 

Wielard, S. W. — Migration and Distribution of North American 
Birds in Brown and Outagamie Counties. By S. W. Willard. 
De Pere, Wis., 1883, 8vo., pp. 20. 

The paper gives evidence of careful observation, and is a valu- 
able contribution to our knowledge of the manner of occurrence and 
movements of the birds of the area in question.— J. A. A., The Auk, 
Vol. II, pp. 289, 290, July, 1885. 



Note. — Publication of Part II. of this paper is deferred to a succeeding number 
of th^se ' Ab*trac L s.' 



INDEX. 



Abrothrix, 31. 

Adams, Charles Francis, Jr., 94. 

Allen, Charles Slover, M, D., exhibi- 
tion of poisonous snakes by, 2; on 
an abnormal egg of the Canad 
Goose, 4; resolutions upon death 
of, 7. 

Allen, J. A., Protective Coloration 
and Mimicry, 2; Remarks on the 
White-footed Mice of North Amer- 
ica, 4; The Migration of Birds, 6; 
Recent Progress in the Study of 
North American Mammalogy, 13, 
17-48; The Seasonal Changes of 
Color in the Northern Varying Hare 
{I.epus americcuins), 15; The First 
or Nestling Plumage of various Spe- 
cies of North American Birds, 15. 

Ammospermophilus, 42. 

Ancistrodon contortrix. 2. 

Arctomys, 42. 

Arvicola, recently described North 
American species of, 33. 

Arvicola riparius, 12. 

Aughey, Samuel, 58. 

Bailey, H. B., 76 

Baiomys, 31. 

Barrington, R. M., 86. 

Barrows, Walter B., 52. 

Bartramia longicauda, 10. 

Bats, North American, 23, 42, 43. 

Beckham, C. W., 91. 

Belding, Lyman, 62. 

Bell, Robert, 69. 

Bendire, Charles E., 52. 

Bicknell, E. P.,83. 

Bishop, Louis B., Change of Color in 
the Plumage of the Kestrel, 2 ; The 
Breeding of Brewster's Warbler 
{Helminthophila leiicobronchialis), 
10. 

Blasius, Rudolph, 83. 

Bonaparte, C. L., 61. 

Bonasa umbellus, 15. 

Branta canadensis, 4. 

Brayton, A. W., 70. 

Brewer, T. M., 58, 62, 70. 

Brewster, William, 94. 

Brown, Nathan Clifford, 83. 



Bureau, Louis, 58. 
Burroughs, John, 52. 
By-Laws, amendment to, 6. 

Calcarius lapponicus, 2. 

Calidris arenaria, 10. 

Carnivores, North American. 23. 

Chamberlain, Montague, 84. 

Chapman, F. M., remarks on recent 
trip to the Island of Trinidad, 3; 
Birds Observed on a Voyage to 
Trinidad, 4; The Origin of Certain 
North American Birds as Deter- 
mined by their Routes of Migra- 
tion, 6; The Islands the Alligators 
Build, 10; Remarks on West In- 
d'an Mammals, 11; analytical sum- 
mary of the bird-life of the vicinity 
of New York City, 12; A Natural- 
ist in the Island of Trinidad (public 
lecture), 12. 
^Charadnus dominicus, 10. 

Chubb, S. H., nesting of European 
Starling, 5. 

Collins, J. W., 84. 

Committees, reports of, 11, 15. 

Compsothlypis americana, 6. 

Constitution, amendment to, 5. 

Cooke, W. W. , 91, 92. 

Cooper, J. G., 48, 70. 

Cordeaux, John, 72, 78, 85, S6. 

Cory, Charles B.. 59, 70, 92. 

Coues, Elliott, 54, 59, 62, 69, 70, 71, 
82. 84, 92, 98. 

Crotalus horridus, 2. 

Cynomys, 42. 

Dartt, Mary, 63 

Dean, Bashford, Oyster Culture in 
Europe (public lecture), 13. 

Dendroica striata, 4. 
vigorsii, 6. 

D'Hamonville, J. C. L. T., 49. 

Didelphis virginiana, 12. 

Dipodomys, list of species and sub- 
species of, 28. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 6. 

Dubois, Alphonse, 85. 

Dutcher, B. PL, The Fauna of Mon- 
tauk Point, Long Island, 12. 



102 



Dutcher, William, Notes on some 
Rare Birds in the Collection of the 
Long Island Historical Society, 3; 
85. 

Edentates, North American, 23. 
Elliot, Daniel Giraud, 52, 63. 
Empidonax flaviventris, II. . 
Eutamias, 42. 

Evotomys, list of species and subspe- 
cies of, 32. 

Falco peregrinus anatum, 3. 

Feilden, H. W., 53. 

Fiber zibethicus, 12. 

Finance Committee, 3. 

Forbes, S. A., 71, 85. 

Forbes, W. A., 77. 

Foster, L. S., on antidotes to snake 
bites, 5; A Consideration of Some 
Ornithological Literature, with Ex- 
tracts from Current Criticism, I., 
1876 to 1883, 5, 47; A Consideration 
of Some Ornithological Literature, 
with Extracts from Current Criti- 
cism, II., 1884 to 1893, 10. 

Freke, Percy Evans, 71, 76, 77. 

Gadow, Hans, 93. 
Garrod, Alfred H., 49 77. 
Gentry, Thomas G.. 49, 53, 71, 85. 
Geomys, list of species and subspecies 

of, 30. 
Gibbs, Morris, 63. 
Gill, Theodore, 93. 
Godman, F. Ducane, 77. 
Goss, N. S., 93. 
Granger, W. \V., nesting of Duck 

Hawks, 3; nesting of European 

Starling, 5. 
Gregg, W. H., 72. 

Hallock, Charles, 64. 
Harvie-Brown; J. A., 53, 64, 72, 78, 

85. 86. 
Hatch. P. L., 78. 
Helminthophila celata, I, 2, 11. 

chrysoptera, 3, II. 

leucobronchialis, 10. 

peregrina, II. 
Henshaw, H. W., 49, 53, 73. 
Hesperomys, 31. 
Heteromyidse, 30. 
Heteromys, list of the recognized 

species of, 26. 
Hoffman, W. J., 78, 86. 
Holterhoff, G., Jr., 78. 
Howell, Arthur H., Remarks upon 
Birds observed on Long Island, 



N. Y., during 1892, 1; Birds in our 
Great Cities, 10; Notes on Long 
Island Birds, 1 1. 
Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis.il. 

Icterus galbula, 7, 13. 
Ingersoll, Ernest, 64, 65, 86. 
Insectivores, North American, 23. 

Jeffries, J. Amory, 93. 
Jordan, David Starr, 49, 60. 

Kermode, Philip M. C, 78, 86. 

Kidder, J. H., 50. 

King, F. H., 94. 

Knowlton, F. H., 86. 

Krider, John, 65. 

Krukenberg, C. Fr. W , 79, 86. 

Kumlien, Ludwig, 65. 

Langdon, Frank W., 54, 66, 73, 79. 

Larus Philadelphia, 13. 

Lawrence, George N., 50, 54, 60, 65, 
66, 79, 86, 87, 94. 

Lecture Committee, report of, 11. 

Lepus, list of recently described North 
American species of, 25. 
americanus, 15. 
sylvaticus, 12. 

Librarians' report, 14. 

Life Memberships, 5. 

Limosa hsemastica, 10. 

Linden, Charles, 87. 

Loomis, L. M., A Study of the Earlier 
Southward Migrations at Monterey 
Bay during June, July, and August, 
1892, 5; Variability in the Occur- 
rence of Transient Migrants, 7 ; 
Facts Concerning Migration in the 
Southern Hemisphere, Gleaned from 
Sclater and Hudson's, "Argentine 
Ornithology," 9; On the Causes that 
Necessitate Bird Migration, 12; On 
the Views held concerning the Mi- 
gration of Young Birds of the Year, 
12. 

Lutreola vison, 12. 

McCauley, C. A. H., 54. 
McChesney, Charles E., 67. 
Macoun, John, 79. 
Marquand, Henry G., donation from, 

3- 
Marsh, O. C, 50, 73- 
Marsupials, North American, 23. 
Maynard, Charles J., 60, 74. 
Mearns, Edgar A., 66, 67, 74. 
Mephitis mephitica, 12. 



io3 



Merriam, Clinton Hart, 54, 87. 

Merrill, James C, 67. 

Miller, Mrs. Olive Thorne, A Rocky 
Mountain Study, 12. 

Minot, H. D., 55, 56, 75. 

Moles, recently described North Am- 
erican, 43, 

Mongoose in Jamaica, II. 

Morden, T. A., 87. 

More, A. G., 86. 

Morton, Thomas, 94. 

Motmots, remarks on, 3. 

Mus decumanus, 12. 

Myctomys, 32. 

Myiarchus crinitus, 2. 

Neosciurus, 42. 
Nehrling, H., 75. 
Nelson, Edward W., 55, 94. 
Neotoma, list of species and subspe- 
cies of, 34. 
Newton, Alfred. 85. 
Numenius borealis, 10 
Nycticorax violaceus, 3. 

Obrr, Frederick A., 75. 

Officers, election of, 15. 

Olor columbianus, it. 

Onychomys, list of species and sub- 
species of, 36. 

Oryzomys, North American species 
and subspecies of, 36. 

Parascalops, 43. 

Parasciurus, 42. 

Patrons, 5. 

Perodipus, list of species and sub- 
species of, 28. 

Perognathus, list of species and sub- 
species of, 26. 

Phalaropus lobatus, 5. 
tricolor, 10. 

Phenacomys, list of species and sub- 
species of, 31. 

Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 13. 

Prentiss, D. Webster, 92. 

Procyon lotor, 12. 

Rathbun, Frank R., 55, 68, 80. 
Reichenow, Anton, 56, 75, 87, 88. 
Rhipodomys, 31. 
Ridgway, Robert, 50, 51, 56, 60, 62, 

68, 80, 81, 88, 89, 95, 96. 
Riker, C. B., Experiences during 

Collecting Trips on the Amazon 

River, 13. 
Roberts, Thomas S., 76, 81, 
Rodents, North American, 23. 



Roosevelt, Theodore, 56, 69. 
Rowley, G. D., 56. 

Saccomyid.^, 30. 

Salvin, Osbert, 51, 57, 77. 

Saunders, Howard, 51, 61, 87, 90. 

Scalops, 43. 

Scapanus, 43. 

Schalow, Hermann. 75, 88. 

Sciurus. list of recently described 
North American species and sub- 
species of, 39. 

Sclater, P. L., 51. 

Scott, W. L., 91. 

Secretary's report, 14. 

Seebohm, Henry, 81, 96. 

Sennett, George B., 61, 69. 

Sharpe, R. Bowdler, 57, 69, 81, 97. 

Shrews, North American, 42, 43. 

Shufeldt, R. W., 81. 82, 90. 

Sigmodon, list of species and subspe- 
cies of, 35. 

Sitomys, list of North American spe- 
cies and subspecies of, 37. 

Sitomys americanus, 12. 

Smith, Everett, 97. 

Spermophilus, list of North American 
species and subspecies of, 41. 

Spilogale, 25, 42. 

Stearns, Winfrid A., 76, 82, 97, 98. 

Steatornis caripensis, 4. 

Steere, J. B., it. 

Stejneger, Leonhard, 90, 98, 99. 

Stevenson, H., 61. 

Streets, Thomas H., 57. 

Sturnus vulgaris, 5. 

Sylvania mitrata, 3. 

Synaptomys, 32. 

Tamias, list of the North American 

species and subspecies of, 40. 
Tamias harrisi, 40. 
lateralis, 40. 
quadrivittatus, 40. 
striatus, 40. 
Tamiasciurus, 42 
Tantalus loculator, 3. 
Thomomys, list of species and sub- 
species of, 29. 
Thorne, Miss Phoebe Anna, donation 

from, 3. 
Totanus flavipes, 10. 

melanoleucus, 10. 
solitarius, 10. 
Townsend, Charles H., 99. 
Treasurer's report, I, 15. 
Tringa fuscicollis, 10. 
maculata.io. 



04 



Tryngites subruficollis, ro. 
Tuelon, James A.. 99. 

Tardus aonalaschkae pallasii, 13. 
Turner, Lueien M., 99. 
Tylomys, 31. 
Tyrannus dominicensis, 6. 

Ungulates, North American, 23. 
Urinator arcticus, 3. 

Vennor, Henry G., 51. 

Vesperimus, 31. 
Vireo calidris, 6. 
Vogt, M. C. 69. 



Volatinia jacarina splendens, 4. 
Vulpes fulvus, 12. 

Wheaton, J. M., 90. 

White, George R., 91. 

Willard, S. L., 57. 

Willard, S. W., 99. 

Wilson, Alexander, 61. 

Wortman, J, L., Mammals of the 
Ancient Lake Basins of North 
America (public lecture), 13. 

Xerospermophilus, 42. 

Zapus hudsonicus, 12. 



ERRATA. 



Page 12, line 20, for " Didelplris virginianus" read 
" Didelphis virginiana? 

Page 26, lines 12 and 13, for " San Sebastion," read " San 
Sebastian." 

Page 26, line 2 of the third foot-note, for " Dr. Merrian,'' 
read " Dr. Merriam." 

Page 27, line 18 of foot-note, for " Berkely," read 
41 Berkeley." 

Page 40, line 4, for "21 species and 12 subspecies," read 
" 26 species and 13 subspecies. '' 

Page 40, lines 15 and 16, for "23 species and 16 sub- 
species, under several subgeneric subdivisions," dele the 
last four words, and read " 18 species and 8 subspecies." 



Officers of the Linnaean Society 



President, 
Vice-President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, - 



OF NEW YORK. 

1894-95. 



J. A. Allen. 

- Frank M. Chapman. 
Walter W. Granger. 

- L S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YORK. 

JUNE, 1894. 



HONORARY. 



Elliott Coues, M.D., Ph.D. George N. Lawrence. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. 



CORRESPONDING 



C C. Abbott, M.D 
G S. Agersborg. 
Charles E Bendire. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 
A. K. Fisher. M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M.D. 
E S Gilbert. 
Juan Gundlach, Ph.D. 
C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder 
A M Ingersoll. 
F. W. Langdon, M.D. 
Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 



Thos. 



Wm. K. Lente. 

Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M.D. 

James C. Merrill, M.D. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M.D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

George B. Sennett. 

R. W. bHUFELDT, M.D. 

Ernest E. Thompson. 
E. Carleton Thurber. 
Spencer Trotter, M D. 
B. H. Warren, M.D. 
S. W Williston, M.D., Ph.D. 
W. Wilson. (over) 



RESIDENT MEMBERS OF THE LM/EAN^ SOCIETY OF NEW YORK, 



Frank Abbott, M.D. 
Tappan Adney. 
J. A. Allen, Ph.D. 
Henry G. Anderson, M.D. 
J. M. Andreini. 
Samuel P. Avery, 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
David S. Banks. 
George Strong Baxter, Jr. 
Daniel C Beard. 
J. Carter Beard. 
Edward D. Bellows. 
Henry C. Bennett. 
Charles M. Berrian. 
Louis B. Bishop, M D. 
George Dexter Bradford. 
William C. Braislin, M.D. 
H. C. Burton. 
Hugh N. Camp 
William J. Cassard. 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
S. H Chubb. 
Frederick Clarkson. 
Albert E. Colburn. 
William A. CoNKLiN,Ph.D. 
Charles F. Cox. 
s. d. coykendall. 
Thomas Craig. 
George A. Crocker. 
Charles P. Daly, LL.D. 
Theodore L. DeVinne. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
Basil H. Dutcher. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. 
Robert W. Eastman, M.D. 
Newbold Edgar. 
Evan M. Evans. 
Charles S Faulkner. 
Harry W. Floyd. 
L S. Foster. 
Samuel A. French. 
John Frick. 
Henry Gade, 
Theodore K. Gibbs. 
E. L. Godkin. 



Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. 
Walter W. Granger. 
Isaac J. Greenwood. 
William H. Gregg, M.D. 
George B. Grinnell, Ph.D. 
Alexander Hadden, M.D. 
J C. Havemeyer. 
Harold Herrick. 
Frederick H.Hoadley, M.D. 
Peter S. Hoe 
Henry Holt. 

Clarence C. Howard, M D. 
Arthur H. Howell. 

B. Talbot B. Hyde. 
E Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E. Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. 
John B. Ireland. 

C. Bradley Isham. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Alex B. Johnson, M.D. 
Frank E. Johnson 

L. Scott Kemper. 
Rev. A. B Kendig. 
Elijah R Kennedy. 
Rudolph Keppler. 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 

F. Lange, M.D. 
J D. Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B Lawrence, Jr. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles A. Leale, M.D. 
A. Liautard, M.D. 
Robert Lockhart. 
Walter S Logan. 
Benjamin Lord, M.D. 
Seth Low, LL.D. 

John Luhrman. Jr. 
F. A. McGuire, M.D. 
A. J Macdonald. 
Charles M. Mali. 
Miss Prestonia Mann. 
Alfred G. Mayer. 
Edgar A. Mfarns, M.D. 
Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller. 
A. G Mills. 



Robert T. Morris, M.D, 
Harry C. Oberholser. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc D. 
William C. Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
Edward S Renwick. 
William M. Richardson. 

C. B. Riker. 

J. H. Ripley, M.D. 
William C Rives. M.D. 
S. H. Robbins 
William A. Robbins. 
John Rowley, Jr. 
William H. Rudkin. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
G. A. Sabine, M.D. 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
Hugo Schumann. 
W E. D. Scott. 
G. Thurston Seabury. 
William F. Sebert. 
T. G. Sellew. 
Charles Sill. 
James Baker Smith. 
James C. Spencer. 
John C. Sprague. 
Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H. Stevens. 
George F. Stevens, M.D. 
Mason A. Stone. 
William E. Tefft. 
Samuel Thorne. 

P. C. TlEMANN. 

W. L. Trenholm. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
David E. Wheeler. 
William E.Wheelock, ME 
William Wicke. 

D. O Wickham. 
John T. Willets. 
Robert R. Willets. 
Mrs Cynthia A. Wood. 
Lewis B. Woodruff. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Louis A. Zehega, M D. 



L. b. Foster, Printer, New York. 






1894-95. No. 7. 

ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^EAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK, 

For the Year Ending Jlarch 26, 1895, 

WITH 

NOTES ON CUBAN MAMMALS, 

By Juan Gundlach, 



SALAMANDERS FOUND IN THE VICINITY OF 

NEW YORK CITY, WITH NOTES UPON 

EXTRA-LIMITAL OR ALLIED 

SPECIES, 

By William L. Sherwood. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park, New York City. 



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Transactions of the Linnaean Society of New York, Volume I., 
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THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
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General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the 
Panther, Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least Weasel, 
Ermine, Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW (Corvus ossifragus Wilson) A WINTER AS 
WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN 
LIMIT OF ITS RANGE ? By WILLIAM BUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE 
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Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

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By CLINTON HAJiT MERRIAM, M.D. 

Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose, and Elk ; of the Moles and 
Shrews (six species) ; the Bats (five species) ; the Squirrels (six species) ; the 
Woodchuck, the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats and Mice 
(seven species), and the Haies (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORECID^E. {Atophyrax Bendirii, with a plate.) 

By CLES1 ON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

New York, August, 1884. 

Price: Paper, - $2 00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Abstract of Proceedings. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York 
No, 1, for the year ending March I, 1889, 8vo., paper cover, 9 pp. 



No. 2, " ' 


7, 1890, ' 


10 pp 


No. 3, " ' 


4 " 6, 1891, - 


11 pp 


No. 4, 


" 2, 1892, ' 


8 pp 


No. 5, 


" 1, 1893, ' 


41 PP 


No. 6, 


" 27, 1894, ' 


103 pp 


No. 7, 


' " 26, 1895, ' 


41 pp. 



Free to Members of the Society at date of issue. 
To others, Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4, 25 cents each. 

No. 5, 50 cents. 

No. 6, 75 cents. 

No. 7, 50 cents. 

For any information concerning the publications, address The Secretary 
of The Linnaean Society of New York, care of American Museum of 
Natural History, New York City. 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINNjEAN society 

OF 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 26, 1895. 



This is the seventh in the series of " Abstracts " pub- 
lished by the Society and, like the preceding numbers, is 
intended mainly as a brief review of the year's work, only 
the more important points in the papers read before the 
Society being mentioned. Some of the papers have been 
printed in full elsewhere, and in such cases a reference is 
given to the place of publication. 

Aprils, 1894. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by D. G. Elliot, 
F. R. S. E., on " Domestic Fowls and Pigeons," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

April 10, 1894. — The President in the chair. Six mem- 
bers and one visitor present. 

The Auditing Committee reported that it had examined 
the Treasurer's report and found it correct. 

Resolutions favoring a reduction of postal rates on scien- 
tific specimens were carried unanimously. 

J. L. Wortman, M. D., presented a paper entitled "Some 
Points on the Probable Origin of the Seals." His remarks 



were based upon the extinct animal Patriofelis, a skeleton 
of which was discovered in the Eocene deposit of southern 
Wyoming, in 1893. He referred to certain characters in 
the Seals which indicate that they have no relationship with 
any existing animal, and also mentioned several character- 
istics which are common to the Seals and to Patriofelis. 

April 24, 1894. — The President in the chair. Six mem- 
bers and eleven visitors present. 

Fifteen dollars were contributed by the Society to the 
fund then being raised by Mr. William Dutcher, for the 
protection of the Terns on Great Gull Island, Suffolk Coun- 
ty, New York, during the breeding season of 1894, and 
suitable resolutions were passed. 

William C. Braislin, M. D., read a paper entitled " Birds 
Observed in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York, during 
the winter of 1893-4." Seventeen species were included 
in the list. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a list of birds observed by him 
during a recent trip to southern New Hampshire. There 
were notes on fifteen species. 

May 8, 1894. — The President in the chair. Five mem- 
bers and four visitors present. 

The President, in accordance with a vote taken at the 
previous meeting, appointed a Committee on the Local 
Fauna, as follows, viz.: L. B. Bishop. M. D.. William C. 
Braislin, M. D , F. M. Chapman, Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 
M. D., L. S. Foster, W. W. Granger, A. H. Howell, H. C. 
Oberholser, William C. Rives, M. D., and L. B. Woodruff. 

Mr. J. M. Pray presented a paper entitled " Individual 
Variation in Birds, with Reference to its Bearing on their 
Psychological Development." The author considered that, 
psychologically speaking, birds and man have many attri- 
butes in common. He quoted to some extent from the 
unpublished writings of Mrs. Anna H. Read, describing 
the habits of various familiar species of birds as observed 
at Elizabeth, New Jersey. 

Dr. Allen read a letter from Mr. H. W. Henshaw, giving 



an account of the nest-building of a pair of Crimson House 
Finches (Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus) at Witch Creek, 
California. These birds guyed their nest, containing five 
eggs, which being insecurely placed would otherwise have 
been in danger of destruction by the prevailing strong 
winds. [See "Auk." Vol. XL, 1894, pp. 255, 256.] 

Mr. F. M. Chapman gave interesting notes concerning 
his recent West Indian trip. He said that, on May 6, when 
about eighty miles off Barnegat, New Jersey, he had seen 
large flocks of the Northern Phalarope (Phalaropus loba- 
tus), and also two specimens of the Long-tailed Jaeger 
( Stercorarius longicaudus) . 

May 22, 1894. — The Vice-President in the chair. Ten 
members and fourteen visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper entitled " Notes 
on a Second Visit to the Island of Trinidad," illustrated by 
numerous specimens. He gave a sketch of the animal life 
of the islands visited by him, which was particularly de- 
tailed regarding Trinidad. 

June 12, 1894. — The Vice-President in the chair. Eight 
members and five visitors present. 

Mr. H. C. Oberholser read a paper on " The Red-shoul- 
dered Hawk in Captivity." He related his experience in 
regard to the actions and food-habits of this species, of 
which he had had a number in captivity in Ohio. 

Mr. A. H. Howell mentioned the capture of an Acadian 
Flycatcher {Empidonax ac adieus) on Long Island, during 
the Spring migration. [See "Auk," Vol. XL, 1894, pp. 
82, 83.] 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a list of thirty-five birds observed 
by him in Westchester County, New York, on May 30, 
1894. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman remarked upon the Tufted Titmouse 
(Parus bieolor) as a permanent resident on Staten Island. 
Several of the members present regarded the bird as very 
rare on Long Island. 



The occurrence of Cicada septemdecim in this vicinity at 
present was mentioned. 

October 9, 1894. — The Vice-President in the chair. Six 
members and two visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman read a paper entitled " Notes on 
Cuban Mammals," by Juan Gundlach, Ph. D. Much inter- 
esting information concerning the various species of mam- 
mals was given, and the remarks on Solenodon were es- 
pecially valuable. The paper was illustrated by specimens 
from the American Museum collections. (Printed in this 
Abstract, postea, pp. 13-20.) 

October 23, 1894. — The President in the chair. Thirteen 
members and eight visitors present. 

The following report by Mr. William Dutcher concern- 
ing the protection of the Terns on Great Gull Island, was 
read : — 

" I take pleasure in reporting, that during the season of 
1894, protection was given to the colony of Terns, on Great 
Gull Island, N. Y., during the breeding season. In 1886, 
the Island was visited and a colony of from three to four 
thousand Terns was found there. It was ascertained that 
it was a common practise for persons to visit the Island and 
shoot the birds, and take the eggs for various purposes, 
principally, however, for eating. Subsequently it was as- 
certained that the colony was decreasing year by year, and 
the necessity for protection became apparent, if the colony 
was not to be entirely destroyed as has been the result 
elsewhere on the Long Island coast. The matter was 
brought to the attention of the Linnaean Society of New 
York, at a meeting held April 24th, 1894, when the follow- 
ing resolutions were unanimously adopted : 

" Whereas, It has been brought to the attention of this Society that the Terns 
breeding on Great Gull Island, Long Island, N. Y., are threatened with com- 
plete extermination unless measures are promptly taken for their protection 
during the breeding season, and it having been made known to this Society that 
Mr. Win. Dutcher of this city is willing to undertake to secure for them the 
necessary protection, provided the co-operation and pecuniary assistance of 
this Society can be obtained. Therefore, be it 



5 

" Resolved ; That this Society hereby appropriates the sum of $15.00 towards 
a fund to be raised by Mr. Dutcher, for the purpose of securing the services of 
a special game keeper for the protection of the Terns on Gull Island, and gives 
its hearty approval of his laudable enterprise in behalf of the preservation of 
these beautiful, harmless and much persecuted birds. 

(Signed) Walter W. Granger, 

Secretary. 

" The matter was also presented to the West Side Natural 
History Society of New York, and the American Society 
for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. These societies 
and some private individuals subscribed a fund sufficient 
for a salary to a special game keeper. Great Gull Island 
is some distance from the Long Island and Connecticut 
shores ; is somewhat difficult of access, and is not large 
enough, (being about twelve to fifteen acres in extent), to 
permit a game keeper to reside on the Island. It was 
therefore necessary to secure the co-operation of the Light 
House Board at Washington, D. C, and its permission 
that the keeper of the Little Gull Island Light-house 
should act in the capacity of game keeper. The matter 
being presented to the Board its consent was given as 
follows: 

" In reply to the request in your letter of May 5, 1894, the Light-house 
Board informs you that it sees no objections to the employment, by your so- 
ciety, of the keeper of Little Gull Island Light-house Station, N. Y., to pro- 
tect Tern near Little Gull Island during the breeding season. Authority to 
employ this keeper for that purpose is granted, with the proviso that it is not 
to interfer with his duties as Light-house keeper. 

" You are requested to communicate with Captain W. S. Schley, Inspector of 
the Third L. H. District, Tompkinsville, Staten Island, N. Y., on the subject 
and inform him of the action of the Board. 

Respectfully yours, 
(Signed), R. D. Evans, 

Capt. U. S. Navy 

Naval Secretary. 

" After securing the consent of the Light-house Board, 
that Capt. Field should serve as game protector, his ap- 
pointment by the Game Commissioners was requested by 
the New York Association for the Protection of Game in 
the following letter : 



" It has been shown conclusively to us that the colony of Terns breeding on 
Great Gull Island, Suffolk County, N. Y., is in danger of extermination, and 
is in need of State protection. We, therefore, petition your honorable body 
to appoint Henry P. Field, Keeper of Little Gull Island Light-h juse, Suffolk 
County, (P. O. Address, Sag Harbor), N. Y., as special game protector for 
Great Gull Island, his appointment to be without compensation on the part of 
the State, and to last from May 15th to September 15th, 1894. 
Very respectfully yours, 
(Signed), Wakeman Holberton, 

Secretary, 
New York Assoc, for Protection of Game. 

" On this application Capt. Field was appointed as Special 
Game Protector, and acted as such during the breeding 
season of 1894. In a letter received from him on the 4th 
of October, he states that the colony of Terns has increased 
wonderfully during the past season, and he submits a list 
of dates when he prevented parties from collecting eggs 
and shooting birds. 

" In reply to an inquiry he stated that he estimated the in- 
crease to be from 1,000 to 1,500 birds, or that the colony 
had increased in numbers at least one half. That this 
statement is correct is undoubtedly true, for, on numerous 
occasions, while sailing off the south side of Long Island 
this year, I observed Terns for the first time in a number 
of years, and a correspondent informs me that he saw 
flocks of Terns on Long Island as far west as Flushing Bay 
during the past season, none having been seen there before 
for a number of years. 

Very truly, 

Wm. Dutcher. 
" New York, Oct. 23, 1894. 

The paper of the evening, " Peculiar Phases of Color as- 
sumed by Certain Birds," by R. W. Shufeldt, M. D., was, 
in his absence, read by the Secretary. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read, from the recent compilation made 
by the Committee on the Local Fauna, the published re- 
cords concerning the thirty-two species of Raptores found 
in the vicinity of New York City. 



November 27,1894 — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Seven members and eight visitors present. 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D., read a paper on ''The 
Flora and Fauna of Sable Island." His remarks were 
based upon observations made by himself on the island 
during a period of sixteen days, the closing days of May, 
and the beginning of June. 1894. He found three species 
of Terns — the Common Tern {Sterna hirundo), the Arctic 
Tern [Sterna paradiscea), and the Roseate Tern {Sterna 
doiigalli) — on the island; the Common and Arctic Terns 
were exceedly abundant, breeding in great numbers at 
many places along the shore. The Ipswich Sparrow 
{Ammodramus princeps) was tolerably abundant and was 
breeding, and Dr. Dwight collected the first authentic nests 
with eggs of this species. 

December 11, 1894. — The President in the chair. Five 
members and four visitors present. 

The Lecture Committee presented a formal report 
through Dr. J. A. Allen, the chairman, stating that ar- 
rangements had been completed for a course of four 
lectures to be given in the lecture hall of the American 
Museum, as follows : 

1. January 8, 1895. " A Trip through the Lesser An- 
tilles," by Frank M. Chapman. 

2. February 5, 1895. " Th e Great West a Half Million 
Years Ago," by Henry Fairfield Osborn, Sc. D. 

3. March 12, 1895. " Hawaii, the Paradise of the Paci- 
fic, " by William Libbey, Jr., Sc. D. 

4. April 2, 1895. "Ancient Earthworks in the Ohio 
Valley," by Prof. Frederic W. Putnam. 

A paper by Mr. R. L. Ditmars was entitled " Notes on 
the Genus Crotalus (Rattlesnakes), with a Brief Review of 
the Genus." Mr. Ditmars stated the distribution of the 
genus Crotalus in the United States, and gave notes upon 
a live specimen which he had kept in captivity for over 
three years. His remarks upon the secretion of venom 
and exuviation by the various species were especially full. 



December 29, 1894. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Six members and one visitor present. 

Mr. W. W. Granger presented remarks on " The Mam- 
mals of the Black Hills and Vicinity." These notes were 
based upon a collection of about twenty species of small 
mammals, made by Mr. Granger during the summer of 
1894. The collection embraced the following species des- 
cribed as new to science by Dr. J. A. Allen 1 : — Neotoma 
campestris, N. rupicola, N. grangeri, Sciurus hudsonicus 
dakotensis, and Arvicola insperatus. Protective coloration 
was graphically indicated by specimens from the barren 
" Bad Lands," and from the deep pine forests of the Black 
Hills. 

January 8, 1895. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by Mr. Frank M. 
Chapman, entitled " A Trip through the Lesser Antilles," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 

January 22, 1895. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and ten visitors present. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented a paper on " The Mam- 
mals of Southern Arizona." This paper was based on a 
collection of about fifteen hundred mammals, made in 
southeastern Arizona, by Mr. W. W. Price, of the Leland 
Stanford University, and containing seventy species, of 
which ten have been described as new to science by Dr. 
Allen. Specimens of nearly all the species mentioned 
were shown, [See Bull. Am. Mus Nat. History, Vol. VI., 
1894, pp. 317-322, 347-350, and Vol. VII., 1895, pp. 193- 
258.] 

Mr. S. H. Chubb stated that he had seen a flock of about 
one hundred Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) at Bryn Mawr 
Park, New York, on December 31, 1894. 

February 5, 1895. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History, by Henry Fair- 
field Osborn, Sc. D., entitled " The Great West, a Half 
Million Years Ago," with stereopticon illustrations. 

1 Bull. Am. Mus. Nat.. Hist., Vol. VI., 1894, pp. 322-326. 



February 12, 1895.— The Vice-President in the chair. 
Eight members present. 

A Committee was appointed to draft resolutions upon 
the recent death of George N. Lawrence, an Honorary 
Member of the Society. 

Louis B. Bishop, M. D., presented two short papers, 
" Ay 'thy a marila or Ay thy a marila nearctica?" and "An 
Apparently Undescribed Plumage of the Surf Scoter.' 7 [See 
"Auk," Vol. XII., pp. 293-297. 

Mr. L. S. Foster mentioned the capture of a Black-cap- 
ped Petrel {ALstrelata hasitata) at New Paltz, Ulster 
County, New York, on January 26, 1895. [See " Auk," 
Vol. XII., 1895, p. 179.] 

William C. Braislin, M. D., stated that he had captured 
a Savanna Sparrow (Ammodramus sandzvichensis savan- 
na) at Flatbush, New York, on January 30 1895, and that 
he had observed a Phoebe (Sayomis phcebe) at Crosswicks, 
near Trenton, New Jersey, on December 26, 1894. 

February 26, 1895. — The President in the chair. Ten 
members and eight visitors present. 

The committee to draft resolutions upon the death of 
George N. Lawrence, reported as follows : 

" Mr. George Newbold Lawrence, the eminent American 
ornithologist, and an Honorary Member of this Society, 
died at his residence in New York City, on January 17, 
1895, m ms eighty-ninth year. For nearly fifty years he 
devoted his leisure from business pursuits to ornithological 
investigations, forming a collection of tropical American 
birds almost unrivalled in extent outside of public museums. 

" This collection, now the property of the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, will prove of inestimable service 
to science, containing, as it does, not only the types of most 
of his own species, but consisting of material now historic, 
from having been the basis of his work and carrying with it 
his identifications. So that, while death has removed him 
from earthly associations, his works will long prove a bless- 
ing to those laboring in his chosen field. 

" To students of North American ornithology he is best 



IO 



known for his contributions to Professor Baird's great work 
on North American birds, published in 1858, and forming 
Volume IX. of the Reports of Explorations and Surveys 
for a Railroad Route from the Mississippi River to the 
Pacific Ocean, conducted by the War Department of the 
United States, the parts relating to the Longipennes, the 
Totipalmi and the Brachypteri being from the pen of Mr. 
Lawrence. Aside from this, his published writings, num- 
bering some 120 titles, relate mainly to'the birds of Mexico, 
Central America, South America and the West Indies, of 
which he described over 300 species as new to science. 

" Mr. Lawrence was an associate and friend of Audubon, 
and at the time of his death formed almost the last link of 
the chain connecting the earlier ornithologists with the 
workers of to-day. He was not only one of the founders of 
the American Ornithologists' Union and one of its first 
Councillors, but in 1890 received the distinction of being 
the first, and thus far the only, American ornithologist 
elected to Honorary Membership in that body. His at- 
tainments were widely recognized abroad, he having been 
elected to honorary or corresponding membership in many 
foreign societies and academies, as well as to those of his 
own country. 

" Personally he was endeared to his many friends and sci- 
entific associates by his modesty and great amiability of 
character. Although of late years he was rendered com- 
paratively inactive in the scientific field by the infirmities of 
advanced age, his memory will be long cherished, not only 
among ornithologists, but by those privileged to have been 
honored with his personal acquaintance. His interest in 
ornithology was developed at an early age, and, later inten- 
sified and stimulated by his life-long intimacy with the late 
Professor Baird, was as keen during the later months of his 
life as at earlier periods." 

L. S. Foster, 
(Signed.) J. A. Allen, 

Frank M. Chapman, 

Committee. 



1 1 



Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented the paper of the even- 
ing, " The Study of Ornithology." Mr. Chapman spoke of 
the classification of birds, of the modifications produced by 
environment, and of the economic side of ornithology, and 
urged the present need of a knowlege of the living birds 
rather than further collecting of specimens. 

March 12, 1895. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by William Libbey, 
Jr., Sc. D., on " Hawaii, the Paradise of the Pacific," with 
stereopticon illustrations. 

March 26, 1895.— Annual Meeting. The President in the 
chair. Thirteen members and nineteen visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report, as follows : 

" There have been held during the past year 14 meetings 
of the Society, at which the average attendance of members 
was 7 and of visitors 6. 

" The membership of the Society has increased from 3 
Honorary, 136 Resident, and 35 Corresponding members — 
a total of 174 — to 2 Honorary, 150 Resident, and 37 Cor- 
responding members — a total of 189. 

" The members lost by death during the year are George 
Dexter Bradford, Frederick H. Hoadley, George N. Law- 
rence, and P. C. Tiemann. 

" There have been read before the Society 16 papers, of 
which 9 related to ornithology and the remainder chiefly to 
mammalogy. 

" The Society has issued 'Abstract of Proceedings, No. 
6,' to which are appended a paper on ' Recent Progress in 
the Study of North American Mammals,' by Dr. J. A. 
Allen ; 'A Consideration of Some Ornithological Litera- 
ture, with Extracts from Current Criticism, Part I,' by Mr. 
L. S. Foster ; and an index, — making a pamphlet of 104 
pages. The usual distribution to members and the ex- 
change list was made." 

The Librarian presented his annual report as follows : 

" During the past year the additions to the library of the 
Society have numbered 413 publications. It now consists 
of 1,287 issues. 



12 



11 No recent work in indexing the library has been possi- 
ble, but attention is called to the fact that more than ten 
thousand references to authors and subjects are at the ser- 
vice of those desiring to consult its valuable scientific ma- 
terial." 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a 
balance on hand of $202.97. 

The Committee on the Local Fauna reported as follows : 

" The committee has addressed itself -to the task of tabu- 
lating by species the published records of the birds occur- 
ring within fifty miles of New York City. 

"From 212 papers, by 88 authors, 3,364 citations con- 
cerning 388 species were obtained, and are now available 
to students. 

"In addition to this, a large amount of work has been 
done on a map of the region." 

The Committee for Conference with other New York 
Scientific Societies and the Committee on Finance sub- 
mitted reports. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 

Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. Stephen A. Krom presented a paper entitled "The 
Turkey Vulture {Catliartes aura), with Notes on a Speci- 
men taken at Plainfield, New Jersey." After describing the 
characteristics of this species and exhibiting two maps, one 
of which indicated its range in New Jersey and vicinity, and 
the other its occurrence in North America, Mr. Krom gave 
extended remarks upon its distribution, breeding area, nest, 
eggs, plumage, size, flight, and sense of smell and sight. 
The specimen referred to was taken at Plainfield, New Jer- 
sey, on June 30, 1894. [See "Auk," Vol. XII., 1895, p. 80.] 

Mr. William L. Sherwood presented remarks on "Sala- 
manders ; with Special Reference to Those Found near 
New York City." [Printed in this Abstract, postea, pp. 
21 et sea.] 



13 



Notes on Cuban Mammals. 1 

By Dr. Juan Gundlach. 



Chiroptera. — Of the twenty species of Bats observed by 
Dr. Gundlach, in Cuba, nineteen have been recorded by him 
in his paper entitled " Contribucion a la Mamalogia Cu- 
bana." 2 He places them in two groups, as follows: 
I. Species with a nose-leaf or with fleshy wrinkles over the 
nostrils or around the mouth. These hang themselves dur- 
ing the day by the hind-legs. They eat insects and fruit. 
The following genera are included : Macrotus, Monophyllns, 
Phyllonycteris, Artibeus, Phyllops, Brachypkylla, Mormops, 
Ckilonycteris, Noctilio. II. Species without a nose-leaf and 
with no wrinkles about the mouth. These sleep in crevices 
and do not hang themselves by the hind-feet. They eat 
only insects. The following genera are included : Molossus, 
Nyctinomus, Natalus, Vesperus, Nycticejus, AtalapJia. 

SOLENODON Brandt. 

Mr. Brandt, member of the Academy of St. Petersburg, 
published in the year 1833 in the " Memoires de l'Academie 
de St. Petersburg," Vol. II., p. 459, the description of the 
genus Solenodon, with the species paradoxus, a male of 
which was sent to him from Haiti. No other examples seem 
to have been sent to naturalists. 

Professor Poey, of the University of Havana, gave notice 

1 The part relating to the Chiroptera has been abridged ; the remainder of 
the paper is given in full, as written. 

2 Annales de la Real Academia de Ciencias medicas, fisicas, y naturales de 
la Habana, 1877. 



of the existence of a Solenodon in the island of Cuba, in the 
paper "El Plantel," in the year 1838. The species was 
found in the mountains between Cienfuegos and Trinidad, 
in the estates of Buenas-Ayres, Naranjos, and Cimarrones, 
as ascertained by the French Consul Lavallie in Cienfue- 
gos, but he did not see the animal, and it has not been 
observed there since ; at least no naturalist has been 
able to procure a specimen in that locality. I do not 
say that the species does not exist in the region ; for, being 
myself in the mountains of Trinidad in 1856, I was told 
by a countryman that the species existed there, and that 
he had himself seen it ; and, as he gave me an exact descrip- 
tion of the animal, I believe that he really saw it. The only 
discrepancy in the description he gave of the animal, con- 
sisted in the color of the hair, which he said was grayish, 
which is not the color of the species in the eastern part of 
the island. 

The first notice that Poey had of Solenodon was a skull, 
received from Mr. Andres Porey Iacome, of Guanabacoa, 
which had been sent to him from Bayamo. After having 
asked for information of Macleay, of London, from Brandt's 
work, and also from Mr. Gu^rin, of Paris, he pub- 
lished an article in the " Plantel." Poey received after- 
wards some living individuals from Mr. Rafael Zenea, of 
Bayamo, which individuals were destined to the Royal 
Economic Society of Havana. One of these individuals is 
represented in the engraving of the first volume of Poey's 
" Memorias." Zenea, as well as Poey and myself, says that 
in day-time they slumbered, hiding their heads if possible, 
.and at night were quite lively, occasionally screaming ; it 
screamed in the same way when I killed it. 

After Mr. Poey's publication in the " Plantel," Mr. Ger- 
vais mentions the species in a note in La Sagra's work, 
" Historia fisica, politica y natural de la Isla de Cuba," but 
only gives its name. 

Poey published later an extensive .treatise, with a colored 
engraving, in his " Memorias," I., p. 23. 



i5 

I afterwards sent a female in alcohol to the Society of 
Natural History of Cassel (electorado Hessen), and from 
thence it was sent to the Museum of Berlin, where the Di- 
rector of the same, Dr. Peters, made a study of it, which 
was published in the "Abhandlung der koniglichen Akad- 
emie der Wissenschaften in Berlin, 1863," with three en- 
gravings, representing the animal, its skeleton, and some in- 
terior and exterior parts of the same ; the engraving of the 
animal is colored. He found some differences between the 
examples from Cuba and the one from Haiti, received for 
comparison from St. Petersburg, and for this reason named 
the former Solenodon cub anus. 

In the same year I sent two examples to Washington. 
Of these, one is still at the Smithsonian Institution and 
Professor Baird sent the other to England. 

The genus is found in the Sierra Maestra, south of Ba- 
yamo, and from there Professor Poey and myself have both 
received several individuals, presented to us by Dr. Manuel 
Yero ; and it is also said to exist in the mountain near 
Sagua de Tanamo and Mayafi, for having once taken a live 
individual to the coffee plantation Iaguey, in the District 
of Yateras, some of the men working there, natives of Sagua 
de Tanamo, said they had seen the animal there, when 
they saw mine. 

In the year 1857, I went to Bayamo, to the coffee-plan- 
tation Buena-Vista, south of Bayamo, from whence Yero 
had received the individuals he had given me. There I 
went with a wood- keeper to the highest part of the mount- 
ain and met with evident signs of the existence of the ani- 
mal in places where it had been scratching the soil in 
search of food (worms and insects], and I also saw holes 
made by the animal in which it lives during the day-time. 
In order to get the animal it is necessary to dig to the bot- 
tom of the hole or cave, and this is sometimes a very hard 
task, where the roots of large trees render the digging diffi- 
cult. Though the Solenodon is not very rare, yet it is not 
easy to procure one, and when desired, a high price must be 



i6 



paid for it. In 1885 or 1886, Professor Baird of the Smith- 
sonian Institution, and Dr. Reynoso, director of the Insti- 
tute at Havana, desired some individuals, and for three 
of these seventy-three dollars were paid. Of these three, 
I prepared one for the Havana Institute, the other two were 
sent to Washington, one in alcohol and the other alive. 
The two arrived safely and the living one was sent to the 
Zoological Garden of Philadelphia, where it was kept until 
it died. After that I received from Mr. Yero (son of Dr. 
Yero), a few more individuals, one of which was given to 
the Academy of Sciences, medicals, fisicals, and naturals of 
Havana, another to the University of Havana, one was sent 
to the Museum of Bremen, one to the Museum of Geneva, 
Switzerland; two to Paris; of another I prepared a skeleton 
for the Institute of Havana, and a male and a very young 
one I sent in alcohol to Berlin, to Dr. Peters, for the con- 
tinuation of his monograph, but he died before completing 
it. 

My friend, Mr. Ramsden, the English Consul at Santi- 
ago de Cuba, procured a specimen which he sent in alcohol 
to England, and Don Francisco Timeno, of Matanzas, re- 
ceived a specimen from a friend for his collection. 

I have received no examples since 1889. I have asked 
for one for Mr. Cory and another for the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York. 

The names Tamache at Cienfuegos and Tejon, at Ba- 
yamo cannot be kept for the species, because the name 
Tamache is (if I am well informed) that of a Mexican animal 
and quite different, and Tejon is the Meles taxus of Europe, a 
large plantigrade animal. The name Andaras, mentioned 
in Peters' treatise, page 19, as used in Guisa and the Sierra 
Maestra, belongs to the species Capromys melanitrus Poey. 
The name Aire given by Oviedo is improper and not to 
be admitted. The name Almiqui given by Prof. Poey, say- 
ing it is the name of a mountain, is the name of a tree, 
Mimusops taimiqni, and probably not of a mountain. 
Dr. Peters, in a note on page 19, says that the name Mira- 



17 

guane on the label is the name of the Haitian species, but 
it is the name of the locality where it was found. 

The name Solenodon is composed of two Greek words 
and means '• teeth with a channel," because the second 
incisor tooth of the inferior mandible is large and has a 
channel on the inside. The channel seems to be the con- 
ductor of a liquid which is perhaps poisonous. Dr. Peters 
did not find glands in connection with the teeth. I was 
once bitten by the animal in the finger with the channelled 
incisors and the wound swelled; but this happened also 
with the bite of other animals in anger. I was always able 
to touch and remove it to clean the cage without any as- 
sistance except in the case mentioned. 

My friend Yero, who had kept several examples in a 
room, viz.: a female with two very young ones, that held 
tight to the mammae of the mother while it went around 
the room. I have observed that the extremity of the 
mamma was harder than its base and this probably aided 
the young ones in holding to them. 

I have also seen female bats flying away, frightened, with 
their little ones hanging on their breast. 

The animal erected the hair on its back, when in anger or 
when a dog happened to come near it. It could be fed with 
raw meat cut into very fine strips of the shape of worms, or 
with little pieces of birds intestines, with insects or earth 
worms. 

The color of the fur varies somewhat, but the most com- 
mon is the one given in the engravings published by Poey 
and Peters. 

Dr. Peters gives the differences of the two species : the 
length of the hair of the back is in S. paradoxus 35 milime- 
tres, and in cub anus 75 milimetres, and the nostrils are 
situated in the border and near the extremity of the head, 
in cub anus and in paradoxus are below; they are sep- 
arated on the underside in paradoxus for a broader space. 

Capromys Desmarest. 
There are only three species of Capromys in Cuba. The 



8 



largest is Capromys foumieri Desmarest. It lives upon 
the trees, between the branches, or upon parasitic plants, or 
in holes between the rocks, when trees are lacking. They 
go up the trees, climbing the vines growing on them, or by 
going up the aerial roots of the Iaguey (Fiats), Copey 
(Clusia), etc. It is named all over the western part of the 
island " Hutia Congo," and in the mountain of Guantanamo 
it is known by the name of " Hutia de ramas " (Hutia of the 
branches). It received the name Congo because individuals 
caged can be easily tamed, like the Congo Negroes. In the 
islets near Cardenas I procured a black variety, called there 
Hutia Mandinga, because the Mandinga Negroes are very 
black. I suppose that the eating of the leaves of the 
Mangrove (Rhizophora), which contains much tannin, is the 
cause of its black color. Some perfect albinos, or spotted 
with white, are occasionally found. Its food is vegeta- 
ble, and I doubt, as la Sagra states, that it eats lizards also. 

Its tail is short, straight, and covered with short hairs. 

The second species is the Capromys prehensilis Poeppig 
= Capr. poeyi Gervais, called in the western part of Cuba 
" Hutia Carabali," and in the mountains of Trinidad " Hutia 
Mona " (Monkey Hutia). The name Carabali is given be- 
cause caged individuals are not easily domesticated, and 
will not eat when captured, resembling in this the Carabali 
Negroes ; the name Hutia Mona is given because the end 
of the tail has a prehensile character. It lives generally in 
hollow trees, and where these are wanting, it lives on the 
branches. I have never seen it in stony holes or caves. 

Mr. Poeppig called it prehensilis on account of its long 
tail, which it can twist and hang by it in some way, but 
not as the American monkeys do with their tail. Mr. 
Gu^rin-Menneville called the species Capromys poeyi, 
probably because he did not know that it had already been 
named, and Poey would not accept the name prehensilis, 
because the peculiar character of Poeppig's description con- 
sisted in the statement that the end of the tail undermost 
was hairless, when the truth is that the end had been worn 



out. This species exists only in the western part of the 
island. 

The third species is the Capromys melanurus Poey, called 
Andaraz in Bayamo and Hutia de hoyo (in hollows) in the 
mountain of Guantanamo. It lives in the eastern part of 
the island, in the holes in trees. This species has a short 
tail, like the Hutia Congo ; its extremity is not prehensile, 
and is covered with pretty long black hairs. 

Negroes and countrymen are fond of the flesh of Capro- 
mys fournieri; the flesh of the other two species is not 
esteemed. The surface of the liver of Capromys fournieri 
is wrinkled, as represented by Gervais in la Sagra's work, 
and I believe also by Dobson. The liver in Capr. pre- 
hensilis and Capr. melanurus is smooth. 

Mus Linn'e. 

There are three species of this genus in Cuba. Dr. Peters 
has classified the individuals sent by me as Mus decumanus, 
rattus and musculus. Mr. Chapman, in his " Notes on 
Birds and Mammals observed near Trinidad, in Cuba," 
mentions two species, M. tectorum and musculus. I sup- 
pose that M. tectorum is the same species named rattus by 
Dr. Peters, because it lives on trees, in the upper parts of 
houses, and in the roofs of rural houses when covered with 
palm-leaves. On trees it lives in holes, or, if these are 
lacking, in a globular nest with a lateral entrance, formed 
of leaves and fine twigs. It is named Raton. 

The species M. deacmamcs Pallas, Rata, lives almost al- 
ways in holes made in the ground, in sinks and drains. 

It is omnivorous, very noxious, especially in the sugar- 
cane fields, where it- kills the plant by biting it ; it also 
kills and eats domestic fowls and eggs, and also eats the 
food in houses, etc. When the Rats are in danger they 
sometimes attack persons. On the back some stiffer and 
blackish hairs may be seen. The fur of the Rat is of a 
grayish-brown on the upper parts, lighter on the sides and 
white on the under parts ; and in the Raton the fur is above 



20 



dark gray, lighter on the sides and white on the under parts. 
The Rat is the largest species, and the smallest is Mus 
mus cuius Linn£, named Ratoncito or Guayabito. It lives 
everywhere in houses and in fields. It is very noxious in 
the houses, not so much for eating the victuals as for gnaw- 
ing the clothes, furniture, boxes and baskets containing 
victuals. 

The genus Mus forms no part of the fauna of Cuba. The 
species were introduced by vessels. 

I have not observed or seen the maritime mammals. 
There have been observed : 

1. Monachus tropicalis ; caged near Havana, was stuffed, 
and afterward purchased by Mr. Poey for the Smithsonian 
Institution. 

2. Manatus Manati ; lives in different localities. 

3. Delphinus ? Tomina ; not rare ; seen from vessels. 

4. Phoccena ? Orcas. Found dead on the seashore ; the 
skeleton was prepared for the Museum of the Academy. 



The Salamanders Found in the Vicin- 
ity of New York City, with Notes upon 
Extra- Limital or Allied Species. 

By William L. Sherwood. 



This list embraces all forms of Salamanders hitherto 
found in this vicinity, and mentions others either on ac- 
count of relationship or for comparison. 

Much of the following is now in print, but scattered 
through various books, pamphlets or privately printed pa- 
pers. I have endeavored to collate such information, and 
have added thereto my personal observations, commenting 
upon the varying opinions. I have freely consulted Pro- 
fessor Cope's Batrachia of North America, Nicholson's 
Manual of Zoology and W. H. Smith's Urodela and Cae- 
cilia, and am indebted to Professor Simon H. Gage and 
others for valuable suggestions. Wherever statements or 
descriptions have been taken from other authors I have 
endeavored to give full credit. 

Salamanders, on account of their secretive habits and, to 
many, repulsiveness of form, have been little studied, most 
of the work in this direction having been performed by the 
professional naturalist. To most people any reptile or 
batraehian is offensive, and is seen only to be destroyed, 
although, of late years, the many published articles upon 
the common toad and its value as an insect-destroyer have 
tended to bring about kinder feelings. The draining of 
lands and cutting of forests, as well as the increase of hu- 
man habitation, have driven these animals further and fur- 
ther away, and many of the land forms can now be found 



22 

only where the "second growth" of forest has been allowed 
to come up undisturbed by annual fires. 

Some attempt to catalogue the Salamanders of the State 
was made by De Kay in 1842 and published in the Natural 
History of New York, and an incomplete, and in some 
cases incorrect, list occurs in the Final Report of the Geol- 
ogist of New Jersey, published in 1890. Particular in- 
stances of erroneous statements will be found under my 
descriptions of Ambly stoma punctatum and Plethodon ci- 
ne re 71s. 

It is probable that all of the species occurring near New 
York have been described, but the finding of an isolated 
specimen once in two or three years would lead one to 
think that perhaps there are undiscovered forms so rarely 
seen as to have escaped the eye of a naturalist. Mr. Eugene 
Smith, of Hoboken, N. J., reports finding a specimen of 
Desmognathus ocropJicea near Greenwood Lake, although 
no reference is made to its occurrence in New York south 
of the Adirondacks, or possibly near the northern counties 
of Pennsylvania. The New Jersey Geological Survey 
states that it should be found in the northern counties, but 
does not mention specimen^ from this locality as existing 
in the State Museum. It may be expected that certain 
supposed extra-limital forms still remain to be discovered. 
For example, the Cricket-Frog (Acris gryllns) described 
as more usually found "in the southern third of the State" 
of New Jersey,* is abundant along the Saddle River valley 
as far north as Hohokus, and is sparingly found in the low- 
lying lands to the east. 

Although many insects are devoured by adult Salaman- 
ders, the situations in which the latter live are generally so 
far removed from farms as to render them of little use to 
agriculturists. 

Any study of their habits or peculiarities must then be of 
value to naturalists only, as an aid in establishing laws of 
distribution or variation, thus directly bearing upon the 

* Geol. Survey, 1890. 



23 

origin of species and evolution, and the discovery of the 
smallest change in animal development may indirectly add 
to the mass of petty details which make up the fund of 
knowledge needed in discussion of the more weighty phil- 
osophical questions. In the case of Salamanders this 
question may become particularly interesting as leading to 
further knowledge upon the adaptation of animals to en- 
vironment. All those found here breed in water or in 
moist places, and at some time or other become strictly 
terrestrial, only one species (Diemyctylus viridescens) re- 
turning to a more or less aquatic life. If it can be demon- 
strated beyond question that this particular species was 
once strictly a land or water animal, and that, in the 
struggle for existence, it has been obliged to spend part of 
its life in a foreign element, and gradually acquired the 
habit, light would be thrown upon the vexed question of the 
possibility of such fixation or permanency as is involved in 
a species. It is already known {vide Darwin's Origin of 
Species, p. 397, et seq.) that the Black Salamander of the 
Alps (Salamandra atra) brings forth its young alive and 
fully formed, the metamorphosis having taken place in dila- 
tations of the oviducts of the mother. If taken from her, 
the young are found to have exquisitely feathered gills. 
Some were removed by Miss Von Chauvin and placed in 
water, where they swam about like ordinary tadpoles. 
They underwent the metamorphosis common to other 
Salamanders, and left the water fourteen weeks later as 
fully adult as those born from the mother. 

The Urodela. or Salamanders, share with the other am- 
phibians (Anura and Caecilia*) a more or less complete 
metamorphosis, with branchial respiration in the young and 
partial or complete aerial respiration in the adults, and in 
the elimination of carbon dioxide by the skin. As in birds, 
reptiles, and fishes, the blood corpuscles are oval and nucle- 

* Professor Cope places the Ccecilians with the Urodela as a family connected 
through the Amphiumidae. — Bull. No. 34, U. S. Natl. Musetim, p. 34. 



24 

ated.* The blood is cold, the circulation incomplete and 
practically suspended during hibernation. There are no 
external scales or scutes (Amphiuma and Caecilia except- 
ed), the skin being- smooth and naked. This characteristic 
will enable the veriest novice to distinguish these animals 
from all lizards. 

The foetus is without the embryonic sac known as the 
amnion, and the allantois (organ by which foetal blood is 
aerated) is absent, but represented by the urinary bladder. 
The skeleton is internal, the vertebrae biconcave (amphi- 
ccelous), or concave behind and convex in front (opistho- 
ccelous). No Salamander has vertebrae which are concave 
in front only (proccelous), as in frogs. In the development 
the vertebrae are at first amphiccelous, as in fishes, an ossi- 
fication of the intervertebral cartilage attaching itself later 
on to form those vertebrae which are opisthocaelous. The 
skull is connected by two occipital condyles, and the nasal 
sacs open posteriorly into the pharynx. The reproductive, 
urinary, and digestive organs open into a common recepta- 
cle, the cloaca. 

The Sirens have fore feet only. All other tailed am- 
phibians have four limbs, in which the radius and ulna, and 
tibia and fibula, are not anchylosed as in frogs. The 
Sirens of our Southern States and the Mud Puppies, or 
Water-dogs, of Western Rivers, with the Proteus of Aus- 
tria, are the only forms which are perennibranchiate, the 
Siredons, or Axolotls being now accepted as more or less 
persistent larval forms of Amblystoma. 

The Congo Snakes of the South and Hellbenders, or 
Mud-devils, of Ohio, retain branchial apertures in the neck 
of the adult. All other Salamanders of the United States 
are caducous, the gill slits being perfectly closed in adult. 

The famiiy divisions are based principally upon the ar- 
rangement of the teeth and the generic upon the shape of 

* Professor John Michels has recently demonstrated the existence of both a 
nucleus and a nucleolus in mammalian red blood corpuscles. — Set. Am. Supp.. 
May 4, 1895, p. 16,126. 



25 

tail, attachment of the tongue, and development of the toes. 
Specific differences will be found under their respective 
headings. 

The larvae have external gills arranged in three tufts on 
each side, with a long process in front of first gill, known 
as the "balancer." The gills are upon the arches and 
adapted for breathing air dissolved in water. There are no 
internal gills, as in Anura. The larval heart consists of one 
auricle and one ventricle, as in fishes, and is respiratory in 
character, driving venous blood to the gills. In the adult, 
true lungs are always present, and the heart has two auri- 
cles and one ventricle. 

In development, the anterior limbs appear first and the 
posterior follow.* 

Classification and List of our Local Species. 

The local fauna are embraced in the following classifica- 
tion : 

Class, BATRACHIA. 

Order, URODELA. 

I I. Amblystomidce. 

-,-, ... II. Plethodontidce. 

Families \\ TTT _ 

111. Desmognai/iidcE. 

[IV. Pleurodelidce. 

Genera and Species. 
Family I. ( Ambly stoma pnnctatnm. 



Vertebrae -< Ambly stoma op 
amphicselous. ( Ambly stoma tig 



acum. 
prinum. 



* The development of the anterior limbs of frog tadpoles is the same, but 
they are concealed by the operculum until after the appearance of the hinder 
limbs. This difference in the growth of the hood forms a distinguishing char- 
acter by which the novice may determine the order to which a tadpole belongs. 



Family II. 

Vertebrae 

amphicaelous. 



26 



r Hemidactyliwn scutatum. 

Spelerpes ruber ruber. 

A7 . " 1 Spelerpes bilineatus. 

Vertebrae _f_ ... 

Flet/ioaon cinereus erythronoUis. 

PletJiodon cinereus cinereus. 

PletJiodon glutinosus. 

Family III. c 
Ar , , ) Uesmognatlius ocrophoea. 

Vertebrae -I s r 

. ^. , i Desmognatlius fusca fusca. 

opisthocoelous. \ 

v , 'J Diemyctylus viridescens viridescens. 

. . •. ) (Seasonal form) Z>. miniatus. 

opisthocoelous. v 

Amblystoma punctatura Linn&us. 

Spotted Salamander. 

This is the Salamandra subviolacea of DeKay, or Large- 
spotted Salamander. It is erroneously described in the 
New Jersey Geological Survey as " the Crimson-spotted 
Triton ... so frequently seen in aquaria," the latter 
name belonging to Diemyctylus viridescens, which see. 

Body thick and swollen ; head broad and flat. Length 
6 inches, of which the tail is a little less than half. Color 
black to purplish above, with a series of round yellow spots 
on each side of back and tail, and two or three on upper 
surface of each limb. Under surface dark blue, with incon- 
spicuous white dots. Dorsal groove and eleven costal 
grooves, the latter strongly marked. In alcohol, dark 
brown, and the spots white or bluish. 

Sparingly found at Fort Lee during the warm season 
under logs and stones in clearings; during the breeding 
season, and in October before the time for hibernation, 
they seem to have disappeared from the open, and are found 
in the swampy hollow far into the woods and not far from 
water, where their eggs may be found in large masses as 
early as April. Not as common as A. opacum. 



2/ 

Amblystoma opacum Gravenhorst. 
Blotched or Marbled Salamander. 

This is the Salamandra fasciata (Green) of De Kay. 

The head is not so broad as in A. punctatum. Length 
^\ to 4 inches, of which the tail is little over one-third.* 
Black, with ashy gray or bluish bands on the head and 
dorsal surface of body. These make the general color ap- 
pear as blotches of black surrounded by gray, the latter 
color more or less as transverse bands which are more 
linear on tail. Ventral surface dark blue with white streak 
at gular fold. Costal grooves, n. 

The gray bands are sometimes confluent with those be- 
fore or behind, and sometimes continue along the sides of 
the dorsal surface, abruptly ending without connection with 
the next. They are well confined to the dorsal region, and 
in young adults cover nearly the entire top of the head. 

All examined by me are without a dorsal furrow, but it 
is stated by Mr. W. H. Smith, that he received eight speci- 
mens from Southern Illinois", all with this furrow very 
distinct. Half-grown specimens have white dots on the 
sides and below, which seem to disappear in the adult. 

In the Ninth Annual Report of Smithsonian Institution, 
1854, they are described by Rev. C. H. Mann as having 
eggs which are incubated in nests by the male or female. 

It is believed that A. opacum lays its eggs in water. I 
have not raised them from the egg but have captured 70 
larvae at one time as early as April 17. These were found 
in shallow ponds in the open lots between woods at Fort 
Lee and were then from J to ij inches long. Most were 
captured by dragging a net through a thick submerged 
growth of rush-grass, Eleocharis tenuis {panciflora ?) De- 
velopment is rapid, as by May 8 those taken had attained 
twice their length at time of capture, and those in ponds 
had almost entirely disappeared, probably having taken to 

* Jordan's Manual and N. J. Geol. Survey give the tail as i\ inches. The 
longest specimen described measured 3.80 inches with tail only i-| inches. 



28 



land. I have found larvae as late as June 4, quite fully de- 
veloped. The young are thickly spotted with white, and 
the bands do not show as characteristic markings before the 
animal has reached about two inches in length. 

The adults seem to favor quite dry situations, as I have 
taken them from under stones lying in a sandy and grav- 
elly path upon the top of a hill. They frequently burrow 
under stones which enter deeply into soil. I have cap- 
tured them as late as October 25, and think that they 
hibernate very late in the fall. 

Ambly stoma tigrinum Green. 
Tiger Triton. 

Triton tigrinus Holbrook ; De Kay. 
A mbly stoma mavortiiim . 
Larval form : Siredon lichenoides. 
Sired on gracilis. 

This is the largest eastern Salamander, a specimen 
eleven inches in length being described by De Kay. It 
should occur at Fort Lee, and Col. Nicolas Pike tells me 
that he once captured one there. All specimens received 
by me were from a pond near Rancocas, L. I 

Body large and thick. Head more narrow, swollen on 
sides. Gular fold overlapping. Tail flatly compressed 
towards tip and as long as head and body. Legs short 
and very stout, with short triangular digits in aquatic 
specimens. Body black or brown, with oblong and quad- 
rate blotches on the back and parallel quadrate blotches 
along the costal grooves, some extending across the ven- 
tral surface, covering the ground color. In the specimen 
described (length, nine inches) the entire under surface of 
the head is yellow, and only one longitudinal blotch 
appears before reaching the third costal groove. Tail 
lighter brown, with few black blotches. Under surface 
with a central line of black more or less interrupted by 
alternate or opposite ends of yellow costal bands ; the 



2 9 

under surface of the tail, from anus to within half inch of 
tip, forms an irregular but continuous blotch of black. 
Limbs somewhat banded ; predominant color, yellow. 

This species is partially aquatic, leaving- the water late 
in the season to occup)^ burrows in the soil. Those which 
I have kept in a terrarium have concealed themselves dur- 
ing the day, only the snout showing at the surface, but I 
have frequently found them out at night, during which time 
they greedily devoured small frogs. 

It has been demonstrated that the Axolotls of the West- 
ern Lakes, Siredon lichenoides and S. gracilis, are both forms 
of A. mavortium* the western variety of A. tigrinum. 
Prof. Cope thinks that ultimately A. mavortium will have 
to be viewed as a developmental form of A. tigrinum. t 
The Siredons breed as larvae and are not known to com- 
plete the metamorphosis in a state of nature. Those bred 
to Amblystoma were sterile. Numerous articles have ap- 
peared in regard to this remarkable and unusual transfor- 
mation, some writers claiming that the Axolotls (includ- 
ing 5. mexicanus) have remained upon a lower phyletic 
stage of development. Prof. Weismann % claims that a 
sudden leap from a lower form to one much higher would 
carry with it higher powers, and says that the sterility of 
the animals so developed shows the probability of former 
reversion from an Amblystoma stage to a larval condition 
where reproduction takes place. The return to the older 
adult form would then occur after the reproductive period, 
thus explaining why reproductive powers did not follow 
the usual morphological change. 

* Cope's Batrachia, p. 453. 
\ Ibid, p. 73- 

% Smithsonian Report, 1877, pp. 349~375- See also Observations on the 
Metamorphosis of Siredon into Amblystoma, O. C. Marsh, Am. Jour, of Sci. 
and Arts, Nov., 1868. 



3Q 



Hemidactylium scutatum Tschudi. 

Four-toed Salamander. 

Chestnut-brown above ; muzzle lighter. White below, 
with spots as though spattered with ink. Length 2\ to 
3 inches. Body slender and tail half as long. Limbs 
weak and small, with four toes only. Snout as though cut 
off (truncate). Curiously sculptured furrows proceed back- 
ward from the dorsal line and others appear on the sides. 
Terrestrial ; never aquatic. 

Not frequent, but abundant where found. I captured five 
in one afternoon at Fort Lee, in open woods where grass 
was growing. All were under stones and curled. Single 
specimens taken at Harrington, N. J., from under boards 
or logs, about five feet from a pond. Time of captures, 
May and June. 

Spelerpes ruber Daudin. 
Red Salamander. 

This is the Salamandra rubra of De Kay. 

Adults dark salmon to bright red. Dorsal surface thickly 
covered with black spots ; color between these brownish 
red. Young adults yellowish ; almost white, with fewer 
spots. Under surface immaculate in young except the ex- 
treme edge of the snout, which is blackish. Old specimens 
with black dots sparsely scattered along abdomen, more 
thickly towards head. Old, stout ; young, more slender. 
Head flat, triangular. Slight fold at neck. 

Larvae, at 2\ inches, with a dorsal fin the whole length 
and a ventral fin on posterior half of tail. Whole dorsal 
region and sides covered with a reticular pattern of brown 
about to break up into spots. 

This is the largest species of its genus in America : 
Length 5 to Sh. inches ; diameter of body nearly half an 
inch. Costal folds, 15-16. 

I captured several adults at Hemlock Falls, Orange 



3i 

Mountains, under turfy soil overflowed by a brook, and 
some under stones in a brook. All during May and June. 
I have heard of their being turned up by the plow, and as- 
sume that later in the season they become more terrestrial. 
They are sometimes found in cold springs, and the larvae 
are generally in the deeper pools of permanent brooks. 

Spelerpes bilineatus Green. 
Striped-backed Salamander. 

This is the Salamandra bilineata of De Kay. 

Yellow to brownish yellow, with a ragged dark line along 
each side of and well confined to the dorsal region, and dots 
sprinkled longitudinally along the band between the lines, 
mostly central and generally extending a little on the up- 
per surface of tail. Sides below the lateral lines obscurely 
dusky brown, much more so on the tail, this color extend- 
ing to its tip. Ventral surface unspotted, bright yellow, 
and the intestines visible through the skin. Length, three 
inches ; slender. Costal folds, 14. 

Very common under flat stones in or near shallow brooks. 
Runs swiftly. Eggs found October 25. 

Plethodon cinereus erythronotus Green. 

Red-backed Salamander. 
This is the Salamandra erytJironota of De Kay. Lead 
color above, generally with a dorsal band varying from 
dark red to faint. Sides speckled, ashy. Ventral surface 
marbled except at throat and chin, which are much lighter; 
also much lighter on under surface of limbs and between 
hinder ones. Tail very long, conical, slightly compressed 
towards tip. Length, three to four inches. Limbs slender. 
Costal folds, 16-19. 

Plethodon cinereus cinereus Green. 
Gray Salamander. 
Same color on sides and under surface as P. cinereus 



32 

erythronotus, but without red dorsal band. Both readily 
distinguished from Spelcrpes bilineatus, the only local Sala- 
mander resembling them in form, by comparison of ventral 
surface, which in the latter is immaculate. 

The eggs are laid in damp moss and under bark of de- 
cayed trees. Found October 25. The young lose their 
gills about three or four days after hatching. It is never 
aquatic, even in the larval stage.* 

Very common in woods under logs and stones. Several 
captured as early as April 17, six under one stone. 

Prof. Cope says he can find no differences in structure, 
proportions or general character between P. cinereus and 
P. erythronotus, but believes the varieties to be very per- 
manent. On May 14 I found seven pairs, each pair under 
a separate stone, and, in each instance, one with red back 
and one with brown. As males and females of both kinds 
are found, this has no present significance, but is mentioned 
for comparison. 

Plethodon glutinosus Green. 
Blue-spotted Salamander. 

This is the Salamandra glntinosa of De Kay. 

Whole skin covered with a milky secretion or mucus. 
Glossy black with white spots thickly scattered, some form- 
ing confluent blotches on the sides ; generally a large 
number at sides of neck, and one to several on throat; also 
spots on the legs. Gular fold distinct ; in alcohol shows as 
a white band. Color below bluish to lead color. Body 
stout. Fore legs slender ; hinder comparatively stout. 
Length four to six inches, of which tail is about two or 
more. Costal folds, 14. 

Found at Fort Lee, generally between rocks or ledges 
in the woods, and under logs near by. Always terrestrial. f 

^Erroneously described in N. J. Geol. Survey as " found about rapid streams 
where there are fiat stones under which it can conceal itself when pursued." 

f Erroneously described in N. J. Geol. Survey as " generally met with on the 
bottoms of brooks." 



33 

During one very warm afternoon I captured over 70 by 
splitting away schistose rock and breaking up shale at the 
sides of a shaded road running down the southern slope of 
the Orange Mountains. t 

Desmognathus ocrophcea Cope. 
Yellow Salamander. 

Professor Cope says : " This small species bears a strong 
resemblance to Spelcrpes bilineatus, and, apart from generic 
characters, may be known from it by the rounded tail, the 
paler-colored abdomen, and the light bar from the eye to 
the angle of the mouth." 

Yellowish, with dark brown band above, and dots along 
vertebral line. Dirty white below. Length, three inches, 
of which the tail forms i.^ inches. Costal folds, 13-14. 

Described by authors as occurring in the Alleghany re- 
gion and in the Adirondacks. The New Jersey Geol. Sur- 
vey Report says : " Should occur in our northern counties." 
I have heard of only one specimen near here, found at 
Greenwood Lake by Mr. Eugene Smith, of Hoboken, N. J. 

Desmognathus fusca Rafincsquc. 
Dusky Salamander. 

Described by DeKay as Salamandra picta. 

Brown to blackish above, varying from brown, in young 
and decidedly aquatic specimens, to blackish in old and 
those which live under stones near water. Pinkish spots 
and whitish dots in some. Marbled below except central 
portion of ventral surface, which is still less so in brown 
specimens. Head very flat. Eyes prominent. Dorsal fur- 
row. Tail flat and keeled. Costal folds, 14. Length, \\ 
inches, of which the tail forms one-half. 



f I regret to say that I cannot now find my note book, but remember that the 
date was during the latter part of July. Prof. Cope says (Batrachia of North 
America, p. 142) that he belives that it prefers a cool climate, and adds : " ] 
have only found it on the northern exposure of the south Chester Valley hill, 
never on the southern exposure or other part of the north hill." 



34 

Most abundant of all our Salamanders. Common in all 
shallow brooks where the young may be seen as small 
brown newts ; the latter also occur in cold springs and 
have been taken from shallow wells. 

I have never found it at a distance from water. Aquatic 
as they may seem, the adults will not live in an aquarium as 
free swimmers, soon drowning if not provided with ex- 
ternal resting places. 

The eggs are stated by Baird and Cope to be connected 
by an albuminous thread, and to be protected by being 
wrapped several times around the body of one of the sexes, 
which remains concealed in a comparatively dry spot.* I 
have twice found eggs within three or four days of hatch- 
ing, in each instance accompanied by an adult Salamander, 
but in a mass along side. It is probable, therefore, that at 
a certain period the albuminous thread is broken, and the 
eggs are gathered into a mass by the watchful parent. The 
masses are too compact to have been formed by slipping 
from the body of the adult. 

I think there are two broods annually, as I have found 
eggs from July to October, and have seen very small larvae 
as late as November 30. 

A few dates of capture are as follows : 

■Feby. 22. — Under stones and leaves which were in a small 
trickling brook caused by melting snow, I found several 
large specimens which were lively and difficult of capture. 
In a spring near by were larvae | to \\ inches long. Under 
stones near this spring were over forty adults ; these were 
comparatively sluggish and evidently in hibernation. 

Oct. 25. — In following a dry bed of a brook I found 
adults, together with leeches and aquatic beetles, under 
such stones as rested deeply enough to keep the under sur- 
face damp or muddy. 

* Cope's Batrachia, p. 197. 



35 



Diemyctylus viridescens Rafinesque. 

Seasonal form, D. viridescens miniatns. 
Spotted Triton ; Yellow-bellied Lizard ; Red 
Eft or Evet ; Water Newt. 
This is the Salamandra symmetrica of De Kay. 

Red to dark olive-green above, with bright red spots on 
sides, each surrounded by a black ring. Below yellow 
with black dots, which appear also on sides and somewhat 
as a row or rows on tail. 

Late in autumn the males acquire a series of horny 
ridges along the inner surface of the hind legs, and the 
tail fin becomes fully developed. These characteristics 
remain until after the breeding season in spring. Fre- 
quently, mating takes place in autumn. This was first seen 
by me in 1890, and its annual recurrence confirms Prof. 
Gage's observations. ( Vide infra.) He states that no eggs 
are found in the oviducts in autumn, but that the female 
may store zoosperms until the.time of ovulation. 

The adult Salamander is frequent in ponds, ditches, and 
stagnant water in bogs, but has not been found in running 
streams except as connected with ponds. The red terres- 
trial form has not been found by me near New York. 

The life-history of Diemyctylus viridescens has been well 
worked out by Prof. Simon H. Gage of Cornell University,* 
and only such facts will be noted here as are necessary to 
aid those who cannot readily refer to the article, or as will 
have bearing upon mooted questions. 

This Salamander, according to the observations of Pro- 
fessors Gage and Cope, lays its eggs singly in the leaves 
of plants, or on stones. The larvae are more or less of the 
viridescent color of the adult and, where miniatus is 
found, most of them lose their gills and leave the water at 
the end of the first season, to gradually assume the terres- 

* American Naturalist, December, 1891, pp. 1084-ino; Plate and biblio- 
graphy. 



36 

trial form with its distinctive red coloration. This stage is 
believed to continue " until the autumn of the third or 
spring of the fourth year after hatching,"* when they as- 
sume the adult form with its viridescent coloration, gener- 
ally entering the water. The change may take place on 
land, as I have frequently captured the adult at some dis- 
tance from water, and' probably occurs at a given period 
regardless of situation. 

From the fact that during five years I have overturned 
hundreds of logs and stones in the woods in the vicinity of 
New York, and searched after a rain, and have found only 
one specimen of D. viridescens approaching in color to the 
miniatus form, and from observations by others and in- 
quiries as to the occurrence of the latter anywhere near the 
coast, I am led to believe that in this locality, at least, the 
transformation does not take place, but that the whole 
period of the growth is aquatic. Specimens of all sizes 
have been captured in the water, many of them quite red 
and apparently half-grown. In Sullivan County and in 
Southern Vermont, where there is apparently about the 
same frequency of aquatic specimens, hundreds of the red 
ones may be found in the woods under leaves or moss, 
sometimes sunning themselves upon the upper surface of a 
fallen log, and almost everywhere after a rain. The occur- 
rence of hundreds of the adults in one pond near Mount 
Vernon, without finding a single specimen of the miniatus 
form during many years, must lead to the above opinion or 
to the future discovery of their passing their terrestrial life 
in situations entirely different from those now observed. 

Colonel Nicolas Pike and Professor Verrill speak of their 
eggs as occurring in masses, the former stating that he 
reared the young until about four months old. From his 
description of their markings I am led to believe that they 
were the larvae of one of the Amblystomas, although both 
methods of laying eggs might exist, one as the habit of 
prolific females, the other suggesting modification of habit 

* Ibid. 



37 

through environment, or approach to sterility in some fe- 
males. As I have taken specimens over 2\ inches in 
length, with stout bodies, and retaining gills, and from same 
ponds procured adults of much smaller size, it would seem 
that the habits of development and periods of growth are 
widely different. Any examination of the peculiarities of 
this animal must consider the absence of the miniatus form 
near tide water and the finding of adults on dry land, 
although able to live in water. 

Prof. Gage says he has never seen the cast-off skin rolled 
up and swallowed by the aquatic form. I have seen them 
seize small pieces of the exuvium partly detached from the 
hind legs and swallow it. 

Up to 1 89 1 no observation is known to have been made 
of the duplication of the tail above and below the axis of 
the body. During that summer I discovered two such spe- 
cimens of tadpoles of Rana catesbiana which were described 
and illustrated in the American Naturalist of August, 1891. 
At present I have an adult D. viridescens in which a similar 
duplication exists. The body is fully developed, being 
over three-fourths of an inch in diameter and over two 
inches in length. The tail is thick and short, — about an 
inch long, — with continuous fin-fold, but prominent vertical 
duplication of muscle plates and apparently of chordae, 
although dissection would be necessary to prove the ex- 
istence of the latter. As the specimens already mentioned 
were larval and were preserved as such, it is probable that 
such duplication has not hitherto been observed in an adult. 

Since writing above, I have received a larval Diemyctylus 
of such unusual size that I have thought it well to describe it. 

Color above, uniformly brown. Yellow beneath, with 
brighter ventral line. No ocellated spots. Entire upper and 
under surface thickly punctate with black dots. Sharply 
keeled from occiput to end of tail. Length 3^ inches; stout. 

Branchiae extenal, fully fimbriated, with no indication of 
atrophy. The animal shows signs of distress if removed 
from water. 



INDEX. 



Acris gryllus, 22. 

/Estrelata hasilata, 9. 

Allen, J. A., 2 7, 8; The mammals 

of Southern Arizona, 8; 10, 12. 
Amblystoma mavortium. 28, 29. 
opacum, 25, 26, 27. 
punctatum, 22, 25, 26, 

27- 
tigrinum, 25, 28, 29. 
Amblystomidae, 25. 
American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 4. 
American Society for Prevention of 
Cruelty to Animals, Action on Pro- 
tection of Terns, 5. 
Ammodramus princeps, 7. 

sandwichensis savanna, 

9- 
Amphiuna, 23. 
Amphiunidae, 24. 
Anura, 23. 
Artibeus, 13. 
Arvicola insperatus, 8. 
Atalapha, 13. 
Aythya marila, 9. 

marila nearctica, 9. 
Axolotls, 24, 29. 

Bad Lands, 8. 

Barnegat, N. J., 3. 

Batrachia, 25. 

Bats, 13. 

Bishop, L. B., 2; Aythya marila or 
Aythya marila nearctica ? 9; An ap- 
parently Undescribed Plumage of the 
Surf Scoter, 9. 

Black Hills, 8. 

Brachyphylla, 13. 

Bradford, Geo. Dexter, Death of, II. 

Braislin, William C, Birds Observed 
in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, N. Y , 
2; Winter Birds, 9. 

Bryn Mawr Park, N. Y., 8. 

Cecilia, 23, 24. 

Carpodacus frontalis rhodocolpus, 3. 

Capromys, 17-19. 

fournieri, 18. 

melanurus, iC, 19. 

poeyi, 18. 

prehensilis, 18, 19. 



Cathartes aura, 12. 

Chapman, F. M., 2; Notes on West 
Indian Trip, 3; Notes on a Second 
Visit to the Island of Trinidad, 3; 
On the Tufted Titmouse on Staten 
Island, N. Y., 3; 4; Public Lecture, 
A Trip through the Lesser Antilles, 
7, 8; 10; The Study of Ornitholo- 
gy, n; 12. 

Chilonycteris, 13. 

Chiroptera, 13. 

Chubb, S. H., 8. 

Cicada septemdecim, 4. 

Conference with other New York Sci- 
entific Societies, Committee on, 12. 

Congo Snakes, 24. 

Cowbird, 8. 

Cricket Frog, 22. 

Crosswicks, N. J., 9. 

Crotalus, 7. 

Cuba, 4, 13-20. 

Delphinus, 20. 
Desmognathidse, 25. 
Desmognathus fusca fusca, 26. 

ocrophoea, 22, 26. 
Diemyctylus miniatus, 26. 

viridescens, 23, 26, 35- 

37- 
viridescens miniatus, 35. 
viridescens viridescens, 
26. 
Diemyctylus larval, 37. 
Ditmars, R. L., Notes on the Genus 
Crotalus (Rattlesnakes), with a Brief 
Review of the Genus, 7. 
Dutcher, William, 2; Report on Pro- 
tection of the Terns on Great Gull 
Island, N. Y., 4-6. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., 2; The Flora 
and Fauna of Sable Island, 7. 

Eft, Red, 35. 
Elchocharis tenuis, 27. 
Elizabeth, N. J., 2. 
Elliot, D. G., Public Lecture, Do- 
mestic Fowls and Pigeons, 1. 
Empidonax acadicus, 3. 
Evans, Capt. R. D., U. S. N., 5. 
Evet, Red, 35. 



40 



Field, Capt. Henry P., 5, 6. 

Finance, Committee on, 12. 

Finch, Crimson House, Nest and 
Eggs of, 3. 

Flatbush, N. Y., 9. 

Flushing Bay, 6. 

Flycatcher, Acadian, 3. 

Fort Lee, N. J., 26, 28, 30. 

Foster, L. S., Birds observed in south- 
ern New Hampshire, 2; Birds ob- 
served in Westchester County, N. 
Y., 3; Raptores of the vicinity of 
New York City, 6; The Black-cap- 
ped Petrel in Ulster County, N. Y., 
9; 10, 12. 

Gage, Prof. Simon H., 35. 

Granger, W. W., 2, 5; The Mammals 

of the Black Hills and Vicinity, 8; 

12. 
Great Gull Island, N. Y., 2, 4-6. 
Greenwood Lake, 33. 
Gundlach, Juan, Notes on Cuban 

Mammals, 4, 13-20. 

Harrington, N. J., 30. 
Hawk, Red-shouldered, 3. 
Hellbenders, 24. 
Hemlock Falls, N. J., 30. 
Hemidactylium scutatum, 26, 30. 
Henshaw, H. W., 2. 
Hoadley, Frederick H., Death of, 11. 
Holberton, Wakeman, 6. 
Howell, A. H., 2; Acadian Flycatch- 
er on Long Island, 3. 

Jaeger, Long-tailed, 3. 

Krom, Stephen A.. The Turkey Vul- 
ture, with Notes on a Specimen 
taken at Plainfield, N J., 12. 

Lawrence, George N , Resolutions 
on death of, 9-10; Death of, 11. 

Libbey, William, Jr., Public Lecture, 
Hawaii, the Paradise of the Pacific, 
7, 11. 

Librarian, Report of, II, 12. 

Linnrean Society of New York, Ac- 
tion on Protection of Terns, 2, 4, 5. 

Little Gull Island, 5. 

Lizard, Yellow-bellied, 35. 

Local Fauna, Committee on the, 2, 6; 
Report of, 12. 

Long Island, N. Y., 3, 6. 

Macrotus, 13. 

Mammals, Cuban, 4, 13-20; of Black 
Hills, 8. 



Manatus, 20. 
Mann, Rev. C. H., 27. 
Meles taxus, 16. 
Membership, 11. 
Mimusops taimiqui, 16. 
Molossus, 13. 
Molothrus ater, 8. 
Monachus tropicalis, 20. 
Monophyllus, 13. 
Mormops, 13. 
Mount Vernon, N. Y., 36. 
Mud-devils, 24. 
Mud Puppies, 24. 
Mus, 19, 20. 

decumanus, 19. 

musculus, 19, 20. 

rattus, 19. 

tectorum, 19 

Natalus, 13. 

Neotoma campestris, 8. 
granger i, 8. 
rupicola, 8. 

Newt, Water, 35, 

New York Association for the Protec- 
tion of Game, Action on Protection 
of Terns, 5, 6. 

Noctilio, 13. 

Nycticejus, 13. 

Nyctinomus, 13. 

Oberholser, H. C, 2; The Red- 
shouldered Hawk in Captivity, 3. 

Orcas, 20. 

Osborn, Henry F., Public Lecture, 
The Great West a Half Million 
Years Ago, 7, 8. 

Parus bicolor, 3. 
Patriofelis, 2. 
Petrel, Black-capped, 9. 
Phalarope Northern, 3. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 3. 
Phocrena, 20. 
Phoebe, 9. 
Phyllonycteris, 13. 
Phyllops, T3. 

Pike, Col Nicholas, 28, 36. 
Plainfield, N. J., 12. 
Plethodon cinereus, 22 

cinereus cinereus, 26,31, 
.32. 

cinereus erythronotus, 26, 
31, 32. 

glutinosus, 26, 32. 
Plethodontida,', 25. 
Pleurodelidre, 25. 

Pray, J. M., Individual Variation in 
Birds with Reference to its Bear- 



4i 



ing on their Psychological Pevelop- 
ment, 2. 

Price, W. W., S. 

Prospect Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., 2. 

Proteus, 24. 

Publication, II. 

Public Lectures, 1, 7, S, II. 

Report of Committee 
on, 7. 

Putnam. Frederic W., Ancient Earth- 
works in the Ohio Valley, 7. 

Rana catesbiana, 37. 

Rancocas, Long Island, N. Y., 28. 
Rats, 19, 20. 
Rattlesnakes, 7. 
Read, Anna PL, 2. 
Rives, William C, 2. 

SABLE Island, 7. 
Salamanders. 12, 21-37. 
Salamander atra, 23. 
Salamander, Black, 23. 

Blotched, 27. 
Blue-spotted, 32. 
Dusky, 33. 
Four-toed, 30. 
Gray, 31. 
Marbled, 27. 
Red, 30. 
Red-backed, 31. 
Spotted, 26. 
Striped-backed, 31. 
Yellow, 33. 
Salamandra bilineata, 31. 

erythronota, 31. 
fasciata, 27. 
glutinosa, 32. 
picta, 33. 
rubra, 30. 
subviolacea, 26. 
symmetrica, 35. 
Sayornis phcebe, 9. 
Schley, Capt. W. S., U. S. N., 5. 
Sciurus hudsonicus dakotensis, S. 
Scoter, Surf, 9. 
Secretary's Report. 11. 
Sherwood, William L., Remarks on 
Salamanders, 12; The Salamanders 
found in the Vicinity of New York 
City, with Notes upon Extra- Lim- 
ital or Allied Species, 21-37. 



Shufeldt, R. \Y., Peculiar Phases of 

Color assumed by certain Birds, 6. 
Siredon gracilis, 28, 29. 

lichenoides, 28, 29. 
mexicanus, 29. 
Siredons, 24, 29. 
Sirens, 24. 
Smith, Eugene, 33, 
Smith, W. H., 27. 
Solenodon, 4, 13-17. 

cubanus. 15. 
paradoxus, 13. 
Sparrow, Ipswich, Nests and Eggs 
_ of, 7. 
Savanna, 9. 
Spelerpes bilineatus, 26, 31, 32, 33. 
ruber, 30. 
ruber ruber, 26. 
Staten Island. N. Y., 3. 
Stercorarius longicaudus, 3. 
Sterna dougalli, 7. 
hirundo, 7. 
paradissea, 7. 

Tern, Arctic, 7. 

Common, 7. 
Roseate, 7. 
Terns on Great Gull Island, N. Y. , 

2, 4-6. 
Tiemann, P. C, P)eath of, 1 1. 
Titmouse, Tufted, 3. 
Treasurer's Report, 1, 12. 
Trinidad, Island of, 3. 
Triton, Spotted, 35. 

Tiger, 28. 
Triton tigrmus, 28. 

U. S. Lighthouse Board, 5. 
Urodela, 25. 

Vesperus, 13. 
Vulture, Turkey, 12. 

Water-dogs, 24. 

West Indies, 3. 

West Side Natural History Society of 

New York, Action on Protection of 

Terns, 5. 
Westchester County, N. Y., 3. 
Wood 111 IT, L. B , 2. 
Wormian, J. L., Some Points on the 

Probable Origin of the Seals, 1. 






Officers of the Linnaean Society 



President, 
Vice-President, 
Secretary 
Treasurer, 



OF NEW YORK. 

1895-1896. 



J. A. Allen 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Walter W Granger. 
L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean' Society 



OF NEW YORK. 

JUNE, 1895. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M. D , Ph.D. Daniel G. Elliot, F R.S E. 



CORRESPONDING. 



C. C. Abbott, M.D. 
G. S Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 
A. K. Fisher, M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M.D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

Juan Gundlach, Ph D. 
C L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M.D. 
Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 
Wm. K. Lente. 



Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M D. 

James C. Merrill, M D. 

Harry C. Oberholser 

C J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H Sage 

George B. Sennett. 

R. W. Shufeldt, M.D. 

Ernest E. Thompson 

E. Carleton Thurber. 

Spencer Trotter, M D. 

B. H Warren, M.D. 

S. W Williston, M D., Ph D. 

Thos. W. Wilson. {over) 



Resident Members of the Lintia&aii Society 



Frank Abbott, M.D. 
John Akhurst. 
W. T. Alexander, M.D. 
J A. Allen, Ph D 
J. M. Andreini. 
C. K. Averill, Jr. 
Samuel P. Aver*. 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
David S Banks 



Louis Gillet. 
E. L. Godkin. 
Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. 
Walter W. Granger. 
Isaac J. Greenwood. 
William H. Gregg, M D. 
Alexander Hadden, M D. 
Edwin I. Haines. 
Jacob Harjmann, M.D. 



George Strong Baxter. Jr. H. O Havemeyer, Jr. 



Daniel C Beard. 
Edward D. Bellows. 
Henry C. Bennett. 
Charles M. Berrian. 
Louis B. Bishop, M D. 



J. C. Havemeyer. 
R. G Hazard 
Harold Herrick. 
Mrs. Esther Herrman. 
Henry Holt. 



William C. Braislin, M.D. Arthur H. Howell 



H. C. Burton. 
Hugh N. Camp. 
William J. Cassard. 
H A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
S. H. Chubb. 
Frederick Clarkson. 
Albert E Colburn. 
Herbert W. Congdon. 



B. Talbot B. Hyde ' 
E. Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E Hyde, M D. 
Frederick E Hyde, Jr. 
John B. Ireland. 

John Irving. 

C. Bradley Isham. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 



William A. Conklin, Ph.D. Alex. B. Johnson, M.D. 



Charles F. Cox. 
s. d coykendall. 
Thomas Craig. 
George A. Crocker. 
Charles P. Daly, LL D. 
Theodore L DeVinne. 
Raymond L Ditmars. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
Charles S. Douglas. 
O. B. Douglas, M.D. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
Basil H Dutcher. M D. 
William Dutcher. 



Frank E. Johnson. 
L Scott Kemper. 
Rev A B. Kendig. 
Elijah R. Kennedy. 
Rudolph Keppler 
Stephen A Krom. 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 

F. Lange, M D. 
J D Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B. Lawrence, Jr. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles A. Leale, M D. 

A. LlAUTARD. M D. 



JonathanDwight, Jr., M.D. Walter S Logan. 
Robert W. Eastman, M D. Benjamin Lord, M.D. 



Newbold Edgar 
William Ellsworth. 
Evan M Evans.' 
Charles S. Faulkner. 
Harry W. Floyd. 
L. S. Foster. 
Samuel A. French. 
Henry Gade. 



Seth Low, LL.D. 
John Luhrman. Jr. 
F. A. McGuire. M.D. 
A. J. Macdonald. 
Robert L. Maitland. 
Alfred G Mayer. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M D. 
Mrs.Olive Thorne Miller. 



of New York. 

Robert T. Morris, M D. 

Henry F. Osborn, Sc. D. 

William C. Osborn. 

A. G. Paine, Jr. 

A. H. Phillips. 

Louis H. Porter. 

Joseph M. Pray. 

Mrs. Henry Read 

Edward S. Renwick. 

William M. Richardson. 

C. B. Riker. 

J. H Ripley, M.D. 
William C Rives, M.D. 
S. H. Robbins. 
William A. Robbins. 
John Rowley, Jr. 
William H Rudkin. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
G. A. Sabine, M D. 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
Harry B. Sargent. 
Hugo Schumann. 
W. E. D. Scott. 
G. Thurston Seabury 
William F. Sebert. 
T. G. Sellew 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
Charles Sill 
James Baker Smith. 
James C. Spencer. 
John C. Sprague 
Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H Stevens. 
George T. Stevens, M D. 
Mason A. Stone. 
William E Tefft. 
Samuel Thori\e. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Clifford W Vaughan. 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
William E.Wheelock, M.D. 
William Wicke. 

D. O WlCKHAM 

John T. Willets. 
Robert R Willets. 
Reginald Willis. 
Mrs. Cynthia A Wood. 
Lewis B Woolruff. 
Curtis C. Young. 



1895-96. No. 8- 

ABSTEACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINNtEAN society 

OF 

NEW YORK. 
For the Year Ending flarch 24, 1896, 

WITH 

THE SNAKES FOUND WITHIN FIFTY 
MILES OF NEW YORK CITY, 

By R. L. Ditmars. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the A merican Museum of Natural 
History, Central Park, New York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

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Transactions of the Linn^an Society of New York, Volume I., Royal 
Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece— Portrait of Linnaeus. 
THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEAST. 

ERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the Panther, 
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Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW (Corvus ossifragus Wilson,/ A WINTER AS 
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OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM BUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE CATSKILL 
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By EUGENE PINTARB BICKNELL. 
New York, December, 1882. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

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By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.B. 

Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose, and Elk ; of the Moles and Shrews 
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DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORECID^E. {Atophyrax Bendirii, with a plate.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

New York, August, 1884. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

ABSTRACT Of PROCEEDINGS. 

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" 7, 1890, ' 


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" 2, 1892, * 


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" i, 1893, < 


« « 41 pp. 


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11 27, 1894, ' 


103 pp. 


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1 " 26, 1895, « 


41 pp. 


No. 8, " " " 24, 1896, « 


27 pp. 


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ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINNjEAN society 

OF 

INTENT YORK, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 24, 1896. 



This is the eighth in the series of "Abstracts" published 
by the Society, and, like the preceding- numbers, is intended 
mainly as a brief review of the year's work, only the more 
important points in the papers read before the Society be- 
ing mentioned. Some of the papers have been printed in 
full elsewhere, and in such cases a reference is given to the 
place of publication. 

April 9, 1895. — Mr. Frank E. Johnson in the chair. 
Eight members and three visitors present. 

Fifteen dollars were contributed by the Society to the 
fund being raised by Mr. William Dutcher, for the protec- 
tion of the Terns on Great Gull Island, Suffolk County, 
New York, during the breeding season of 1895, under con- 
ditions similar to those of the previous year. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a letter from L. B. Bishop, M. D., 
recording his capture of a hybrid Sandpiper {Tringa macu- 
lata + Tringa fuscicollis) on the Quinnipiack Marshes, 
North Haven, Connecticut, on August 4, 1894. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper entitled "Remarks 



on the Petrels, with an Account of the Specimen of sEstre- 
lata hasitata taken in Ulster County, New York, on Janu- 
ary 26, 1895." [See "Auk," Vol. XII., 1895, p. 179.] 

Mr. E. I. Haines recorded the occurrence of the Myrtle 
Warbler (Dendroica coronatd) at Scarsdale, New York, on 
March 2-3, 1895, and of the Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Reg- 
ulus calendula) at New Rochelle, New York, on March 24, 
1895. He also spoke of the extension of the range of the 
Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) in this country. [See " Forest 
and Stream," April 6, 1895.] 

Mr. S. H. Chubb noted the presence of the American 
Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra minor) in Central Park, New 
York City, on April 1, 1895. 

April 23, 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. Ten 
members and six visitors present. 

Mr. William L. Sherwood presented " Further Remarks 
on the Salamanders Found in the Vicinity of New York 
City." 

May 14, 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven 
members and one visitor present. 

The Auditing Committee reported that it had examined 
the Treasurer's report and found it correct. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman made a series of remarks on "The 
Wing as a Musical Instrument," illustrated by specimens 
of birds which he considered to use their wings to supple- 
ment, or in place of their voice. Among these were 
Trochilus colubris, Ostinops deciimanus , Rupicola sanguino- 
lenta, Manacus manacus, Machceropterus deliciosus, Todus 
multicolor, and Plicenicopterus carnifex. 

Mr. Louis Gillet read a list of nineteen species of birds 
observed by him in Central Park, New York City, this 
spring, giving the date of arrival of each. He also stated 
that a flock of American Crossbills (Loxia curvirostra 
minor) appeared in Central Park in January and remained 
until May 4, 1895. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a letter from Mr. Samuel H. West, 
recording the capture, by Mr. George W. West, of two 



• 3 

specimens of Brunnich's Murre (Uria lomvia) at Mott's 
Point, Long Island, New York, on December u, 1894. 

May 28, 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. Ten 
members and five visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster submitted a proposition for raising 
twelve hundred dollars from among the members and pur- 
chasing the William Dutcher collection of two thousand 
birdskins, the same to be presented to The American Mu- 
seum of Natural History as the Society's contribution to 
its growth. . The plan was approved and adopted. 

Mr. Stephen A. Krom presented a paper on "The 
Archaeopteryx," with especial reference to the two known 
remains from the Solenhofen beds in Bavaria. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb and Mr. F. M. Chapman spoke of the 
large number of species and individuals of birds seen by 
them in Central Park, New York City, during the early 
morning hours of May 24, 1895. Both had found the Cana- 
dian Warbler (Sylvania canadensis) very numerous. 

Mr. L. S. Foster observed the Carolina Wren (Tkryo- 
ihorus ludovicianus) at Van Cortlandt Park, New York, on 
May 4, 1895, and Mr. Chubb had also seen this species at 
the same place on April 12. 

Octobe?' 8, 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. Nine 
members and three visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper on "Some Uncon- 
firmed Records of Birds in the Vicinity of New York City." 
This paper recounted the unconfirmed records of thirty 
species of birds within the area designated, and was dis- 
cussed, record by record, by those present. Only two of 
these species, the Iceland Gull {Larus lencopteriis) and the 
Varied Thrush (Hesperocichla ncevia), were admitted to our 
local list. [See "Auk," Vol. XII., 1895, p. 76, and Coues' 
"Birds of the Colorado Valley," 1878, p. 19.] 

Mr. E. I. Haines reported the following records made by 
himself: Chestnut-sided Warbler (Dendroica pensylvan- 
ica), male and female, and nest with four young birds, at 
NewRochelle, New York, on June 18, 1895, and a Blue- 



4 

gray Gnatcatcher (Polioptila cceruled) at the same place, 
on September 12, 1895. 

Mr. Stephen A. Krom said that he had found the Turkey 
Vulture (Cathartes aura) very common at Lebanon, Hun- 
terdon County, New Jersey, during the past summer, where 
it occurs regularly. 

L. B. Bishop, M. D., exhibited the skin of a Shrike, a 
bird of the year, taken at New Haven, Connecticut, on 
September 18, 1895, in a plumage between Lanius ludovi- 
cianus and Lanius ludovicianus excnbitorides. Dr. Bishop 
gave several autumn records of birds observed, notably one 
of a Buff-breasted Sandpiper ( Tryngites subruficollis) taken 
on the marshes near New Haven, Connecticut, on Septem- 
ber 30, 1895, by Mr. C. C. Trowbridge. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a letter from Mr. John H. Sage, 
recording the capture by him of a typical Lawrence's 
Warbler (Helminthophila lawrencei) at Portland, Connecti- 
cut, on May 10, 1895, and of a male Brewster's Warbler 
(Helminthophila leucobronchialis), at the same place, on May 
13, 1895 Five specimens of the latter Warbler were seen 
in Portland during the month of May, 1895, and a pair of 
Worm-eating Warblers (Helmitherus vermivorus) spent the 
summer of 1895 there. A specimen of the King Rail (Ral- 
lies elegans) was shot on September 1, 1895, this being the 
fourth local record. A flock of seventy-five White-winged 
Scoters (Oidemia deglandi) were seen on October 4, 1895, 
on the Connecticut River at Portland, and thoroughly 
identified. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a list of thirty-five birds observed 
by him in Westchester County, New York, on May 30, 
1895. 

October 22, 1895. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and three visitors present. 

J. A. Allen, Ph.D., presented the paper of the evening, 
" On the Mammals of Southwestern Texas, from Field 
Notes and Specimens Collected by Mr. H. P. Attwater." 
[See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist, Vol. VIII., 1896, pp. 
45-80.] 



5 

Mr. L. M. Loomis said that the Guadalupe Caracara 
(Polyborus lutosus) had been, it is believed, entirely ex- 
terminated by the goat-herds of Guadalupe Island, Lower 
California. 

November 26, 1895 — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Twelve members and twelve visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented " Remarks on Birds Col- 
lected in Greenland by the Peary Expedition," illustrated 
by specimens. 

December 10, 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Fifteen members and thirteen visitors present. 

L. B. Bishop, M. D., presented a paper entitled "A Day 
in North Dakota," giving a graphic account of his own ex- 
perience while collecting in the vicinity of the Turtle Moun- 
tains. This is a rich field, ornithologically speaking, and 
little has been published concerning it. 

Mr. H. W. Congdon read a paper on " Some Birds Ob- 
served between Scotland and Iceland during August, 1895," 
in which he depicted many features of the pelagic life of the 
species treated. 

Mr. Henry Hales, in a series of remarks on " Tameness 
and Domestication," described the habits of many of our 
domestic animals and compared them with those of the wild 
species. This paper elicited an animated discussion on the 
subject. 

December 24. 1895. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Seven members and twelve visitors present 

The Lecture Committee presented a report through Mr. 
F. M. Chapman, stating that arrangements had been com- 
pleted for a course of three lectures to be given in the lec- 
ture hall of the American Museum, as follows : 

1. January 14, 1896. " The Indians of Vancouver Island," 
by Franz Boas, Ph. D. 

2 January 28, 1896. "The Origin and Distribution of 
North American Mammals," by W. B. Scott, Ph D. 

3. March 3, 1896. "Two Months in Greenland," by 
William Libbey, Sc. D. 



Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper on "The Snakes 
Found within Fifty Miles of New York City," treating of all 
the species known to this locality and exhibiting specimens 
— some living and some alcoholic — of the species treated. 
[This paper is printed in full at the close of this Abstract.] 

January 14, 1 896. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History, by Franz Boas, 
Ph. D. ? entitled " The Indians of Vancouver Island," with 
stereopticon illustrations. 

January 28, 1 896. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History, by W. B. Scott, 
Ph.D., entitled " The Origin and Distribution of North 
American Mammals," with stereopticon illustrations. 

February 11, 1896. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Nine members and ten visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster, as chairman of the committee on the 
purchase and presentation to the American Museum of the 
William Dutcher collection, reported on behalf of himself 
and his colleagues, Mr. Woodbury G. Langdon and Mr. 
Newbold T. Lawrence, that the collection had been pur- 
chased and presented to the Museum on December 17, 
1895. He also read a letter from the Board of Trustees, 
acknowledging the gift. This collection of two thousand 
and fifteen birdskins is to be kept separate from the regular 
study collection of the Museum, as a purely local one, and, 
it is anticipated, will be added to, from time to time, by the 
members of the Society. 

Mr. William Dutcher presented skins of the following 
birds to be transferred to the Local Collection of the 
Museum : — Greater Snow Goose {Chen hyperborea nivalis), 
Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis), Red-shouldered 
Hawk (Buteo lineatus), and Fox Sparrow (Passerella iliaca). 
Mr. Foster was appointed a committee of one to take 
charge of these transfers for the future. 

Mr. A. H. Howell presented a paper entitled " Impres- 
sions of Some of the Birds of the Northwest, with Remarks 
on their Distribution," the result of a six months' expedition 



through northwestern Montana, northern Idaho, and the 
eastern part of Washington and Oregon. 

February 25, 1896. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Five 
members and five visitors present. 

Mr. A. H. Howell read a paper entitled " Remarks on 
Mammals observed in Montana, Idaho, Washington, and 
Oregon during 1895." 

Mr. L. S. Foster reported the capture by himself of a 
male Pine Grosbeak (Pinicola enucleator) near Sing Sing, 
New York, on February 12, 1896. [See " Auk," Vol. XIIL, 
1896, p. 175.] 

March 3, 1896. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by William Libbey, 
Sc. D., entitled "Two Months in Greenland," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

March 24, 1 896. — Annual Meeting. Dr. Jonathan Dwight, 
Jr., in the chair. Six members and two visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report, as follows : 

" There have been held during the past year 12 meetings 
of the Society. The average 'attendance of members was 
9 and of visitors 8. The largest attendance of members at 
any one meeting was 15 and of visitors 19. The total 
number of persons attending the meetings during the entire 
year was 208, as against 182 for the year previous. 

" There are at present 147 Resident members, 37 Cor- 
responding members, and 2 Honorary members, — a total 
of 186 and a decrease of 3 since the last annual meeting. 

11 The members lost by death during the year were John 
H. Ripley, M.D., and Juan Gundlach, Ph.D. 

" There have been read before the Society 16 papers, 
of which 10 related to ornithology, 4 to herpetology, and 
2 to mammalogy. 

" The Society has issued ' Abstract of Proceedings, No. 
7,' to which are appended ' Notes on Cuban Mammals,' by 
Dr. Juan Gundlach; 'Salamanders Found in the Vicinity 
of New York City, with Notes upon Extra-limital or Allied 
Species,' by Mr. William L. Sherwood; and an index, — 



8 



making a pamphlet of 41 pages. The usual distribution to 
members and the exchange list was made." 

The Librarian presented his annual report, as follows : 

" The library of the Society has been increased by about 
300 pamphlets during the year, over 200 of these coming 
from the U. S. Department of Agriculture and the re- 
mainder from the regular exchanges. No work has been 
done towards further cataloguing the library." 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a 
balance on hand of $239.34. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 

Vice-President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. W. W. Granger presented extended remarks, illus- 
trated by specimens, on " The Mammals of the Bitter 
Creek Desert, Wyoming." 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a paper entitled " Remarks on 
Twenty Species of Birds Frequently Observed in New 
York City and Vicinity." This was the first formal pre- 
sentation of the facts collected by the Committee on the 
Local Fauna and treated the following birds from a local 
standpoint : American Herring Gull (Larus argentatus 
smiths onianus), Flicker (Colaptes auratus), Chimney Swift 
(Chcetura pelagica), Kingbird {Tyrannies tyrannus), Phoebe 
(Sayomis phcebe), Wood Pewee (Contopus virens), Blue 
Jay {Cyanocitta cristata), American Crow (Corvus ameri- 
canus), Red- winged Blackbird (Agelains phoeniceus), 
Meadowlark (Sturnella magna), American Goldfinch 
(Spinus tristis), Chipping Sparrow (Spizclla socialis), Song 
Sparrow (Melospiza fasciata), Barn Swallow (Chelidon 
erythrogaster), Catbird (Galeoscoptes carolinensis), Brown 
Thrasher [Harporhynchus rufus), Chickadee (Parus atri- 
capillus), American Robin (Merula migratoria), Bluebird 
(Sialia sia/is), and English Sparrow (Passer domesticus). 



The Snakes Found within Fifty Miles 
of New York City. 



By R. L. Ditmars. 



The object of the following paper is to enumerate the 
Snakes found in the vicinity of New York City, and to give, 
together with brief descriptions of the species, such notes 
on their local distribution and habits as may prove of value 
to those interested in the subject. 

Species of doubtful occurrence have been omitted. 

Family Colubridse.* 
Head above, with symmetrical plates. Maxillary and 
palatine bones with recurved teeth. 

Synopsis of Genera and Species. 
Genus Carphophiops. 
Head of same width as neck. No preocular ; loral en- 
tering orbit ; one nasal plate. Scales smooth. 

Chestnut brown above, red beneath . . . . C. amcenus. 

Genus Lampropeltis. 
Head but slightly distinct from neck. One anteocular ; 
two nasals ; loral present. Scales smooth. 

Light gray, with chestnut brown spots edged with 
black L. doliatus triangidns. 

Genus Diadophis. 
Head distinct. Generally two preoculars ; one loral ; 
two nasals. Scales smooth. 

Dark gray above, with a yellow ring around neck ; 
yellow beneath D. punctatus. 

* All of our local species of Colubridce have the plates under the tails (sub- 
caudals) divided ; and the eye with a round pupil. 



IO 



Genus Liopeltis. 
Body slender. One nasal ; one or two preoculars ; loral 
present. Scales smooth 

Green above, excepting labials, which are yellow; 
under side, pale yellow L. vernalis. 

Genus Opheodrys. 
Body very slender ; tail long. One nasal ; one ante- 
ocular ; loral present. Scales carinated. 

Green above, with the labials yellow; beneath, pale 
yellow 0. cestivus. 

Genus Bascanion. 
Body moderately slender. Two nasals; two preoculars; 
loral present. Scales smooth. 

Uniform black above and below, with the throat 
white B. constrictor. 

Genus Callopeltis. 
Body moderately stout. Two nasals ; one preocular; 
loral present. Scales generally carinated. 

Scales weakly carinated. Black above ; beneath, 
anteriorly white blotched with gray becoming uni- 
form slaty gray posteriorly C. obsoletns. 

Genus Heterodon. 
Body stout. Rostral upturned; oculars numerous; labials 
not entering orbit. Scales carinated. 

Dark yellow or brown with darker transverse 
blotches H. platyrhinus. 

Genus Thamnophis. 

Anterior and posterior oculars present. Two nasals; 
one loral. Scales carinated. Anal plate entire. 

One anterior and three posterior oculars. Brown or 
black above, with three yellow stripes. Lateral 
stripe on third and fourth rows of scales. Form very 
slender T. saurita. 



II 

Oculars one and three. Brown with three yellow 
stripes. Lateral stripe on second and third rows of 
scales. Form stout T. sirtalis. 

Genus Natrix. 
Anterior and posterior oculars present. Two nasals ; 
one loral. Scales carinated. Anal plate divided. 

One anterior and three posterior oculars. Brown 
with darker irregular transverse bands ; beneath, 
white spotted with red . N. fasciata sipedon. 

Genus Storeria. 
Size small. Two nasals. Loral absent. Scales carinated. 
One preocular. Brown above, pinkish white beneath. 

, . . vS. dekayi. 

Two preoculars. Brown above, bright red beneath. 
S. occipitomaculata. 

Family Crotalidae.* 

Head with a deep pit between the eye and nostril. 
Upper jaw with two long erectile poison fangs. 

Synopsis of Genera and Species. 

Genus Agkistrodon. 
Head with nine plates above. Tail ending in a horny 
spine. Scales carinated. Urosteges entire. 

Light brown with reddish-brown transverse blotches, 
which are widest laterally. Labials not entering 
orbit A . contortrix. 

Genus Crotalus. 
Head with small scales between the superciliaries and 
posteriorly. Tail ending in a rattle. Urosteges entire. 

Light brown, with dark transverse dorsal bands. 
Tail black . C. Jiorridns. 

*The two local species have the subcaudal scuta in one row. All the species 
of the family have an elliptical pupil; this at once makes it easy to distin- 
guish the local Colubridoe from the venomous species, as the former have a 
round pupil and the subcaudal scuta bifid. 



12 



DESCRIPTIVE LIST. 
ASINEA. 

COLUBRID^:. 

Carphophiops Gervais. 
Head and neck of same width; snout sharp and protrud- 
ing. One nasal plate, nostril in the middle. No preocular, 
loral plate entering orbit. Scales smooth. Anal scutum 
and subcaudals divided. Body subcylindrical; tail short. 

Carphophiops amoenus (Say). 
Worm Snake. 

Upper labials five, increasing in size posteriorly. Verti- 
cal plate about as broad as long; superciliaries very small 
and narrow. One postocular of moderate size. Color 
above, light brown or browish gray; beneath, salmon red. 
Length generally about ten and a half inches, of which the 
tail occupies one-seventh of the total measurement. 

This little worm-like snake is found in rather damp 
localities, especially under decaying logs, where it burrows 
with the aid of its sharp snout. Captive specimens feed 
upon earth-worms which, together with the wood-eating 
larvae of Coleoptera that abound in places frequented by the 
reptile, probably form a large percentage of its food. Al- 
though seemingly well distributed and tolerably common, 
specimens are not often seen, owing to their secretive 
habits and diminutive size. 

Lampropeltis Fitz. 

Head but slightly distinct from neck. Two nasals; one 
anteocular; loral present. Body moderately stout. Scales 
smooth. Anal plate entire; subcaudals bifid. 

Two species are recorded from this vicinity, Z. getulus 
and L. doliatus triangulus. The former is mentioned by 
DeKay* as occurring on Long Island, but rare in that 

*Zoology of New York, Part III., 1842, p. 38. 



locality; the latter species is not rare in many districts in 
this vicinity. In the last five years, having heard of no 
L. getulus from Long Island or this vicinity, further men- 
tion of the species has been omitted as not coming within 
the limit of the present paper. 

Lampropeltis doliatus triangulus {Bote). 
Milk Snake. 

Head depressed, snout rather broad. Seven upper 
labials, anterior ones edged with black; a black band be- 
gins behind the eye and runs downward into seventh 
labial. Body above, yellowish gray with a dorsal series of 
irregular chestnut-brown spots edged with black, about 
fifty in number ; on the side is a series of smaller spots 
in alternation with the dorsal row ; beneath, white with 
numerous small oblong black spots. Length from three to 
five feet. 

This beautiful species is generally distributed in this 
vicinity, but is not common. It is frequently found in the 
neighborhood of stables and dairies, where it finds abund- 
ance of mice upon which it largely feeds; it also eats other 
snakes. 

The typical form is found in the south and differs from 
the variety triangulus in the color pattern. 

Diadophis Bd and Gird. 
Head depressed, distinct from neck. Two nasal plates, 
nostril between ; two preoculars generally ; one loral. 
Scales smooth. Anal scutum and subcaudals bifid. 

Diadophis punctatus {Linn.). 
Ring-necked Snake. 
Upper labials eight, sixth and seventh largest. Two 
preoculars and two postoculars, subequal in size. Bluish 
black or dark gray above, with a yellow ring around the 
neck immediately behind the head. Under side, orange- 
yellow, with a median line of black spots generally 



14 

present. Tail immaculate. Length seldom exceeding 
fifteen inches. 

This pretty little snake is somewhat rare, but may oc- 
casionally be seen under decaying logs and flat stones. A 
specimen from Fort Lee, New Jersey, measures twelve 
inches, with the tail two inches four lines inclusive ; its 
stomach contained a salamander (Plethodon cinereus). 

Liopeltis Cope. 
Head moderately distinct from neck. One nasal, con- 
taining the nostril ; one or two preoculars ; loral pres- 
ent. Body somewhat slender. Scales smooth. Anal 
plate and subcaudals divided. 

Liopeltis vernalis (BeKay). 
Green Snake. 

Seven upper labials ; one (often two) anterior and two 
posterior oculars. Vertical plate longer than broad; oc- 
cipitals proportionally large Tail about one-quarter of 
total length, which seldom exceeds two feet. Color above, 
uniform light green, excepting labials which are light 
yellow; under side, pale yellow. 

Specimens are recorded from numerous places in this vi- 
cinity, among them Staten Island ; the species is also found 
in moderate numbers in Rockland County, New York. In 
the, 'stomach of a specimen from Connecticut were two 
crickets (Gryllus pennsylv aniens) and the larva of a noctuid 
moth, indicating that the species is insectivorous. 

Opheodrys Fitz. 
Head distinct, elongated. One nasal ; one preocular ; 
loral present. Body slender, tail long. Scales carinated. 
Anal plate and subcaudals divided. 

Opheodrys aestivus (Linn.). 

Green Snake. 

Upper labials seven, the sixth largest ; two postoculars. 

Color above, light uniform green ; upper labials and under 

side, pale yellow. Average length, twenty inches six 



i5 

lines, tail seven inches nine lines inclusive. Although 
this species is the same in coloration as Liopeltis vernalis, 
it may be easily distinguished by the carinated scales. 

During a brief stay in Plymouth County, Connecticut, I 
found this species to be quite common ; and, although the 
locality is not quite within the fifty-mile limit of this city, I 
have no hesitation in adding this snake to our local Ophidia, 
as the same character of country extends within the circum- 
ference of fifty miles and is undoubtedly frequented by the 
species, but no opportunity was offered me to investigate. 
Previously the northern limit was given as southern New 
Jersey; it is a common reptile in the Southern States. 

Bascanion Bd. and Gird. 
Head distinct, somewhat elongated. Two nasals ; two 
preoculars ; loral present. Body rather slender. Scales 
smooth. Anal plate and subcaudal scuta bifid. The young 
of some of the species differ much from the adult in colora- 
tion, being spotted, while the latter are concolorous. 

Bascanion constrictor {Linn.). 
Black Snake. 

Upper labials seven, sixth largest. Vertical plate about 
twice as long as broad. Two preoculars, the upper con- 
siderably the larger ; two postoculars. Tail about one 
-quarter of total length. Color above and below, uniform 
black, although the under side is sometimes tinted with 
gray. Chin and throat milky white, the same color often 
present on upper labials. Average length, five feet. 

A specimen, less than one week old, has the body light 
gray, with a series of distinct transverse dorsal blotches 
of brownish gray, which are darker at the edges. These 
blotches become gradually narrower and less distinct pos- 
teriorly and disappear almost altogether on the tail. 
Laterally are numerous dark spots, about the size of a 
scale. Under side grayish white with a row of black spots 
on each side, near the edges of the gastrosteges, and two 



i6 



median rows which are less distinct. Length, thirteen 
inches seven lines. 

Another specimen, fourteen months old, is very dark 
gray, but still shows the dorsal blotches, which are, how- 
ever, black. Under side light gray, with the rows of spots 
showing distinctly. Chin and throat milky white. Length, 
twenty-six inches. 

It would seem from the preceding, that the young take 
considerably over a year to acquire the intense black of the 
parent. The species is found in all the neighboring coun- 
try, but is more frequently seen along the Hudson River 
Valley. The food consists of mice, birds, frogs, and other 
snakes, such as Thamnophis sir talis and T. saurita, which 
fall easy victims to their larger and more powerful enemy. 
Contrary to the name, the species is not a constrictor, but 
holds its prey to the ground under a portion of the body, 
deglutition proceeding at the same time.* 

Coluber Linn. 

Head distinct from the neck. Two nasal plates ; one 
preocular ; loral present. Body of moderate thickness, flat- 
tened on the abdomen. Dorsal scales generally carinated. 
Anal plate and subcaudal scuta divided. 

The species are large and powerful snakes, killing their 
prey by constriction before swallowing. They are bene- 
ficial in destroying small, injurious mammals, such as rats 
and mice, upon which they largely feed. Two species are 
recorded from the State, but only one is found in this 
vicinity. 

Coluber obsoletus Say. 
Pilot Black Snake. 

Head gradually broadening posteriorly, flattened. Eight 
supralabials, seventh largest ; two postoculars. Vertical 
plate nearly as broad as long. Dorsal scales weakly cari- 
nated ; laterally the carinas are very indistinct. Above 

* For this information I am indebted to Mr. G. R. O'Reilly, who has 
made a special study of the species. 



17 

shining black, excepting labials, which are white on the 
lower half with the perpendicular edges black. Anterior 
part of body beneath, white blotched with gray, becoming 
a slaty gray posteriorly; chin and throat immaculate white. 
On the side of the body numerous scales show white edges 
when the skin is distended. Length, often exceeding five 
feet. Tail, one-sixth of total length. 

This is our largest species, and is not found in this im- 
mediate vicinity, but is recorded from the Highlands of the 
Hudson River. Although resembling in coloration Bas- 
canion constrictor, it may be easily distinguished from that 
species by the carinated scales. 

Heterodon Beauvois. 

Body stout ; head but little distinct. Posterior maxillary 
tooth considerably larger than those in front, but not 
grooved. Rostral plate upturned, its edge sharp and an- 
terior surface flat ; an azygos plate behind the rostral. 
Oculars numerous ; labials not entering orbit. Scales cari- 
nated. Anal scutum and subcaudals bifid. 

The species have the power of flattening the neck and 
head to a great extent when annoyed, somewhat resem- 
bling, in this respect, the species of Naja. 

Heterodon platyrhinus Latr. 
Hog-nosed Snake. 

Eight upper labials, the sixth and seventh largest. Oc- 
cipitals about as broad as long. Labials prevented from 
entering orbit by the numerous orbital plates. Scales on 
the anterior half of the body narrow, becoming wider pos- 
teriorly and wide on the tail. Color generally yellowish 
brown, with dark brown or black irregular transverse 
blotches ; these often are broken, forming three series of 
blotches, the dorsal series being largest. Beneath, yellow, 
with small black spots and blotches. Average length, two 
to two and a half feet. 

One of the most variable of our species. A specimen 
from Fort Lee, New Jersey, has the ground color olivace- 



i8 



ous, with the dark markings very indistinct; another from 
Greenville, New Jersey, has the ground color bright brick 
red, with the markings forming irregular black transverse 
bands. 

The species is found in nearly all the sandy localities 
adjacent to this city, and is also found, although more 
sparingly, in wooded districts ; specimens from the latter 
places are generally dark in coloring, while those found in 
dry sandy districts, particularly near the seashore, have 
the ground color much lighter. The food seems to consist 
almost entirely of toads, which are swallowed while alive; 
the reptile is then greatly aided by the long maxillary 
teeth, which hold fast the struggling prey. 

Thamnophis Fitz. 

Head distinct from neck. Posterior maxillary teeth 
longest, smooth. Two nasal plates; one loral. Scales 
strongly carinated. Anal plate entire ; subcaudal scuta 
divided. General marking, three light stripes on a darker 
ground. 

The genus contains species distributed over the entire 
United States; they are remarkable for their variation and 
abundance. Two species are found in this vicinity. 

Thamnophis saurita {Linn.). 
Ribbon Snake. 
Upper labials seven, fifth largest. Vertical plate narrow. 
One large preocular and three small postoculars. Body 
very slender; tail long, about one-third of the total length. 
Coloration : Head brown above, with the labials yellow; 
portion of preocular bounding orbit and lower postocular 
also yellow. Body above, brown, sometimes black, with 
a distinct and clearly denned dorsal stripe of light yellow, 
occupying the median row of scales and half a scale on 
each side. In the brown specimens there is a black stripe 
on each side of the dorsal stripe, half a scale wide. Lat- 
eral stripe of same color as dorsal on third and fourth rows 



19 

of scales. Ends of gastrosteges and first and second rows 
of scales, brown. Under side, very pale yellow. Skin 
along the sides, when distended, shows white lineate spots. 
Length seldom exceeds three feet. 

This active snake frequents damp meadows and grassy 
banks of streams, feeding on small fishes, tadpoles, frogs, 
etc. Four captive females gave birth to young, as follows : 
August I, five young ; August 12, three young ; August 
17, ten young; August 26, six young. From the above, it 
would seem that the number of young brought forth is 
small. This is confirmed by Mr. G. R. O'Reilly, who tells 
me that, in all his observations on this species, the num- 
ber of young was invariably small. The young resemble 
the parent, excepting that the ground color is of a lighter 
shade, and also the stripes. 

Thamnophis sirtalis (Linn.). 
Garter Snake. 

Head rather narrow, slightly wider posteriorly. Seven 
upper labials, fifth and sixth l'argest. One preocular and 
three postoculars. Body moderately stout, with a greenish 
yellow dorsal stripe occupying median row of scales and 
a half row on each side. Lateral stripe on second and 
third rows of scales, less distinct than dorsal stripe and 
generally darker. Ground color, generally dark brown, 
showing two rows of dark quadrate spots arranged in tes- 
sellate fashion. Head above of same color as body, with 
the labials greenish yellow, some of the posterior ones 
edged with black. Under side, greenish yellow, with a 
black spot on the anterior edges of gastrosteges near the 
ends. Skin along the sides showing white lineate spots, 
when distended. Length, from two to three feet. 

This species presents great variation, two specimens 
seldom being exactly alike. The ground color varies from 
brown to red and green. The stripes on many specimens 
are very indistinct and often entirely wanting. One dis- 
tinct variety occurs. 



20 



Thamnophis sirtalis ordinata (Linn.). 

Color green or olive, with the lateral stripes wanting; 
dorsal stripe very indistinct or entirely absent. Two rows 
of distinct dark quadrate spots on each side. Gastrosteges 
showing usual black spots. Taken in a swampy locality 
on Long Island, New York, and at Fort Lee, New Jersey. 

The garter snake is our most common species, being 
found in numbers, even in Central -Park. It is equally 
abundant in the swamps of New Jersey, and at an elevation 
of over two thousand feet on rocky ground in the Catskill 
Mountains. The number of young produced often exceeds 
thirty ; they feed on earthworms, as well as small Ba- 
trachians, and grow very rapidly. They exhibit much the 
same coloration as the adult, but present a more spotted 
appearance. 

Natrix Laur. 

Head distinct from neck, scuta normal. Two nasals ; 
loral present. Scales strongly carinated. Anal scutum 
and subcaudals bifid. 

Two species are recorded from this State, N. leberis and 
N. fasciata sipedon, but as to the former, little seems to be 
known. Holbrook * mentions it from New York State and 
Baird includes it in his list of Ophidia of the State, but does 
not give the locality. As there is no authentic record of 
its being taken in this vicinity, it would not seem reason- 
able to include the species among our local Ophidia. The 
latter snake, a variety of N. fasciata of the Southern States, 
is one of our most common reptiles. 

The species are semi-aquatic, living along the borders of 
streams and lakes ; when alarmed, they generally glide 
into the water and, diving to the bottom, remain there for 
a short time. 

Natrix fasciata sipedon (Linn.). 
Water Snake. 
Eight upper labials, increasing in size to seventh ; eighth 

* North American Herpetology, Part IV., 1842, p. 51. 



smaller than seventh. Vertical plate longer than broad ; 
one preocular and three postoculars. Body rather stout ; 
brown with irregular reddish brown transverse bands, which 
show more clearly on the sides ; beneath, yellowish white 
with numerous red spots. Subject to variation, both in the 
ground color and width of the bands. Some specimens are 
very dark, the bands being scarcely perceptible. Length, 
from two and a half to four feet, 

This snake may be seen in numbers along slow-running 
streams, either sunning on the banks or stretched upon the 
branches of bushes that overhang the water. It feeds upon 
frogs, toads, fishes, etc. A captive female gave birth to 
twenty-two young on August 17th, and another to twenty- 
eight young on September 6th. In the young the ground 
color is gray with the bands very dark brown, often black ; 
thus making the markings much more distinct than in the 
adult. 

Storeria Bd. and Gird. 

Head distinct. Two nasal plates; one or two preoculars; 
no loral. Tail rather short. Scales carinated. Anal plate 
and subcaudal scuta divided. 

Storeria dekayi {Holb.). 
Brown Snake. 

Seven supralabials, rather uniform in size. One pre- 
ocular and two postoculars ; nostril between the nasals. 
Scales in seventeen rows, all carinated. Color, brown or 
brownish gray above, with an indistinct lighter dorsal band 
margined by small blackish spots, which sometimes run 
together on the posterior part of the body, forming two 
faint blackish vertebral stripes. Beneath, pinkish white. 
Length seldom exceeds fifteen inches. 

The species is generally distributed, and is quite common 
in rocky portions of Central Park. It is usually found 
under flat rocks, and feeds largely upon earthworms. A 
specimen in my collection gave birth to eighteen young on 
July 31st, and one in the collection of Mr. G. R. O'Reilly 



22 



gave birth to fifteen young on August 8th. The young 
differ from the parent, being black above, with a white 
patch extending around the neck. At this stage they 
somewhat resemble a small DiadopJiis pimctatiis. 

Storeria occipitomaculata (Storer). 
Red-bellied Brown Snake. 

Upper labials generally six, sometimes five. Two pre- 
oculars and two postoculars ; nostril in the posterior part 
of the anterior nasal plate. Scales in fifteen rows, all 
carinated. Color above, brown or gray with a paler dorsal 
stripe generally present, margined by small blackish spots 
which, on some specimens, run together, forming two black 
vertebral stripes. Beneath, bright red. Length, about 
the same as the preceding species, but S. dekayi probably 
reaches a larger size than this species. 

This handsome little snake is not found in the immedi- 
ate vicinity of this city, but is common northward. Speci- 
mens are recorded from Putnam County, New York. The 
young resemble those of S. dekayi. 

SOLENOGLYPHA. 

Crotalid^:. 

Agkistrodon Beauvois. 

Head with a deep pit in the loral region, and with nine 
plates above. Scales carinated ; subcaudals nearly all 
entire. Body stout; tail ending in a blunt horny spine. 

This genus together with Crotalus are the only genera 
of venomous snakes represented in this vicinity, each pre- 
senting one species. Both may be easily recognized by 
the presence, as in all the Crotalidce, of a deep pit between 
the eye and nostril, and the elliptical pupil. The maxillary 
bones bear only the two long poison fangs ; the palatine 
bones are toothed. 



23 

Agkistrodon contortrix (Linn.). 
Copperhead Snake. 

Head triangular, very distinct from neck. Eight upper 
labials, third and fourth largest ; second forming anterior 
border of pit; none entering orbit. Two anteoculars; loral 
present. General coloration, light brown, with dark red- 
dish-brown transverse blotches, which are darker at the 
edges. These blotches are narrow dorsally, becoming 
much wider on the side. In some specimens many of the 
bands are very narrow on the back, and some are broken 
dorsally, making large blotches on the sides which are 
narrow on top and much wider below, somewhat like a V 
with the point upwards. Head of a slightly lighter shade 
than body, with the sides light yellowish brown, the line of 
intersection of this color and the hazel-brown of the top, 
beginning behind the eye and running to the angle of the 
mouth. Body beneath, pinkish white with two rows of 
reddish-brown blotches. Upper side and portions of under 
side profusely sprinkled with small black spots. 

This beautiful and dangerous species is, fortunately, of 
not common occurrence near this city. On the Palisades, 
in the vicinity of Alpine, New Jersey, many specimens 
were killed during the past summer (1895); they were also 
recorded from Putnam, Westchester, and Dutchess Coun- 
ties, New York, and in the latter county were said to be 
quite common. The species seems to prefer the neighbor- 
hood of thick woods, where swampy ground or a bog is 
not far distant. Their food consists of frogs, small mam- 
mals, and birds, but of the former they seem especially 
fond, and probably feed largely on the Wood Frog (Rana 
sylvatica) that is abundant in places frequented by the 
reptile. 

A specimen in the collection of Mr. G. R. O'Reilly 
gave birth to six young on August 9th, and another one to 
nine young on the tenth of the same month. The young 
have the colors lighter and the pattern more distinct than 
the parent, and the tail, for about three-quarters of an 



2 4 

inch is of a bright sulphur yellow. The parent snakes 
measured about two and a half feet each and the young 
ten inches. 

Crotalus Linn. 
Head with small scales between the superciliaries and 
posteriorly ; a few small plates anteriorly. Body stout ; 
tail ending in a rattle. Urosteges entire. 

Crotalus horridus Linn. 
Banded Rattlesnake. 

Head very distinct ; superciliaries large ; two anterior 
and five or six posterior frontals. Supralabials twelve or 
more, separated from the orbit by two rows of scales as 
well as orbital plates, which are numerous. General color 
above, dark sulphur-yellow, with a series of irregular black 
transverse bands, which are, in many individuals, broken 
into a series of dorsal subrhomboids and smaller blotches 
laterally. Along the median part of the back runs an in- 
distinct line of reddish-brown, for the width of about three 
scales. Tail black. Under side, bright yellow, profusely 
sprinkled with black spots. Average length, three feet. 

This species varies considerably in the ground color as 
well as pattern. Some specimens are almost entirely black 
above, the pattern being scarcely visible, while others are 
sulphur-yellow with black bands, with or without the ver- 
tebral stripe. A good example of the variation of pattern 
is shown in two specimens from Connecticut. One has the 
bands running from side to side unbroken, with the median 
dorsal stripe present; the other has the bands broken, form- 
ing a subrhomboidal dorsal pattern with a smaller round 
blotch on the side beneath each subrhomboid, and the 
dorsal stripe is absent. 

The Rattlesnake is becoming very rare within fifty miles 
of this city, the nearest locality in which it has been found 
in the last few years being Putnam County, New York, 
near the Hudson River; it also occurs in Connecticut, and 
Professor E. B. Southwick tells me that a few are found 
annually in the central part of Long Island. 



INDEX 



.Lstrelata hasitata, 2. 

Agelauis phceniceus. 8. 

Agkistrodon, n, 22. 

contortrix, ti, 23. 

Allen, J. A., On the Mammals of 
Southwestern Texas, from Field 
Notes and Specimens Collected by 
Mr. H. P. Attwater, 4; 8. 

Alpine, N. J., 23, 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 3, 5, 6, 7. 

Asinea, T2. 

Bascanion, 10, 15. 

constrictor, 10, 15. 

Birdskins, The William Dutcher Col- 
lection of, 3, 6. 

Bishop, L. B., 1, 4 ; A Day in North 
Dakota, 5. 

Blackbird, Red-winged, 8. 

Bluebird, 8. 

Boas, Franz, Public Lecture, The 
Indians of Vancouver Island, 5, 6. 

Buteo lineatus, 6. 

Callopeltis, 10, 16. 

obsoletus, 10, 16. 

Caracara, Guadalupe, 5. 

Carphophiops, 9, 12. 

amoenus, 9, 12. 

Catbird, 8. 

Cathartes aura, 4. 

Catskill Mountains, N. Y., 20. 

Central Park, New York City, 2, 3, 
20, 21. 

Chaetura pelagica, 8. 

Chapman. F. M., The Wing as a Mu- 
sical Instrument, 253; Remarks on 
Birds Collected in Greenland by 
the Peary Expedition, 5; 5, 8. 

Chelidon erythrogaster, 8. 

Cheu hyperborea nivalis, 6. 

Chickadee, 8. 

Chubb, S. H., 2. 3. 

Colaptes auratus, 8. 

Colubridae, 9, 12. 

Congdon, H. W., Some Birds Ob- 
served between Scotland and Ice- 
land during August, 1895, 5. 

Connecticut, 14, 24. 

Contopus virens, 8. 

Corvus americanus, 8. 



Crossbill, American, 2. 
Crotalidae, 11, 22. 
Crotalus. 11, 24. 

horridus. 11, 
Crow, American, 8. 
Cvanocitta cristata, 8. 



24 



Dendroica coronata, 2. 

pennsylvanica, 3. 
Diadophis, 9, 13. 

punctatus, 9, 13. 22. 
Ditmars, R. L., The Snakes Found 

within Fifty Miles of New York 

City, 6, 9 — 24. 
Dutcher, William, 1, 6. 
Dutchess County, N. Y., 23. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., 7. 

Flicker, S 

Fort Lee, N. J., 14, 17, 20. 

Foster, L. S., 1 ; Remarks on the 
Petrels, with an Account of the 
Specimen of yEstrelata hasitata 

. taken in Ulster County, N. Y., on 
January 26, 1895, 1; 2, 3 ; Some 
Unconfirmed Records of Birds in 
the Vicinity of New York City, 3 ; 
Birds observed in Westchester 
County, N. Y., 4, 6, 7, 8 ; Re- 
marks on Twenty Species of Birds 
Frequently Observed in New York 
City and Vicinity, 8. 

Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 8. 

Gillet, Louis, 2. 

Gnatcatcher, Blue-Gray, 4. 

Goldfinch, American, 8. 

Goose, Greater Snow, 6. 

Granger, W. W., 8 ; The Mammals 
of the Bitter Creek Desert, Wyo- 
ming, 8. 

Great Gull Island, N. Y., 1, 

Greenville, N. J., 18. 

Grosbeak, Pine, 7. 

Guadalupe Island, 5 

Gull, American Herring, 8. 
Iceland, 3. 
Ring-billed, 6. 

Gundlach, Juan, Death of 7. 

Haines, Edwin I., 2, 3. 



26 



Hales, Henry, Tameness and Domes- 
tication, 5. 

Harporhynchus rufus, 8. 

Hawk, Red-shouldered, 6. 

Helminthophila lawrencei, 4. 

leucobronchialis, 4. 

Helmitherus vermivorus, 4. 

Hesperocichla nasvia, 3. 

Heterodon, 10, 17. 

platyrhinus, 10, 17. 

Howell, A. H., Impressions of Some 
of the Birds of the Northwest, with 
Remarks on their Distribution, 6 ; 
Remarks on Mammals Observed in 
Montana, Idaho, Washington, and 
Oregon during 1895, 7. 

Hudson River Valley, 16, 24. 

Jay, Blue, 8. 
Johnson, Frank E., 1. 

Kingbird, 8. 

Kinglet, Ruby-crowned, 2. 
Krom, Stephen A., The Archaeopte- 
ryx, 3; 4. 

Lampropeltis, 9, 12. 

doliatus triangulus, 9, 13. 
getulus, 12. 
Langdon, Woodbury G., 6. 
Lanius ludovicianus, 4. 

ludovicianus excubitorides, 4. 
Larus argentatus smithsonianus, 8. 
delawarensis, 6. 
leucopterus, 3. 
Lawrence, Newbold T., 6. 
Lebanon, N. J., 4. 
Libbey, William, Public Lecture, 

Two Months in Greenland, 5, 7. 
Librarian, Report of, 8. 
Liopeltis, 10, 14. 

vernalis, 10, 14. 
Local Fauna, Committee on the, 8. 
Long Island, N. Y., 12, 13, 20, 24. 
Loomis, L. M., 5. 
Loxia curvirostra minor, 2. 

Machceropterus deliciosus, 2. 
Manacus manacus, 2. 
Meadowlark, 8. 
Melospiza fasciata, 8. 
Merula migratoria, 8. 
Mott's Point, N. Y., 3. 
Murre, Briinnich's, 3. 



Natrix, 11, 20. 

fasciata sipedon, 
leberis, 20. 



1, 20. 



New Haven, Conn., 4. 

New Jersey, 15, 20. 

New Rochelle, N. Y , 2, 3. 

Oidemia deglandi, 4. 
Opheodrys, 10, 14. 

restivus, 10, 14. 
O'Reilly, G. R., 16, 19, 21, 23. 
Ostniops decumanus, 2. 

Palisades, 23. 
Paras atricapillus, 8. 
Passer domesticus, 8. 
Passerella iliaca, 6. 
Pewee, Wood, 8. 
Phoebe, 8. 

Phcenicopterus carnifex, 2. 
Pinicola enucleator, 7. 
Plymouth County, Conn., 15. 
Polioptila crerulea, 4. 
Polyborus lutosus, 5. 
Portland. Conn., 4. 
Public Lectures, 5, 6, 7. 

Report of Committee 
on, 5. 
Publication, 7. 
Putnam County, N. Y., 22, 23, 24. 

Quinnipiack Marshes, Conn., 1. 

Rail, King, 4. 
Rallus elegans, 4. 
Rattlesnake, Banded, 24. 
Regulus calendula, 2. 
Ripley, John H., Death of, 7. 
Robin, American, 8. 
Rockland County, N. Y., 14. 
Rubicola sanguinolenta, 2. 

Sage, John H , 4. 

Sandpiper, Buff-breasted, 4. 
Hybrid, 1. 

Sayornis phcebe, 8. 

Scarsdale, N. Y., 2. 

Scoter, White-winged, 4. 

Scott, W. B., Public Lecture, The 
Origin and Distribution of North 
American Mammals, 5, 6. 

Secretary, Report of. 7, 

Sherwood, William L., Further Re- 
marks on the Salamanders found in 
the Vicinity of New York City, 2. 

Shrike, 4. 

Sialia sialis, 8. 

Sing Sing, N. Y., 7. 

Snake, Black, 15. 
Brown, 21. 



27 



Snake, Copperhead, 23. 

Gaiter, 19. 

Green, 14. 

Hog-nosed, 17. 

Milk, 13. 

Pilot Black, 16. 

Red-bellied Brown, 22. 

Ribbon, 18. 

Ring-necked, 13. 

Water, 20. 

Worm, 12. 
Solenoglypha, 22. 
Southwick, E. B., 24. 
Sparrow, Chipping, 8. 
English, 8. 
Fox, 6. 
Song, 8. 
Spinus tristis, 8. 
Spizella socialis, 8. 
Starling, 2. 

Staten 'island, N. Y., 14. 
Storeria, 11, 21. 

dekayi, II, 21, 22. 
occipitomaculata, II, 22. 
Sturnella magna, 8. 
Sturnus vulgaris, 2. 
Swallow, Barn, 8. 
Swift, Chimney, 8. 
Sylvania canadensis, 3, 

Terns on Great Gull Island, N. Y. 
1. 



Thamnophis, 10, 18. 

saurita, 10, 16, 18. 

sirtalis, II, 16, 19. 

sirtalis ordinata, 20. 
Thrasher, Brown, 8. 
Thrush, Varied, 3. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus, 3. 
Todus multicolor, 2. 
Treasurer, Report of, 2, 8. 
Tringa maculata -{- Tringa fuscicollis, 

I. 
Trochilus colubris, 2. 
Trowbridge, C. C, 4. 
Tryngites subruficollis, 4. 
Turtle Mountains, North Dakota, 5. 
Tyrannus tyrannus, 8. 

Uria lomvia, 3. 

VAN Cortlandt Park, N. Y., 3. 
Vulture, Turkey, 4. 

Warbler, Brewster's, 4. 

Canadian, 3. 

Chestnut-sided, 3. 

Lawrence's, 4. 

Myrtle, 2. 

Worm-eating, 4. 
West, George H., 2. 
West, Samuel H., 2. 
Westchester County, N. Y., 4, 23. 
Wren, Carolina, 3. 



ERRATA. 

Page 16, lines 18 and 29, For Coluber, read Callopeltis. 



Officers of the Linnaean Society 



President, 
Vice- President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, 



OF NEW YORK. 

1896-1897. 



J. A Allen 
Frank M. Chapman. 
Walter W. Granger. 
L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YOLtK. 

JUNE, 1896. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues MD, Ph.D. Daniel G. Elliot, F.RS.E, 



C. C. Abbott, MD. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Charles E. Bendire. 
Franklin Benner 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox 
Charles Dury. 
A. K. Fisher, M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 
C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
A. M Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M D. 
Mrs F. E B. Latham. 
Wm. K. Lente. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L Mead. 

C Hart Merriam M.D. 

James C. Merrill, M.D. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M.D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

George B Sennett. 

R W. Shufeldt, M.D. 

Ernest E. Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, M.D. 

B. H. Warren, M.D. 

S. W. Williston, M.D, Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wilson. 



{over.) 



Resident Members of the Linn sean Society 



Frank Abbott, M.D. 
John Akhurst. 
W. T. Alexander, M.D. 
J A. Allen, Ph.D. 
J. M. Andreini. 
C. K. Averill, Jr. 
Samuel P Avery. 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
George Strong Baxter, Jr. 
Daniel C Beard. 
Edward D. Bellows. 
Louis B. Bishop, M.D. 
William C. Braislin, M.D; 
H. C. Burton. 
William J. Cassard. 
H A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
S. H. Chubb. 
Frederick Clarkson. 
Albert E Colburn. 
Herbert W. Congdon. 
Charles F. Cox. 
s. d coykendall. 
Thomas Craig. 
George A. Crocker. 
Charles P. Daly, LL.D. 
Theodore L DeVinne 
Raymond L. Ditmars. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
O. B. Douglas, M.D. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
Basil H Dutcher. M D. 
William Dutcher. 



Walter W. Granger. 
Isaac J. Greenwood. 
William H. Gregg, M D. 
Alexander Hadden, M.D. 
Edwin I. Haines. 
Jacob Hartmann, M.D. 
H. O. Havemeyer, Jr. 
J. C Havemeyer. 
R. G. Hazard. 
Harold Herrick. 
Mrs. Esther Herrman. 
Henry Holt. 
Arthur H. Howell. 

B. Talbot B. Hyde 

E. Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E. Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E Hyde, Jr. 
John B. Ireland. 

John Irving. 

C. Bradley Isham. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D 
Alex. B. Johnson, M.D. 
Frank E. Johnson. 

L Scott Kemper. 
Rev A B. Kendig. 
Rudolph Keppler. 
Bancel La Farge. 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 

F. Lange, M D. 
J D Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B. Lawrence, Jr. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 



Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. Charles A. Leale, MD 
Robert W. Eastman, M D. A. Liautard, M.D. 
Newbold Edgar 



William Ellsworth. 

Evan M Evans, M.D. 

Charles S. Faulkner. 

Harry W. Floyd. 

L. S. Foster. 

Samuel A. French. 

Henry Gade 

Theodore K. Gibbs. 

Louis Gillet. 

E. L. Godkin. 

Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. 



Walter S. Logan. 
Benjamin Lord, M.D. 
Seth Low, LL.D. 
John Luhrman, Jr. 
F. A. McGuire, M.D. 
A. J. Macdonald. 
Robert L. Maitland. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M D. 
Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller. 
A. G. Mills. 
Robert T. Morris, M.D. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc. D. 
William C. Osborn. 



of New York. 

A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips. 
"Louis H. Porter. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
L Schuyler Quackenbush. 
Mrs. Henry Read. 
Edward S. Renwick. 
William M. Richardson. 
C. B. Riker. 

William C Rives, M.D. 
S. H. Robbins. 
William A. Robbins. 
John Rowley, Jr. 
William H Rudkin. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
G. A. Sabine, M D. s 

Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
Harry B. Sargent. 
Anton H. Schroeter. 
Hugo Schumann. 
William F. Sebert. 
T. G. Sellew. 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
Charles Sill. 
S. T. Skidmore. 
James Baker Smith. 
James C. Spencer. 
John C. Sprague. 
Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H Stevens. 
George T. Stevens, M D. 
Mason A. Stone. 
Henry Reed Taylor. 
William E. Tefft. 
Samuel Thorne. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Clifford W. Vaughan. 
Henry *F. Walker, M.D. 
William Wicke. 
D. O. Wickham. 
John T. Willets. 
Robert R. Willets. 
Reginald Willis. 
Mrs. Cynthia A Wood. 
Lewis B Woodruff. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Louis A. Zerega. M.D. 






1896-97. No. 9. 

ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NKW YORK 

For the Year Ending March 9, 1897, 

WITH 

THE FISHES OF THE FRESH AND BRACK- 
ISH WATERS IN THE VICINITY OF 
NEW YORK CITY. 

By Eugene Smith. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History, 77th Street and 8th Avenue, New York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

The Linnaean Society of New York. 
TRANSACTIONS. 

Transactions of the Linn^ean Society of Nfw York, Volume I., 

Royal Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece-Portrait of Linnaeus. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 
General introduction. Mammalia: Carnivora. Biographies of the 
Panther, Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least 
Weasel, Ermine, Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and 
Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW {Corvus ossifragus Wilson) A WINTER 
AS WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN 
LIMIT OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM DUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE CATS- 
KILL MOUNTAINS, WITH PREFATORY REMARKS ON THE 
FAUNAL AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE REGION. 
New York, December, 1882. By EUGENE PINTARD BICKNELL. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, -■ $3.00. 

Transactions of thf Linn^ean Society of Nfw York, Volume 

II., Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents : FronTispifcf— Pi,aTE OF Ben- 

DIRF'S SHRFW. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia Concluded. 1 ! 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 
Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose and Elk ; of the Moles and 

Shrews (six species); the Bats (five species); the Squirrels (six species); 

the Woodchuck, the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats 

and Mice (seven species), and the Hares (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORIC1DJE. {Atophyrax bendirii, with a plate.) 
New York, August, 1884. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the Linn^ean Society of New York. 
No. 1, for the year ending March 1 
No. 2, 
No. 3, 
No. 4, 
No. 5, 
No. 6, 
No. 7, 
No. 8, 
No. 9, 

Free to Members of the Society at the date of issue. 
To others, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 25 cents each. 
No. 5, 50 cents. 
No. 6, 75 cents. 
No. 7, 50 cents. 
No 8, 50 cents. 
No. 9, 50 cents. 
For any information concerning the publications, address the SECRE- 
TARY of the Linn^an Society of New York, care of American 
Museum of Natural History, New York City. 



arch 1, 1889, 8vo. 


, paper 


cover, 9 pp. 


" 7, 1890, " 


< « 


10 pp. 


" 6, 1891, " 


" 


11pp. 


" 2, 1892, " 


" 


8 pp. 


" 1, 1893, " 


" 


41 pp. 


" 27, 1894, " 


" 


103 pp. 


" 26, 1895, " 


<< 


41 pp. 


" 24, 1896, " 


" 


27 pp. 


" 9, 1897, " 


< i 


56 pp. 



ABSTRACT 

OF THli PROCEEDINGS OK THE 

LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NETVV YORK, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 9, 1897. 



This is the ninth in the series of "Abstracts" published by 
the Linnsean Society of New York, and, like the preceding 
issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of the work of the 
vSociety during the year closing with the date indicated above. 
When papers have been elsewhere printed, the customary 
reference is given. 

April 14, 1896.— Mr. William Ellsworth in the chair. Six 
members and two visitors present. 

Mr. H. R. Taylor presented a paper on " Individuality in 
Eggs of Particular Pairs of Birds. ' ' This paper instanced 
cases of marked similarity in sets of eggs from the same nests 
and, presumably, from the same pairs of birds in the Golden 
Eagle {Aquila chrysaetos), the Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo 
lineatus), the Kentucky Warbler (Geothlypis formosa), and 
the Spurred Towhee (Pipilo maculatus megalonyx). [See 
Nidologist, IV, p. 51.] 

Mr. E. S. Foster read the notes on the Tyrannidse of this 
vicinity collected by the Eocal Fauna Committee of this Society 
and made comparisons with the work of the Delaware Valley 
Ornithological Club on this same family of birds. Ten New 
York species were remarked upon. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb stated that he had seen Purple Grackles 
(Quiscalus qiiisada) in Central Park, New York City, on April 
12, of this year. 



Mr. E. I. Haines had observed Pine Warblers (Dcndroica 
vigorsii) at New Rochelle, N. Y., on March 27, 1896. 

April 24, 1896. — The President in the chair. Nine mem- 
bers and five visitors present. 

Mr. Anton H. Schroeter was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

Mr. William Dutcher remarked upon the continued need of 
protection for our birds. The Society- appropriated the sum of 
fifteen dollars to be used for the protection of terns on Great 
Gull Island, New York. 

Mr. William Dutcher presented to the Society, for convey- 
ance to the Local Collection of Birdskins in the American 
Museum of Natural History, a skin of the Snow Goose (Cken 
hyperborea) . 

Dr. J. A. Allen exhibited a skin with the accompanying 
skull of Ichthyomys stolzmanni, a fish-eating rodent from Peru. 
This is the second known specimen of this animal. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper on Sea Snakes 
(Hydrophidcc^ . Mr. Ditmars stated that eight genera, including 
forty- four species of these snakes are recognized. Sea eagles 
and sharks are among their enemies. Eight alcoholic speci- 
mens were shown. 

Mr. C. C. Young said that he had observed a small colony of 
Black-crowned Night Herons (Nyrticorax nycticorax ncsvius) 
breeding at Port Daniel, Province of Quebec, Canada, in the 
spring of 1895. '> 

May 12, 1896.— Mr. William Ellsworth in the chair. Seven 
members and one visitor present. 

Mr. Newbold Edgar presented to the library of the Society 
an original copy of ' ' Fragments of the Natural History of 
Pennsylvania," by Benjamin Smith Barton, M. D. (Philadel- 
phia, 1799). The autograph signature of Dr. Barton, written 
in 1810, was shown. 

Mr. E. I. Haines presented a paper entitled " The Starlings 
at Home and Abroad. ' ' 

Mr. L. S. Foster reported that on May 10, 1896, he saw a 
Solitary Sandpiper ( Totanus solitarius) at Elmsford, Westchester 
County, New York, and that a single White-crowned Sparrow 



{Zonotrichia leucophrys) was seen by him in New York City, on 
April 24, 1896. 

A paper sent by the author, Mr. A. H. Howell, was read by 
the Secretary. It was entitled "Notes on the Early Spring 
Migrants of 1896 at Lake Grove, Suffolk County, New York," 
and treated of thirty-nine species. 

May 26, 1896.— The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and four visitors present. 

Mr. Bancel EaFarge was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented " Notes on Birds Observed in 
Yucatan." [See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., VIII, pp. 271- 
290.] 

Mr. F. M. Chapman exhibited the skin of a Mexican Car- 
dinal, in which the colors of some of the feathers had been 
artificially changed. 

Mr. C. W. Vaughan stated that he had seen a Mourning 
Warbler (Geothlypis Philadelphia) in Central Park, New York 
City, on May 19, of this year. 

R. T. Morris, M. D., had found the Great Black-backed 
Gull (Larus marinus) and the Canada Goose (Branla canaden- 
sis) breeding on the north shore of the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
during the summer of 1895. 

October 13, 1896. — The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and seven visitors present. 

A report was read from the Game Protector on Great Gull 
Island — Mr. H. P. Field. This report showed a satisfactory 
state of affairs there, the colony of terns having largely in- 
creased in numbers owing to the labors in behalf of bird pro- 
tection of Mr. Field, under the direction of Mr. William 
Dutcher of this Society. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented a paper entitled " Notes of a 
Visit to Some of the Natural History Museums of Europe. ' ' 
This paper included remarks upon the museums of London, 
Tring, Leyden, Berlin, Vienna, Munich and Paris. 

E. A. Mearns, M. D., sketched in outline his three years' 
work on the Mexican Boundary Survey, giving topographical 
and faunal details of the region traversed. 



October 27, 1896.— Mr. h. S. Foster in the chair. Six mem- 
bers and three visitors present. 

Mr. E. I. Haines read a paper entitled " Birds of the vicinity 
of Stamford, Delaware County, New York ; a list of the sum- 
mer residents with evidences of the Carolinian, Canadian and 
Hudsonian Faunas." Mr. Haines enumerated one hundred 
and fifteen species of birds observed by him within ten miles 
of Stamford, New York, in the month of July, 1896. 

November 24, 1896. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and four visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented to the American Museum of 
Natural History, through the Linnaean Society, the Alfred 
Marshall collection, consisting of 320 birdskins and 261 sets 
of birds' eggs. 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D., presented a paper entitled 
' ' Some Moulting Birds. ' ' This paper was illustrated by a 
large series of the skins of moulting birds, and Dr. Dwight 
described the process of moulting, as he had observed it, in 
many species. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read "A Summary of Bird Notes from 
Greene County, New York." The list included sixty-seven 
species. 

December 8, 1896. — The Vice-President in the chair. Twelve 
members and six visitors present. 

An appropriation was made for the usual winter course of 
public lectures. 

Mr. E. I. Haines presented ' ' Remarks on the Ruby-crowned 
Kinglet." 

Mr. F. M. Chapman made extended remarks upon "An 
Ornithological Reconnaisance in Mexico," describing the fea- 
tures of the region visited and man}' of its birds. This trip 
was taken by him in the .spring of 1896. 

December 22, 1896. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Seven 
members and six visitors present. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars read a paper entitled " Notes on the 
Habits of Some Trinidad Snakes." This paper was illustrated 
by living specimens of some of the species under consideration. 

Mr. E. I. Haines presented a paper entitled ' ' Bird Notes at 
Christmas-tide. ' ' 



January 12, 1897. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven 
members and six visitors present. 

Miss E. A. Foster was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. William Dutcher read an autograph letter from Audu- 
bon, dated Edinburgh, June 19, 1838. It contained many 
matters of ornithological interest. 

In the absence of the author, Mr. F. M. Chapman read a 
paper by Dr. Juan Vilaro, entitled ' ' Hybridism Among Cuban 
Gallinae. ' ' The paper treated particularly of hybrids between 
the Guinea Fowl {Nuniida meleagris) and the common domes- 
tic fowl of Cuba {Gallus bankiva). Four mounted specimens 
of these hybrids were shown. [See Bull Am. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., IX, pp. 225-230, pll. xxv and xxvi.] 

January 14, 1897. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by William I,ibbey,Sc.D. 
entitled "Four Months in the Sierra Madre of Mexico," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 

January 26, 1897. — The Vice-President in the chair. Eleven 
members and twenty-two visitors present. 

Mr. S. Nicholson Kane was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

Mr. R. L,. Ditmars presented a paper entitled ' ' Notes on 
the Breeding of Viperine Snakes in Captivity." Mr. Ditmars 
had successfully raised broods of the Water Moccasin {Agkis- 
trodon piscivorus), the Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix), 
and the Rattlesnake ( Crotalus horridus). The paper was illus- 
trated by living specimens. 

Mr. G. R. O'Reilly gave an account of " How Snakes Find 
their Prey," his remarks being based upon his own experiences 
with snakes in South Africa, the Island of Trinidad, Venezuela, 
and New Jersey. Mr. O'Reilly exhibited the following living 
snakes : three Tree Boas {Co rallies cookei), a young Boa Con- 
strictor {Boa constrictor) , a Black Snake [Bascanion constrictor), 
and two specimens of Copperheads (Agkistrodon contortrix). 

February 9, 1897. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers present. 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D., presented remarks on "Some Mammals 



from Mexico and Central America," using, as a text, speci- 
mens recently collected by Messrs. F. M. Chapman, G. K. 
Cherrie, A. Alfaro and A. C. Butler. [See Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat. Hist., IX, pp. 31-58.] 

Mr. E. I. Haines read a paper entitled ''Notes on the 
White-breasted Nuthatch." 

February 13, 1897. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History, by Mr. Frank M. 
Chapman, entitled "A little Journey in Yucatan," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

February 23, 1897. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and eight visitors present. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented a paper entitled ' ' The Fishes of 
the Fresh and Brackish Waters in the Vicinity of New York 
City." [Printed at the end of this abstract.] 

Dr. Tarleton H. Bean mentioned the occurrence of the Drum 
{Pogo?iias chromis) and the Banded Earimus (Larimusfasciatus), 
in the vicinity of New York City. He also spoke of the cap- 
ture of the White-fish [Brevoortia tyrannus) in Canandaigua 
Eake, and the taking of the Yellow Perch {Perca ameiHcaiia) 
and the Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in salt water. 

March 9, 1897. — Annual Meeting. The President in the 
chair. Eight members and ten visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report, as follows : 

' ' There have been held during the year 14 meetings of the 
Society, being two more than were held last year. The meet- 
ing on the second Tuesday in November was omitted in conse- 
quence of the meeting that week of the American Ornitholo- 
gists' Union at Cambridge, Mass. At no meeting has there 
been a failure to secure a quorum. 

" The average attendance of members during the year has 
been 9 and of visitors 6. The total number of persons present 
at all the meetings was 197, of whom 122 were members and 
75 visitors — a decrease from the total attendance of last year of 
11. The largest attendance at any one meeting has been of 
members 15 and of visitors 22. 

' ' There have been elected to the Society five Resident Mem- 
bers ; two Resident Members have been changed to Corres- 



ponding, and five members have resigned. The membership 
of the Society at present is — Resident 149, Corresponding, 39, 
Honorary 2 — a total of 190. 

"The Society has lost by death G. A. Sabine, M. D., a 
Resident Member, and Major Charles Bendire, a Correspond- 
ing Member. 

"There have been read before the Society 24 papers, of 
which 14 related to ornithology, 4 to mammalogy, 5 to herpet- 
ology, and one to ichthyology. These 24 papers were presented 
by 10 persons. 

"The Society has issued 'Abstract of Proceedings No. 8,' 
to which were added 'The Snakes Found within Fifty Miles of 
New York City,' by Mr. R. L. Ditmars, and an index, the 
whole forming a pamphlet of 27 pages. One copy has been 
given to each member and the usual exchanges made. ' ' 

The Librarian presented his annual report, as follows : 

' ' There have been added to the Library this year, mainly 
through exchange, about 150 pamphlets, making the total 
number of publications now in the Library about 1,500. The 
work of cataloguing these has, for the present, been discon- 
tinued. ' ' 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a bal- 
ance on hand of $246.04. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 

Vice-President, Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L- S. Foster. 

Mr. E. I. Haines presented a paper entitled " Evidence of 
the Carolinian Fauna in the Catskill Mountains. ' ' 

Mr. G. R. O'Reilly presented extended remarks, illustrated 
by living specimens of snakes, on ' ' Snake Hunting in the Ori- 
noco Delta." He described the topography of the region, its 
animal life, and the methods employed by himself in capturing 
snakes. 



The Fishes of the Fresh and Brackish 
Waters in the Vicinity of 
New York City. 

By Kugkne Smith. 



In the following paper is given an enumeration of the species 
of fishes found in the vicinity of New York City, in both fresh 
and brackish water. In the first list are given the fishes found 
by me ; in the second list those not found by me, but known 
to occur from statements of reliable observers who give the 
localities where they found them ; in the last list those whose 
actual occurrence within our limits is not authenticated, but 
most of which will probably be found on further search ; a few 
may be extra-limital. 

Fishes by reason of their aquatic residence are perhaps the 
most elusive of all the Vertebrates, hiding as many of them do, 
in dark and inaccessible places, among brush and weeds or 
burrowing in the mud. Often a find is made of a species whose 
existence at that particular spot was never thought of. 

The district enbraced in this list includes parts of the States 
of New York and New Jersey : The valley of the Hackensack 
River, the main valley of the Passaic River with its northern and 
eastern affluents, the lower part of the Bronx River, Staten 
Island, the western part of Long Island, and part of the region 
tributary to the Navesink River in New Jersey. The 
Hudson River in the nearby vicinity of New York is of the 
nature of a marine inlet and has therefore no strictly fresh water 
species. 

The above district embraces most of the territory immediately 
tributary to New York harbor taken in its largest sense. From 
the Raritan River no fishes are included as of my own know- 
ledge, but under the third list I enumerate species which are 
known from there. 



IO 

For that part of New Jersey lying within Hudson County and 
the southern part of Bergen County (the lower Hackensack 
Valley), my list will be found as complete as many years of con- 
tinued search can make it. 

Under the fishes of the brackish water are included all those 
which are anadromous, i. e., run up from the sea to spawn, as 
well as many of those which are found perennially about the 
lower river reaches open to the influx of salt water. Of these 
a number are still found where the waters are entirely fresh, 
though subject to the flow of the tides ; such might not inap- 
propriately be called tidal fishes. Distinctly marine species 
are not given, though they may accidentally wander into river 
estuaries. 

Special localities of occurrence I give in such cases where 
the fishes are known to me only from certain isolated points ; 
all others are of a more general distribution throughout our area. 

In the tidal parts of the Hackensack Valley the collecting of 
specimens was done mostly by means of the seine, the fyke 
and the casting net ; in other waters by means of the bait seine 
and the common ring or shrimp net. I^astly, some species 
were only taken by angling for them. 

For the descriptions I have largely used Prof. Jordan's 
1 ' Manual of the Vertebrated Animals of the Northern United 
States ; " 1 also A. C. Giinther's " Ichthyology " in the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica, 2 embodying my own observations and 
experiences and supplementing them in many cases by state- 
ments from various authors. Diligent search of all accessible 
literature has shown me that no thorough attempt has ever been 
made to cover the local fish fauna. The list of fishes given in 
the " Descriptive Catalogue of the Vertebrates of New Jersey" 
(a revision of Dr. Abbott's " Catalogue" of 1868), by Julius 
Nelson, 3 is largely tentative, and does not give sufficient infor- 
mation as to the real occurrence of the species mentioned, ex- 
cept for the southern part of the state and the Delaware Valley, 
both of which regions are beyond our limits. 

f Sixth edition, Chicago, 1894. 

2 Ninth edition, Vol. XII, N. Y., 1881. 

3 Final report of the State Geologist, Vol. II, Pt. 2, Trenton, 1890. 



II 

The nomenclature adopted is in accordance with the ' ' Bul- 
letin of the U. S. National Museum, No. 47, the Fishes of 
North and Middle America, by D. S. Jordan and B. W. Bver- 
mann, Washington, 1896." 

All statements which are made on the authority of others are 
credited to them. In order not to increase the volume of this 
paper, I refrain from entering upon full descriptions, but will 
confine myself to the more salient features of the subject. The 
local fauna then stands (classified in upward series), as follows: 



THOSE FOUND BY ME. 

Family Petromyzontidae. — Lampreys. 
Genus and Species. 
Petromyzon marinus L. 

Family Siluridae. — Catfishes. 
Genera and Species. 
Ameiurus catus (L.), Ameiurus nebulosus (Les.), Schilbeodes 
gyrinus (Mitch.). 

Family Catostomidae. — Suckers. 
Genera and Species. 
Catostomus commersonii (Lac), Catostomus nigricans (Les.), 
Erimyzon sucetta (Lac. ) . 

Family Cyprinidae — Minnows and Carps. 
Generx\ and Species. 
Notropis procne {Cope), Notropis cornutus {Mitch.), Rhini- 
chthys atronasus (Mitch.), Hybopsis kentuckiensis (Raf.), 
Semotilus corporalis (Mitch. ), Abramis crysoleucas (Mitch.), 
Cyprinus carpio L. and varieties, Carassius auratus (L.). 
Family Clupeidae. — Herrings. 
Genera and Species. 
Pomolobus pseudoharengus ( Wilson) , Pomolobus aestivalis 
{Mitch.), Alosa sapidissima ( Wilson), Brevoortia tyran- 
nus (Latrobe). 

Family Salmonidae. — Salmons. 
Genus and Species. 
Salvelinus fontinalis {Mitch.). 



12 

Family Argentinidae. — Smelts. 
Genus and Species. 
Osmerus mordax {Mitch.). 

Family Poeciliidae. — Killifishes. 
Genera and Species. 
Cyprinodon variegatus Lac, Fundulus majalis (Walb.), 
Fundulus heteroclitus (L.), Fundulus diaphanus (Les.), 
Eucania parva (Bd. and Gir.). 

Family Umbridae. — Mud Minnows. 
Genus and Species. 
Umbra pygmaea (De Kay). 

Family Luciidae. — Pikes. 
Genus and Species. 
IyUcius americanus (Gmel.), Eucius reticulatus (Les.). 

Family Anguillidae. — Eels. 
Genus and Species. 
Anguilla chrysypa Raf. 

Family Esocidae. — Needlefishes. 
Genus and Species. 
Tylosurus marinus ( Walb. ) . 

Fam ily Qasterosteidae. — Sticklebacks. 
Genera and Species. 
Pygosteus pungitius (L.), Gasterosteus bispinosus Walb., 
Apeltes quadracus {Mitch.). 

Family Atherinidae — Silversides. 
Genus and Species. 
Menidia notata {Mitch.). 

Family Pomatomidae. — Bluefishes. 
Genus and Species. 
Pomatomus saltatrix (L.). 

Family Centrarchidae. — Sunfishes. 
Genera and Species. 
Ambloplites rupestris {Raf.), Acantharchus pomotis {Bd.), 
Enneacanthus obesus {Bd.), Eepomis auritus (L.), 
Eupomotis gibbosus {L.), Micropterus dolomieu (Lac), 
Micropterus salmoides (Lac). 



13 

Family Percidae. — Perches. 
Genera and Species. 
Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi (Storer), Etheostoma flabellare 
Raf. , Perca flavescens {Mitch.). 

Family Serranidae. — Sea Basses. 
Genera and Species. 
Roccus lineatus {Bloch), Morone americana (Gmel.). 

Family Sciaenidae. — Croakers. 
Genus and Species. 
Leiostomus xanthurus Lac. 

Family Cottidae. — Sculpins. 
Genus and Species. 
Uranidea gracilis (JLeckel). 

Family Gadidae. — Codfishes. 
Genus and Species. 
Microgadus tomcod ( Walb. ) . 

Family Pleuronectidae. — Flounders. 
Genus and Species. 
Achirus fasciatus Lac. 



Fishes Known to Occur Here, but Not Collected by Me. 
(Mostly Introduced Species,) 



Family Accipenseridae. — Sturgeons. 
Genus and Species. 
Accipenser sturio L., Accipenser brevirostrum Les. 

Family Salmonidae. — Salmons. 
Genus and Species. 
Salmo salar L., Salmo fario L. 

Family Percidae. — Perches. 
Genus and Species. 
Stizostedion vitreum {Mitch.). 

Family Serranidae. — Sea Basses. 
Genus and Species. 
Roccus chrysops {Raf. ) . 



14 

Native Fishes Found in Contiguous Areas, Which May Ye* 

Be Found Within Our Limits; and Fishes of 

Doubtful Occurrence^ 



Family Catostomidae. — Suckers. 
Genus and Species. 
Moxostoma macrolepidotum Les. 

Family Cyprinidae. — Minnows and Carps. 
Genera and Species. 
Hybognathus nuchalis Ag., Pimephales promelas {Raf.) y 
Pimephales notatus (Raf.), Notropis bifrenata {Cope), 
Notropis hudsonius {Clinton), Notropis analostanus 
(Gir.) , Notropis amoenus {Abbott), Rhinichthys catar- 
actae (Cuv. & Val.) , Semotilus atromaculatus {Mitch.). 

Family Salmonidae. — Salmons. 

Genera and Species. 
Oncorhynchus tschawytscha {Walb.) , Salmo irideus {Gibbons) . 

Family Aphredoderidae. — Pirate Perches. 
Genus and Species. ' 
Aphredoderus sayanus {Gilliam s) . 

Family Centrarchidae. — Sitnjishes. 
Genus and Species. 
Pomoxis sparoides {Lac). 

Family Percidae. — Perches. 
Genus and Species. 
Boleichthys fusiformis {Gir.). 

We will now take up the species in proper order of zoological 
position, beginning with the lowest. 

Class Cyclostomi. 

Round Mouths. 
In this small class the skeleton is cartilaginous and noto- 
chordal. There are no limbs and no shoulder and pelvic 
arches. Proper jaws are absent, the mouth being suctorial 
with a nearly circular lip. The stomach and the intestinal 
canal are simple and direct, without appendages. The vertical 
fins are rayed. The heart is simple with one auricle and one 



15 

ventricle, but without the arterial bulb. The gills consist of 
fixed sacs, six or seven on each side. Nasal aperture one, 
situated on the head in front of the eves. 

Family Petromyzontidae. 

Lampreys. 

The body is eel-shaped, naked. The gills are seven on each 
side ; the nostril does not open through to the palate ; the 
mouth is placed somewhat inferiorly, and is adapted to suck- 
ing, for it is in that way that the lampreys obtain their food, 
using their numerous teeth to scrape and rasp the flesh off the 
bodies of the unfortunate fish and other animals to whom they 
may have attached themselves. The eyes, developed in the 
adult, are rudimentary in the young ; the latter are larval with 
a continuous vertical fin, an imperfect mouth and no teeth. 

Lampreys are called ' ' seven eyes ' ' from the seven gill 
openings ; and "nine eyes" counting the gill openings, the 
eye and the nostril, the last being counted in, once for each side. 

Petromyzon marinus L. 

Sea Lamprey. 

This species is found along the colder parts of both sides of 
the Atlantic Ocean, ranging south to Virginia on our coast. It 
is anadromous, ascending into small brooks to spawn, where it 
builds so-called "nests" of stones and pebbles, within 
which the spawn is deposited. It is supposed that after 
spawning the adults die, as they disappear soon after. 1 

Lampreys are often found attached to sturgeons and salmons 
as parasites. The mouth is full of teeth, which here are 
horny excrescences resting on soft papillae. They are in 
bands or laminae around the mouth and have several cusps. 
The teeth situated further out (lateral) are bicuspid in the first 
row, the others simple. The anterior lingual tooth has a deep 
median groove. The dorsal fin is divided into two parts ; the 
rear part merges into the caudal fin. The color of large speci- 
mens is dark brown, mottled usually with blackish. They grow 
to a length of three feet. 

1 Thoreau. A week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. A. Du- 
meril. Les Poissons voyageurs, anadromes et catadromes. 



i6 

I have had lampreys full of ova when not more than four 
and one- half inches long ; these were of a bluish grey color 
and died within a few days after removal from the brook, 
seemingly requiring cold running water. 

From the fact of their having spawn when of such a small 
size, I would suggest the propriety of maintaining the sub- 
species or variety Petromyzon marinus nigricans of Lesueur, 
although the latter has lately been regarded as merely the 
young of the sea lamprey. 

Class Pisces. 

Fishes. 
A fish is an aquatic vertebrate, with a developed skull and a 
lower jaw; the limbs are weak ; four, two or rudimentary, 
forming the pectoral and ventral fins. The dorsal, caudal and 
anal fins are part of the mechanism of locomotion , of the nature 
of keels and rudders. A fish swims mostly by means of his 
tail, the limbs serving only for the subsidiary movements, in 
some cases also for walking, i. e. , crawling along the bottom 
or climbing up stones, logs, etc. The shoulder girdle is almost 
always attached to the skull by clavicle bones, and is some- 
times rudimentary. The pelvic arch is frequently only 
embedded in the muscles or it may be rudimentary, or altogether 
absent. The skin is either naked, or covered with scales or 
plates of a horny or bony texture. The respiratory organs, 
called gills, are comb-like plates attached to the gill arches; 
the swim bladder, when present, sometimes gives indications 
of being a sort of lung. 

Sub-class Teleostomi. 

Perfect or True Mouths. 
The skeleton is developed ; the gills (usually four pairs) are 
attached to the arches by the bases only and are covered by 
the opercles ; the gill opening behind and below the opercles is 
single on each side. The heart has one auricle, one ventricle, 
and an arterial bulb. The hemispheres of the brain are not united. 

Series Ganoidei. 

The skeleton is cartilaginous or ossified. The tail is hetero- 
cercal or diphycercal ; some fins have fulcra. The exo-skele- 



17 

ton is either naked, plated or scaled. The arterial bulb is 
muscular and contractile with many valves ; the air bladder 
has a pneumatic duct ; the intestine a spiral valve. The ter- 
minal point of the notochord is never ossified. The embryo is 
sometimes provided with external gills. 

Family Accipenseridae. 

Sturgeons. 
This family of Ganoids, which were so numerous in earlier 
geological times, is characterized by the long fusiform body; 
the skin is covered with five rows of bony keeled shields, be- 
tween which are smaller plates. The snout is long, the mouth 
inferior, protractile and toothless ; there are four barbels in a 
row in front of the mouth. The maxillary is present, the 
opercle rudimentary. The vertical fins have springlike projec- 
tions on the front rays, called fulcra. There are four gills, no 
branchiostegals. The ova are fertilized after extrusion, as in 

most fishes. 

Accipenser sturio L. 

Sturgeon. 
The common sturgeon is found along the Atlantic coast 
from the Carolinas northward ; it is anadromous and common 
in the Hudson River, where it is regularly fished for. This is 
one of the fishes now being re-introduced by the U. S. Fish 
Commission in many rivers from which it has well nigh disap- 
peared. The Sturgeon grows to an extreme length of twelve 
feet. It is a food fish of no low rank. 

Accipenser brevirostrum Les. 
Short-nosed Sturgeon. 
This species has a blunt snout which is much shorter than 
the rest of the head. It occurs from Cape Cod to Florida, but 
is much scarcer than the previous species. 

Series Teleostei. 

Bony or True Fishes. 
Under the head of Teleosts comes the vast majority of 
modern fishes. The skeleton is ossified, the vertebrae are com- 
pletely formed, the tail is not distinctly heterocercal in adults, 
it is in a few cases diphycercal but generally homocercal. The 



18 

arterial bulb is thin and not contractile, and has a pair of oppo- 
site valves. The intestine is without a spiral valve. The 
optic nerves cross. 

The proper division of the Teleosts into orders is still not a 
thoroughly settled question and I will not enter upon special 
descriptions of them. 1 

Group Physostomi. 

In this large group the air bladder is connected with the 
alimentary canal by a duct. The fins, with the exception of 
occasional strong spines in some families, are always soft- 
rayed. 

Family Siluridae. 
Catfishks. 

In this family the subopercle is wanting, the anterior verte- 
brae are grown together, the maxillary is rudimentary and 
forms the base of the largest barbel, the skin is naked or cov- 
ered with plates ; there are usually two dorsals, the first with 
a strong spine, the second adipose. Bach pectoral also has a 
strong spine. The numerous teeth are in villiform bands. 
The air bladder is large, generally present, and connected with 
the auditory ossicles ; it is sometimes partly surrounded by 
osseous plates. 

^Explanation of abbreviations used in this paper. 

D. — Dorsal fin. 

2d D. — Second Dorsal fin. 

P. — Pectoral fins. 

V. — Ventral fins. 

A. — Anal fins. 

C— Caudal fin (tail). 

Roman numerals used in connection with fins, mean spines or 
inarticulate rays. 

Arabic numerals indicate soft rays. For example D. XI, 10 means 
one dorsal fin with 11 spines and 10 soft rays. 

D. X-I, 32 means first dorsal fin with 10 spines, second dorsal fin with 
1 spine and 32 soft rays. The dash between the numerals indicates that 
there are two fins. 

Scales 6-42-12 means 6 scales counted vertically from the front of 
dorsal to the lateral line ; 42 scales in the lateral line itself (if present) 
or along a side line from head to tail ; and 12 scales vertically from the 
lateral line to the anus. When only one numeral is given, the number 
of scales along the side is meant. 

Scutes are the tooth-like scales forming the saw-like margin of the 
belly in some fishes. 



19 

The Siluridae compose a large and important family of mostly 
fresh water fishes. It is represented here by two genera and 
three species, all of which have teeth in the jaws only and 
possess eight barbels. 

Ameiurus catus (L.). 
White Catfish. 

A. albidus IyESUEUR. A. niveiventris Cope. 

The white channel or "mud" catfish occurs in all the larger 
streams subject to the tide, and grows to a size of nearly two 
feet. The color on the upper parts is stone gray or bluish, 
underneath whitish, often with a delicate rosy tint, the lower 
fins sometimes tinged with red. The caudal is furcate. The 
anal has 20 or more rays. 

This fish occurs along the Atlantic and Gulf Coast regions. 
It is frequently caught on set lines with liver or killy bait and 
bites best at night. The flesh is much better flavored than 
that of the next. 

Ameiurus nebulosus (Les.). 

Common Catfish. 

The common catfish, bullhead or pout is one of the most 
plentiful of fishes all over the eastern United States. It is of 
very variable color, from dark blackish and olive to brown and 
yellowish above, becoming lighter below, and often clouded on 
the sides. Those from tidal or running water are lighter 
colored than those from stagnant places or ponds. It is fre- 
quently found in boggy places with hardly enough water to 
cover it. The tail fin is unevenly truncate, the upper part a 
little longer than the lower ; the adipose fin is free ; the anal 
has about 21 rays. The pectoral spines are long, stout, and 
serrate behind for the greater part of their length. The species 
A. melas (Raf.) is very similar to this and perhaps will ulti- 
mately be classed with it. 

The largest specimen of the catfish found by me in the near 
vicinity measured 13^ inches in length and weighed one 
pound, two ounces ; further inland they appear to grow to a 
length of 18 inches, and some seen by me were nearly of that 
length. 



20 

The catfish is very voracious and, though a carnivorous fish, 
will eat grains of farina, pellets of dough and maize mush. It 
is a rapid grower, and small specimens in captivity soon out- 
grow their desirability as aquarium fish. At the end of the 
third year this fish is perhaps fully matured. The ripe eggs 
are of the size of large pin heads and are of an orange color ; 
the very young fishes look like little black toad tadpoles. The 
spines are strongly developed at an early age. The old fish 
accompanies the brood for a certain time, always swimming 
around the swarm of young in order to keep them together. 
When alarmed the parent dashes off, followed by the whole 
swarm. 

Schilbeodes gyrinus {Mitch.). 

Stone Catfish. 

In the genus Schilbeodes the adipose fin is low and generally 
joined to the caudal fin; it comprises a number of small fishes. 
Our species is distinguished by its confluent adipose and caudal 
fins, giving the fish the appearance of having a sort of broad 
eel tail. It grows to a length of three and one-half or four 
inches. The general color is brownish, without blotches. 
Jordan in the ' ' Manual ' ' says that it has a black lateral 
streak, sometimes with two other streaks above this. I have 
found none with this feature ; it is the lateral line itself which 
looks darker in color. The head is broad and deep, the anal 
fin has fifteen to sixteen rays. The pectoral spines are entire 
or grooved behind, never serrate. 1 When carelessly handled 
the fish will not be soon forgotten, as the sting from these 
spines hurts like a wasp's sting and sometimes results in a 
swelling of the finger lasting for a day or more ; there appears 
to be a poison gland behind the pectoral, as in some foreign 
Siluroids. 

The eyes are small, beadlike and at night glisten like ada- 
mant, indicating a more nocturnal habit. These fishes are 
called stone catfishes, but they prefer still, muddy water. I 
have obtained them from Greenwood and Wawayanda Lakes, 
and the Ramapo and Hackensack River valleys. In the 

1 D. S. Jordan. B. Synopsis of Siluridae of the fresh waters of North 
America. Bulletin X, National Museum, 1877. 



21 

aquarium it is even more hardy than the common catfish and 
often lies on its side for hours as if dead, or remains suspended 
in the water in various odd positions. It does not much annoy 
other fishes with which it is kept. The stone catfishes are also 
known by the name of mad toms. 

Family Catostomidae. 

Suckers. 

The suckers are quite closely related to the carps and min- 
nows. The body is oblong, covered with cycloid scales ; the 
maxillary is perfect. The anterior vertebrae are grown 
together; an auditory ossicle is present. The head is naked, 
the jaws are suctorial with a protractile mouth in most cases ; 
lips thick, fleshy, often cleft into lobes. The teeth are in one 
to three series on the lower pharyngeal bone. The air bladder 
is divided into two or three parts by constriction. The tail is 
forked ; the adipose fin absent. The alimentary canal long, 
without caeca. 

Suckers prefer quiet waters and ascend into the smaller streams 
to spawn, often in immense numbers. It is then that they are 
mostly taken, either by netting or spearing, or even by hand, 
and then also (in early spring), their flesh is edible, at other 
times they are very soft. They feed by sucking up the mud 
and thus picking out small organisms and decaying matter. 
We have here about three genera with three or four species. 

Catostomus commersonii (Lac). 
White Sucker. 

In the common white or brook sucker the air bladder is in 
two parts ; the scales are small, increasing in size posteriorly. 
The small mouth is inferior, the under lip bilobed. Color 
brownish, olivaceous above, silvery below ; the young are 
much blotched and marked on sides and back. D. twelve rays. 
Scale formula 10-64 to 70-9. 

Found all over the eastern United States ; common. It is 
occasionally caught on the hook. Young ones, in captivity, 
though they always grub about, and though they take food 
offered them, do not thrive and gradually starve. They 
remain wild and take alarm easily and often leap out of their 



22 

tank. This species enters slightly brackish water ; it grows to 
a length of eighteen inches. 

Catostomus nigricans Les. 

Black Sucker. 
The black sucker is also called by such names as hog molly, 
stone toter, etc. The scales are larger than in the previous 
one; there are about fifty on the lateral line. The back is 
brassy olive with dark cross blotches in younger specimens. 
The lower fins are red. Dorsal 11, anal 7. Length two feet. 
Abbott mentions it from South Jersey. I provisionally refer to 
this species some suckers from the upper Passaic, which I 
received some years ago, but, owing to insufficient data, am not 
positive as to the correctness of this. They may have been 
Moxostoma macrolepidotum. 

Erimyzon sucetta {Lac). 

Chub Sucker. 
Moxostoma oblo?igum AucT. 

A rather common fish; broader than the brook sucker. 
Scales large, lips thin, no lateral line. Color dark, olivaceous 
above, more yellowish to silvery below ; the young have a 
broad black band along the sides and one along the back. 
Dorsal 11 to 13. Scales 43-15. This fish bears captivity better 
than the other suckers and is somewhat livelier in its habits. 
I have seen it taken by snaring with a wire noose attached to 
a stick. It grows to a length of nine inches. 

rioxostoma macrolepidotum Les. 
Red Horse, Mueeet or White Sucker. 
A heavier fish than the ordinary sucker. The mouth is 
large, the lips thick ; color olivaceous, brassy above, silvery 
on the sides, the lower fins and tail fin flesh red. Dorsal 12, 
anal 7. Scales 5-45-4, large. Air bladder in three parts. (See 
also Catostomus nigricans above.) 

Family Cyprinidae. 
Minnows and Carps. 
One of the largest fresh water families ; found in the North- 
ern Hemisphere and in Africa. The American species are 
mostly small. The larger Cyprinoids of the Old World are 



23 

represented in America in a measure by the Catostomoids. The 
vertebrae of the anterior part of the body are grown together, 
the auditory ossicle is present. The head is naked; the body 
scaly, except in a few cases; the mouth is toothless, sometimes 
with barbels. The lower pharyngeal bones are well developed, 
scythe-shaped, with one to three series of teeth, few in number. 
No adipose fin. Air bladder large, generally in two parts, 
seldom absent; stomach simple without appendages. 

During the breeding season the males of many of these fishes 
are much tuberculated and the fins, and often other parts of 
the body, are brightly colored, so that many of them at this 
season are scarcely rivaled in beauty by any other fishes. 

Hybognathus nuchalis Ag. 

Silvery Minnow. 

H. osmerinus Cope. 

Slender ; head short ; lower jaw shorter than upper. Thir- 
teen large scales in front of dorsal. D. 8, A. 7. Scales 5-38-4. 
Lateral line decurved. Silvery green, sides bright silvery 
with an underlying plumbeous shade ; fins pale. Length four 
to nine inches. New Jersey, west and south. Abbott l men- 
tions it from the Raritan near New Brunswick. 
Pimephales promelas Raf. 
Fat-head or Black-headed Minnow. 

Body somewhat short and deep. The head is blunt, almost 
globular in adult males. About 27 scales in front of dorsal. 
Olivaceous, a black bar across middle of dorsal, a dark shade 
along caudal peduncle. In adult males the head is jet black 
with large tubercles on the snout. D. I, 7, A. 7. Lateral line 
imperfect or wanting, Scales 7-47-6. Length 2% inches. 

This species is found in New England and westwardly and 
southerly, and may therefore occur here. 

1 To avoid repeating foot notes, I will here say that all references to 
C. C. Abbott's writings are made to the following papers : 

"Notes on some Fishes of the Delaware River," in report of the United 
States Fish Commissioner for 1875-1876, Pt. IV, 1878 ; "Appendix E " in 
the Geology of New Jersey, 1868, and ' 'Cyprinidse of Central New Jersey, ' ' 
in American Naturalist, Vol. 8, 1874. 

The New Jersey Geological Report, Vol. II, 1890, cited before, gives 
literal quotations from some of these papers, in connection with descrip- 
tions of species. 



24 

Pimephales notatus Raf. 
Blunt-nosed Minnow. 

A minnow closely allied to the last. The body is more 
elongate, the head longer. Scales before the dorsal about 23. 
Color olivaceous, little silvery, sides bluish, a dusky shade 
toward the base of the dorsal and a black blotch in front thereof, 
absent in the young. Head entirely black in spring males, 
with tubercles on the snout. Dorsal I, 8, A. 7. Scales 6-45-4. 
The lateral line present. Length, four inches. Quebec to 
Delaware, Miss, and Kansas. Abbott found it at New Bruns- 
wick, N. J. 

The next genus, Notropis, is a very large one of over 100 
species ; it is found only in North America, east of the Rockies, 
and now includes several genera before held to be distinct. 
The species are difficult of identification on account of their 
intergrading and great similarity. It is thought to be a group 
of very recent origin in which stability of species has not yet 
been fully attained. 1 They are all small, but owing to their 
abundance are of great value as food for other fishes. Five 
species come under our notice. 

Notropis bifrenata {Cope). 

Hemitremia bifrenata CopK. 

Body slender, tail contracted, upper lip on level of lower 
part of pupil ; jaws subequal, eye large, lateral line very short. 
Straw colored, with jet black band, bordered with orange on 
the snout. D. 8, A. 7. Scales 5-36-3. Length 2 inches. 

Massachusetts to Maryland. Very common in the Delaware, 
according to Abbott. 

Notropis hudsonius {Dewitt Clinton). 

Spawneater ; ' ' Smelt ' ' ; Shiner. 

Body elongate, moderately compressed, head short, snout 

blunt, eye very large, mouth small, subinferior; lateral line 

slightly decurved. 12-18 scales before the dorsal, fins small. 

Pale olive, young always with a round black spot on base of 

x See D. S. Jordan in " Report of Explorations made dnring the sum- 
mer and autumn of 1888 in the Alleghany Region of Virginia, North 
Carolina and Tennessee, and in Western Indiana, etc.," in Bulletin of the 
U. S. Fish Commission, No. 8, 1888. 



25 

caudal ; sometimes with a dark lateral band; fins plain. D. 8, 
A. 8. Scales 5-39-4. Length 10 inches. 

North and east, south to Georgia. Seldom found in smaller 
streams. Abbott records it from central New Jersey. 

Notropis procne {Cope). 

Hypsilepsis procne Cope. 

Body elongate, slender, back slightly elevated at dorsal fin; 
tail long ; snout blunt ; mouth inferior, small ; lateral line 
complete ; eye large, longitudinally oval ; 13 scales in front of 
dorsal ; caudal deeply furcate ; olivaceous, a dark lateral band 
on sides overlaid with plumbeous; a blackish line along base of 
anal. D. I. 8, A. I, 7. Scales 5-32-3. Length scarcely more 
than two inches. 

Western New York to Maryland. 

This little fish is very plentiful in the small brooks directly 
running into tidewater. It appears to approach the sea more 
closely than any other minnow, though it is never found in 
brackish water. It delights in strong currents, but in captivity 
lives well in the aquarium, feeding voraciously. It is almost 
entirely carnivorous. The Palisade Ridge is probably the fur- 
thest limit of this species towards the east. It is met with in 
compan} 1 - of the suckers and the roach. 

Notropis analostanus (Gzr.). 

Silver Fin. 

Body sub-elliptical, compressed in the adult ; head short, not 
very blunt. Mouth small, oblique. Bluish silvery, scales 
dusky edged, a dark vertebral line, large dorsal blotch which 
is wanting in the young. A. 8. Scales 5-38-3. Length 4 
inches. 

Western New York to Virginia, west and south. Abbott 
mentions it from central New Jersey. 

Notropis cornutus {Mitch.). 
Shiner ; Dace ; Red Fin. 
N. megalops Raf. 

Body short, compressed, elongate in young ; head heavy, 
snout blunt, mouth little oblique, lower jaw included ; eyes 
moderate ; lateral line decurved ; scales deeper than long. 



26 

Steel blue, with golden streaks, silvery below, fins pale, a dark 
spot behind opercle ; males tuberculate in spring with belly 
and lower fins rosy. Scales 6-41-3. D. 8, A. 9. Length up 
to 8 inches. 

Common and abundant throughout the greater part of the 
United States, ranging into Canada. A species which likes 
running water and is rather delicate in the aquarium. It some- 
what resembles the roach (Abramis). Often associates with the 
black- nosed dace. 

Notropis amoenus Abbott. 

Body elongate, compressed; eyes large; mouth large, oblique. 
Lateral line much decurved. D. 8, A. 10. Scales 6-39-3. 
Translucent green, sides silvery, with sometimes a faint plum- 
beous band ending in an obscure spot. Length 3^ inches. 

Clear streams east of the Alleghanies, from Raritan to 
Neuse. Perhaps a variety of N. photogenis (Cope). Abbott 
mentions it from near New Brunswick, N. J. 

Rhinichthys cataractae C. & V. 

Long-nosed Dace. 

Body elongate, subterete ; a barbel present, snout long, 
projecting beyond the mouth. Dusky olive, mottled ; no dis- 
tinct lateral band ; dusky spot on opercle ; male in spring 
with lips, cheeks and lower fins crimson. D. 8, A. 7. Scales 
14-65-8. Length to 6 inches. 

Northern United States in mountain streams. Not found by 
me. Occurs in New England and in the Delaware valley. 
Ayres 1 described it from Long Island as Leuciscus nasutus. 
Rhinichthys atronasus (Mitch.). 
Black-nosed Dace. 

Body elongate ; head large ; barbel small, snout not much 
projecting beyond mouth ; eye small. Dark olivaceous, mot- 
tled above, a black or brown lateral band, bordered on each 
side with paler. Males in spring, crimson on lateral band and 
lower fins, later changing to orange. D. 7, A. 7. Scales 4-63-8. 
Length 3 inches. 

A very beautiful and active fish, found in the swiftest streams 

l W. O. Ayres, " Enumeration of the Fishes of Brookhaven, L. I., etc." 
in Boston Journal of Natural History, Vol. IV, 1844. 



27 

of the eastern United States, associated with darteis, blobs 
and small minnows. In the aquarium it is more hardy than 
any other minnow and eats voraciously of animal food. 

Hybopsis kentuckiensis {Raf.). 

Hornyhead ; River Chub ; Jerker. 

Ceratichthys biguttatus Kirte. 

Robust ; head large, blunt; a barbel; mouth large, little 
oblique ; eye small. 18 scales before the dorsal. Bluish 
olive, with browner shades ; a dark bar behind the opercle ; 
fins pale orange, unspotted ; young with a black spot on base 
of caudal. Males with tubercles on the head in spring. D. 8, 
A. 7. Scales 6-41-4. Length 10 inches. 

Pennsylvania, west and south, according to Jordan's 
" Manual." I have found two specimens of a fish at two diff- 
erent points on the Passaic River, which I refer to this species. 
It appears to be a greedy fish ; one that I caught had swal- 
lowed the bait and had to be cut open to remove the hook. 
The flesh appears very soft. 

Semotilus corporalis {Mitch.). 
Faeefish ; Windeish ; Chub. 

Semotilus rhotheus Cope. 

Somewhat robust, fusiform ; barbels small ; bluish above, 
silvery below, fins plain. 22 scales before the dorsal. D. 8, 
A. 8. Scales 8-45-5. Length 18 inches. 

Canada and eastern United States. The largest native carp 
fish east of the Rocky Mountains. 

Of either this or the next species I have caught a few in a 
tidal creek at Secaucus, N. J., but I cannot tell now (from 
insufficient data), which one of them to positively class it with. 
It is said to be common in the Delaware River. 

Semotilus atromaculatus {Mitch.). 
Creek Chub ; Horned Dace. 
Semotilus corporalis AucT. 

More robust than the former. Head large and broad, barbel 
minute, not evident in the young ; mouth large, lower jaw 
included ; eye small ; 30 scales before the dorsal. Dusky, 
somewhat silvery, a dark bar at shoulder, a black spot at front 



28 

base of dorsal. Young with dark lateral band ; D. 7, A. 8. 
Scales 10-54-7. Length to 12 inches. 

Common throughout the eastern United States. Abbott 
mentions it. 

Abramis crysoleucas {Mitch.). 

Roach ; Shiner ; Bream. 

Body elongate, compressed, head short and low ; mouth 
oblique ; lateral line much decurved. Greenish and bluish 
above, sides silvery with golden reflections, fins yellowish. 
Breeding males often deep golden on flanks, the lower fins red. 
D. 8, A. 13. Scales 10-51-3. Length to 12 inches. 

Common all over the United States east of the Rocky Moun- 
tains in all waters. Generally found associated with the com- 
mon sunfish, killies and catfish in our vicinity. It is an active 
fish and lives well in the aquarium, becoming very familiar 
with its keeper. Owing to the small size of the gullet, the 
smaller individuals will at length starve unless their food is 
much comminuted. From its numbers the shiner is of great 
importance as food for. larger fish. In appearance it is shad- 
like and perhaps is the most typical of our Cyprinidse ; its 
nearest relatives are found in the Old World. 
Cyprinus carpio L. 
Carp. 

Both this and the next species are distinguished from our 
native species by having much longer dorsals and by their more 
bulky shapes. The carp has four barbels. D. 23, A. 8. Each 
of these fins is preceded by a strong spine, serrate behind. 
The color is olivaceous of different shades, with brownish 
reflections, lighter below. There are several varieties of this 
fish, that with normal scales, that with a few rows of very 
large scales (called mirror carp) , and that with very few or no 
scales (called leather carp). The carp crosses with the gold- 
fish, forming hybrids. Length 18 inches or more. 

This fish, originally at home in East Asia, has now become 
cosmopolitan and with the gold fish may be considered as 
almost a domestic animal. 

Opinions differ greatly as to its value as a food fish. In 
Europe it is highly prized, while with us it is frequently con- 



29 

sidered to be very poor. This may be due to ignorance of pre- 
paring it for the table ; it is a fish which should be boiled or 
stewed and served with a wine sauce. The carp is a sluggish, 
bottom feeding fish, continually rooting about in the mud and 
making muddy the water of streams which before its advent 
ran clear. In captivity it is hardy and quick growing. It is 
one of the few fishes which can live in the foul water of the 

lower Passaic River. 

Carassius auratus L. 

Goldfish. 

Body similar to the last, but deeper and shorter ; no barbels ; 
dorsal and anal each with a serrate spine. Color originally 
olivaceous with brassy lustre. The goldfish has been bred by 
the East Asiatics for ages back, so that now there are innumer- 
able varieties both of form and color, which if left to themselves 
would soon be lost and the species revert to the original stock. 

In many of our streams and ponds, the goldfish has run wild 
and hundreds of the olivaceous type will be secured to one of 
a red color. In the fauna of .the moraine ponds and in quarry 
holes, the goldfish stands first. 

It will breed in foul water where only catfish and dogfish 
can be found. As an article of food it is nearly valueless. 
The total length approximates one foot. 

Family Clupeidae. 

Herrings. 
Body oblong, with generally large cycloid scales, head naked, 
no barbels ; anterior vertebrae normal ; no auditory ossicle, 
abdomen often sharp, serrate. Anal long, caudal forked. No 
lateral line. Teeth weak or wanting. Stomach with a blind 
sac ; pyloric appendages numerous ; air bladder simple. A 
large family, having but few freshwater species. From the 
economic standpoint one of the most important fish families 
and one exceedingly numerous in the individuals of the various 
species. 

Pomolobus pseudoharengus Wilson. 

Alewife; Branch or River Herring. 
The body deep, compressed, shadlike ; head short, mouth 
large, belly sharp, serrated ; scales large. Color bluish, sides 



3o 

silvery with faint streaks around spot behind the opercle. D. 
16, A. 19. Scales 50. Abdominal scutes 21x14. 

Occurs along the Atlantic coast; anadromous ; is caught in 
gill nets, fykes, etc., in great abundance in the spring. 

This fish dies almost immediately on removing it from the 
water ; the blood vessels of the gills are very delicate and 
rupture when brought in contact with the atmosphere, so that 
the fish bleeds to death. Fresh' from the water they appear 
like molten silver. The flesh is very palatable, and no doubt 
is often sold as shad by dealers. It is found land-locked occa- 
sionally. 

Pomolobus aestivalis {Mitch.). 

Glut or Summer Herring. 

Weaker than the former, which it much resembles, it is more 
elongate, the fins are lower, the eyes smaller. Color darker 
above with faint streaks; dark spot behind opercles. 

It runs with the alewife and continues a little later. In 
habits the two fish appear alike. 

Alosa sapidissima Wilson. 
Shad. 

Body deep, compressed, mostly large, belly serrated and 
sharp. Bluish, sides silvery, a dark blotch behind opercle, 
often followed by three or four others in a row. D. 15, A. 21. 
Scales 60. Scutes 21x16. 

Anadromous and found all along the Atlantic and Gulf sea 
board ; one of the most valuable food fishes. It is often 
caught in company with the alewives. The shad has been an 
object of much distribution by the Fish Commission of the 
United States, and has been transplanted to the Pacific coast 
and to Europe. 

Brevoortia tyrannus (Latrobe). 
Menhaden; Mossbunker. 

Body compressed, quite deep, fins small; eyes small; bluish, 
silvery below, fins pale, a dark spot behind the opercle with 
often many smaller spots behind in several irregular series. 
D. 19, A. 19. Scales 60-80. Scutes 20x12. 

The menhaden runs in large schools, and, though a marine 
fish, it sometimes enters the rivers for a short distance. 



•3i 

It is said to reach a length of eighteen inches. A fish of 

some importance for making oil and for manure and the 

natural food of many predatory fishes. It is not edible and 

decays quickly. 

Family Argentinidae. 

Smklts. 
Resembles the salmon family in many respects. Small fishes 
with an adipose fin and small scales. The stomach is a blind 
sac, the gullet and intestines opening closely together. Pyloric 
caeca few or wanting. 

Osmerus mordax {Mitch.'). 
Smelt; Frostfish. 
Mouth large ; teeth strong. Dorsal 10, A. 15. Scales 
about 68. Length to 12 inches. Greenish, paler on the sides 
with a silvery band. Very similar to the European species. 
Found along the northern Atlantic coast ; anadromous. 
A delicate fish, plentiful around stream mouths and some- 
times land-locked. The flesh has a sweet taste. Artificial 
hatching has much increased-the supply of the smelt. 

Family Salmonidae. 

Salmons. 

Strongly built fishes of oblong shape with cycloid scales, the 
head naked ; mouth often very large and generally well- 
toothed. An adipose fin, caudal forked, lateral line present. 
Stomach siphonal, pyloric caeca up to 200, rarely absent ; air 
bladder large, simple. In many of them the lower jaw of the 
male during the breeding season becomes prolonged and hook- 
shaped and fits into the emarginate or perforate upper jaw. 

An arctogaeal family, mostly of the freshwater. The larger 
species are anadromous. The salmons are, economically, one 
of the most important families and many species are becoming 
cosmopolitan by human interference. 

Salmo salar L. 

Atlantic Salmon. 
A powerful fish with the characteristic hook jaw in the 
breeding season. Brownish above, silvery on sides, with many 
scattered black cross-shaped spots on head, body and fins, often 



32 

with red patches on sides in the males. The young, with dark 
bars and red spots, are often called "parrs," and formerly 
were thought to be a distinct fish. After the first year they 
are called " smolts." D. 11, A. 9. Scales 23-120-21. 

The salmon is anadromous and is found on both sides of the 
Atlantic Ocean. The land-locked form, var. sebago (Gir. ), first 
found in Maine, has been successfully transplanted into many 
waters. Though the salmon was almost exterminated on our 
coast it has been re-established by the Fish Commission, and 
where the conditions are favorable, is on the increase. Of late 
years salmon are again caught in the Hudson River ap- 
proaches. 1 

Sal mo fario L. 
Brown or Brook Trout. 

This European fish has been introduced here by the Fish 
Commissions of both States. It is called, for no sufficient 
reason, "Von Behr " trout. D. 13 or 14. A. 11 or 12. 
Scales 120. Length to thirty inches. Olivaceous and brownish 
above, more silvery on sides, back and dorsal fin with many 
round dark spots, sides with crimson spots, lower fins often 
reddish. 

Salmo irideus Gibb.). 
Rainbow Trout. 

The caudal is deeply emarginate, body bluish above, dorsal 
and caudal with many black spots. A broad crimson band on 
the sides fading out above and below. 

Introduced into the Eastern States and Europe from Cali- 
fornia. 

D. 14, A. 14. Scales 140. It is doubtful whether any 
rainbow trout are to be found nearby. 

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha ( Walb.). 
Columbia or Quinnat Salmon. 
A large heavy fish ; dusky above, head darker, silvery below 
with black dots. Males with elongated jaw in spawning time. 
D. 11, A. 16. Scales 150. Length three feet. 

1 See H. M. Smith. — Notes on the capture of Atlantic salmon at sea, 
etc., in Bull 14, United States Fish Commission for 1894. 



33 

This fish was introduced here years ago, but without any 
apparent success. 1 

Salvelinus fontinalis {Mitch.). 
Brook or Speckled Trout. 

Head large, snout blunt, mouth very large, eye large, cau- 
dal not deeply cut. Dusky with darker blotches above, sides 
greenish, bluish and silvery below, belly reddish in males. 
Dorsal and caudal barred or vermiculated, lower fins dusky 
with red or orange, sides with small red spots. When found 
in brackish water they are more silvery and grow heavier. 
D. 10, A. 9. Scales 37-230-30. Size up to twenty inches. 

Found in the northern United States and Canada and along 
the Alleghanies south to Georgia. 

The young are much barred and not very like the adult in 
appearance, and were described as Baione fontinalis hy DeKay. 
The range of this fish also has been much extended by man. 

Family Poeciliidae. 

KlEEIFISHES. 

Body oblong, depressed in front, compressed posteriorly ; no 
lateral line, head and body scaly ; mouth small, terminal, pro- 
tractile, fully toothed. A single dorsal far back. Caudal 
truncate or rounded. Stomach siphonal, no pyloric caeca ; air 
bladder simple. The sexes mostly unlike, the males during 
the breeding season often brilliantly colored. 

A large, mostly brackish water family of nearly universal 
distribution. 

Small fishes which serve as food for others. With us com- 
monly called "killies." 2 

The family is subdivided into carnivorous and limnophagous, 
but many of them are indiscriminate feeders. 

Cyprinodon variegatus Lac. 
Sheepshead or Pursy Minnow. 
Body short, compact. Male bluish, of a weak reddish tinge 
below ; caudal with black bar at base and tip ; female oliva- 
ceous, more silver on sides with dark irregular cross streaks. 

1 See New Jersey State Geologist, Final Report, cited above. 

2 From the Dutch word " kill," meaning creek. 



34 

D. 10, A. 10. Scales 36-13. Length up to four inches. 
This fish does not enter streams to any great distance, prefer- 
ing strongly brackish waters. It occurs along the entire 
Atlantic coast. 

Fundulus majalis (Walb.). 

Mayfish; Mummichog. 

Head long, scales large. Male olivaceous, brassy, with 
twelve bars of darker color ; dorsal fin spot black, lower fins 
yellowish. Females paler with black lines on side and one or 
two bars at base of caudal. D. 12, A. 10. Length to six 
inches. 

Atlantic coast. This species does not ascend rivers as far as 
the next. The female exceeds the male in size. 

Fundulus heteroclitus L. 

Common Killy; Cobbler. 

Body short and robust. Male greenish, more yellowish 
below, with bluish and silvery bars ; dorsal dark with large 
black spots ; lower fins yellowish. In the breeding season 
often deep blue on back and sides. Females more silvery. D. 
11, A. 10. Scales 35-12. Length two to five inches. 

Atlantic and Gulf coasts; runs up stream further than the 
last species. Stands captivity well and is often found ' ' land- 
locked ' ' in ice or quarry ponds. The flesh has a sweet taste. 
This killy appears in countless numbers at times. 

Fundulus diaphanus (Les.). 
Transparent or Freshwater Killy. 

Body more slender and head more pointed than in the others. 
Sexes nearly alike. Olivaceous, sides silvery with many 
narrow dusky crossbars, fins plain or yellowish. 

Northern and eastern United States to the Rocky Mountains, 
in all waters. This killy, though often found in the salt 
water inlets, nevertheless must be considered as a fresh water 
species. 

In the aquarium it lives better than any of the others, 
excepting F. heteroclitus. All killies are extremely voracious 
and attack the fins of other fishes. They become very tame 
in captivity. 



35 

Lucania parva (Bd. & Gir.). 
Rain-water Fish. 
Body deep ; male dark olive, female lighter. Dorsal dusky 
orange with black spot at base, other fins lighter orange mar- 
gined with black. The fins of the female are plain. D. 10- 
12, A. 10-11. Scales 26-8. Length two inches. 

Along the coast from Long Island, southward ; occasionally 
found nearly land-locked in ditches. 

Family Umbridae. 

Mud Minnows. 

Body fusiform, head large, somewhat blunt, both scaled. 
Fins all soft-rayed, very mobile, caudal round, fan-shaped, 
pectorals and ventrals narrow. Mouth quite large, with villi- 
form teeth. Stomach siphonal, no pyloric appendages, air 
bladder simple. There are only three species known, all 
closely allied but far apart in locality. Two are found in the 
eastern United States from Carolina to Ontario and west to 
Minnesota. The other is found in a limited area of Austro- 
Hungary. In habits they are alike, but our species appear to 
be hardier and less given to fungus growths than the European 
U. cramer i. 

Umbra pygmaea (DeKay). 
Mud Minnows ; Dogfish; also called " Rockfish." 

This species is of a generally olivaceous color with pale 
interrupted lines of cuneiform like figures, a dark caudal bar ; 
lower jaw dark ; some are much paler than others. D. 14, A. 
9. Scales 35-15. Length S}4 to 4 inches. 

The dogfish is a most peculiar fish, as voracious as a pike 
and as tough-lived as a catfish. It requires only little water 
and can often be dug from the moist mud of ditches, the water 
of which has evaporated. None may be found in a stream, 
but the puddles and musk-rat holes alongside may be full of 
them. It is a good deal of an air breather, rising to the sur- 
face to gulp in air and then descending again, in the fashion of 
the paradise fish. In the aquarium it is very hardy and apt to 
annoy other species by driving them around and attacking their 
fins. When exposed to the air in freezing weather, it succumbs 
almost instantly, also when put into water containing much 



36 

lime ; on the other hand, hot weather does not in the least 
trouble it, except that it gets its supply of air more frequently. 
In movement it is very erratic, now dashing about as if mad, 
again standing perfectly motionless in the water, only moving 
the pectorals and ventrals "like a dog, running," again only 
moving pectorals and the rear part of the dorsal or only the 
latter fin alone. It can turn its head sideways at an angle and 
remain a while in that position. When feeding it gorges the 
morsel at one attempt, after staring at it a while. Sometimes 
when overfed the dogfish cannot swim about at all, but lies 
like a log on the bottom. 

Found in lowland streams east of the Alleghanies, from New 
York to Carolina. 

Family Luciidae. 
Pikes. 

Body much elongate, little compressed ; head flattened, snout 
much depressed, mouth very large, full of teeth, those on the 
lower jaw very strong and of unequal size. Dorsal and anal 
very far back, caudal roundly forked. Scales on cheeks and 
body; lateral line present. Intestinal canal simple. Air blad- 
der simple ; gill openings wide. Extremely voracious fishes, 
the sharks of the fresh waters. There are only five species 
known, all of the one genus Lucius. Four are exclusively 
North American, the fifth is arctogaeal. They are considered 
among the gamiest of fishes and possess very edible flesh. Pike 
in the aquarium must be kept by themselves, owing to their 
rapacity; they are somewhat delicate in captivity. 

Lucius americanus (Gmel.). 

Pickerel. 

The large head is shorter than in the others. Olivaceous 
above with about 20 distinct, curved, loop-shaped, dusky 
bars ; fins plain, reddish ; a dark bar below the eye. D and A 
11 or 12 rays each. Scales 105. Grows to a length of one 
foot. 

Common east of the Alleghanies in coastwise streams. This 
species is here often met with in brackish water, and is then 
more brown in color. 



37 

Lucius reticulatus (Les.). 

Reticulated Pickerel. 

Head and snout longer than in the former. Olivaceous with 

numerous darker lines and streaks, mostly horizontal, forming 

a rude net design; fins plain. D. 14, A. 13. Scales 125. 

Length to thirty inches. 

Occurs within the same territory as the last, but further 
away from the coast. 

Family Auguillidae. 

True Eels. 
Body much elongate, serpentine, " footless," i.e., having no 
ventral fins ; dorsal, caudal and anal generally continuous. 
The shoulder girdle is not connected to the skull. Stomach 
with a blind sac and no pyloric appendages. Scales small and 
on account of the thick mucous covering in many cases not 
readily seen, skin thick. Lateral line present. Head long, 
pointed ; mouth large, the lower jaw the longest, teeth small. 
Sexes hard to distinguish. 

Anguilla chrysypa Raf. 
Eel. 

Brownish, greenish and grayish, lighter below. Vertical 
fins confluent, plain. Length to 40 inches. 

Found in the whole Atlantic drainage system from Canada 
to Brazil ; often land-locked in ponds into which it only 
entered by traveling overland, which is done at night or in wet 
weather. The propagation of the eel was a mystery until a 
few years ago; it is now known to be catadromous, i. e., run- 
ning down the rivers to the sea or at least into strongly brack- 
ish water to spawn. After this process the female is supposed 
to die. The young eels proceed upstream in innumerable 
array, overcoming all obstructions. 

In captivity eels live for many years. They delight to lie 
buried in the mud or sand with only their heads out, ready for 
anything edible to come within reach. Mussels and snails are 
picked out of the shells by them. 

Group Physoclisti. 

The air bladder is closed, not connected by a duct with the 



38 

alimentary canal in the adult. Most of them have spines in 
some of the fins. 

Family Esocidae. 

Needle Fishes. 
Body compressed and oblong, a ridge along the side of belly; 
head scaly. Many teeth ; dorsal far back; no spinous fins ; 
intestinal canal simple ; air bladder large. Marine fishes of 
which the following species is anadromous. 

Tylosurus marinus ( Walb.). 
Bill or Garfish ; Green Pike. 
Body long ; jaws slender. Color greenish, silvery on the 
sides ; bones and scales green. Said to grow to a length of 
four feet. Scales 300. 

Coastwise along the Atlantic shores. Abbott says they are 
often found in the Delaware and Raritan canal basins, when the 
water is drawn off in winter. I caught one specimen only of this 
fish some years ago in a brackish creek at Secaucus, N. J. 

Family Gasterosteidae. 

Stickleback. 
Small fishes with elongate compressed bodies ; tail slender ; 
skin naked or with bony plates ; head large, teeth villiform, in 
jaws only. The whole appearance mackerel-like. Dorsal, 
ventrals and anals with large spines, which in the dorsal are 
isolated excepting the last. The greater number of species are 
nest builders, the male building the nest and defending the 
young against all intruders. They are mostly brackish water 
fishes of the colder waters and are considered to be very 
destructive to the spawn of other fishes. 

Pygosteus pungitius {L.Y. 
Nine- or Ten-spined Stickleback. 
Blackish or olive, blotched, barred or spotted, silvery be- 
neath ; tail keeled. Length 2 to iy 2 inches. D. IX-I, 9, 
A I, 8. 

North-east America. This species appears to run upstream 
further than the others. In the aquarium it often attacks 
fish and tears their fins into shreds. During the breeding sea- 
son, the male becomes of a rosy hue beneath. It is a hardy 



39 

fish, enduring captivity better than the other species. Often 
found in pools in the woods, where seemingly no other fish 
occur. 

Oasterosteus bispinosus VValb. 
Common Two- or Three-spined Stickleback. 

Olivaceous with spots above, silvery beneath and on sides. Keel 
on side of tail. D II-I, 13; A. I, 8 or 9. Length 3 to 4 inches. 

Exceedingly common in the tidal creeks in the spring. The 
nest of this fish is made on and in the sand with the aid of 
bits of straw, weeds, etc. After the female has deposited the 
eggs, the male stands over the nest and fans it with the pec- 
torals, only leaving to get food, or to resent an intrusion ; he 
often kills the female with whom he has paired. During this 
time the male is red below and bluish and greenish above, with 
indistinct darker bars. After the spawning season is over they 
seem to die off, at least they do in captivity. With proper 
attention the young can be raised to quite a size. This fish 
has been described under many different species and varieties, 
but all appear to be closely related. It does not enter very far 
inland. 

Apeltes quadracus {Mitch.). 
Four-spined Stickleback. 

Olivaceous, mottled and marbled or finely dotted. Ventral 
spines and fins red a great part of the year in the male; body 
higher in front, tapering backward, skin naked. D. Ill, I, 11; 
A. I, 8. The dorsal spines usually diverge, three to one side 
and one to the other. Length 2 inches. 

Runs upstream into purely freshwater and is commonly asso- 
ciated with the killies in small ditches and pools. This stickle- 
back builds a rudimentary nest of plant bits and. acts like the 
above in most respects; it is hardy and can be kept all the 
year around. I have successfully raised this fish to nearly 
mature growth. 

Family Atherinidae. 
SlLVERSIDES. 

Elongate fishes without lateral line, mouth moderate, teeth 
weak ; dorsals far apart, the first of weak spines. Scales 
cycloid. Air bladder present. Brackish water fishes. 



40 

Henidia notata {Mitch.). 
Silversides ; Spearing. 
Slender, transparent; greenish or straw color. D. IV-I, 8; 
A. I, 8. Length 3 inches or more. 

Found coastwise, entering streams and often in nearly fresh 
water. The spearing swims in shoals and likes eddies close to 
swift currents. It is a very delicate little fish, which can be 
kept only in continually agitated water. 



We have now reached the spiny rayed fishes proper, in all 
of which, if the ventral fins are present, they are thoracic or 
jugular, generally I, 5, the gills usually four, opercles and 
pharyngeals well developed and the premaxillary forming the 
whole border of the mouth. The first rays of dorsals and 
anals are usually spinous. 

Family Pomatomidae. 

BEUEFISHES. 

These have a large, oblique, much toothed mouth ; the 

caudal is forked ; scales ctenoid. The only species of the 

family is 

Pomatomus saltatrix (L.). 

Beuefish. 

Blue above, silvery below. D. VIII-I, 25; A. II-I, 26. 
Spines weak. Scales 95. Length to 3 feet. 

A fish occurring in tropical waters ; on our coast north to 
Cape Cod. During the warm season they often run up the 
rivers, the young, called "snappers," frequently into nearly 
fresh waters. 

The bluefish is a most destructive fish, tearing to pieces its 
own kind if any of them should become disabled. It fol- 
lows the menhaden schools for prey. 

Family Aphredoderidae. 

Pirate Perches. 

Consists of only one species, widely distributed in the eastern 

United States in lowland streams. The body is oblong ; head 

thick, depressed ; tail compressed. Teeth in bands on jaws, 

vomer and palatines. Chin projecting ; opercle with a spine ; 



4i 

no lateral line ; dorsal small, no spines in ventrals, caudal 
rounded. 

Aphredoderus sayanus {Gilliams). 

Pirate Perch. 
Dark olive, dotted with black, two dusky bars at base of 
caudal. D. Ill, 11; A. II, 6; V, 7. Scales 48-58. Length 
6 inches. A very predator} 7 , nocturnal fish, found in sluggish, 
weed-grown streams. In South Jersey it is found, according 
to Abbott, north to Mercer Count)'. The furthest east from 
which it is known appears to be Suffolk County on Long 
Island. 1 It may, therefore, be found nearerby. 

Family Centrarchidae. 

Sun-fishes. 2 

This fresh water family is confined to North America, north 
of Mexico. The body is proportionally deep and compressed. 
The opercle with or without a flap, generally with a blackish 
spot. Lateral line present. Dorsal continuous. Teeth small, 
short. All sun-fishes are bold, voracious fishes. Some are 
' ' nest ' ' builders. 

Pomoxis sparoides (Lac). 

Calico, Grass or Strawberry Bass. 

Body oblong ; snout projecting, opercular spot small. Sil- 
very olive mottled with greenish , fins with paler spots ; the 
soft dorsal large; anal large. D.VIII, 15; A. VI, 17. Scales 
40 to 45. Length to 12 inches. 

Eastern United States. The calico bass is not known to me 
from the vicinity and unless it has been introduced, I do not 
think it will be fonnd. It originally occurred from the Hudson 
River westward and southward, but not in lowland streams. 

Ambloplites rupestris (Raf.). 

Rock Bass; Red or Goggle Eye. 

Body oblong, heavy; mouth large ; opercular spot small. 

Color olive green, brassy, much mottled on sides with greenish 

or blackish; a dark spot below the eye. D. XI, 10; A. VI, 10. 

Scales 5-40-12. Length to 12 inches. 

x See Ayres, op. cit. 

'See also C. H. Bollman. A review of the Centrarchidae in Report of 
U. S. Fish Comm'r. for 1888. 



42 

Eastern United States west of the Alleghanies. Introduced 
into Greenwood Lake, Passaic River and other waters. The 
young are pale or yellowish with dark bars, but do not appear 
to enter the smaller streams as much as the other sun-fishes. 

Acantharchus pomotis {Bd.). 
Mud Sun-fish. 

Body oblong, mouth large. Color dark green or olive with 
three or more faint, dusky stripes on sides, cheeks with oblique 
bands, fins plain. Caudal convex. D. XI, 10; A. V, 10. 
Scales 6-42-12. Length 6 inches. 

Atlantic coast streams. This fish I have found in the upper 
Hackensack valley. Baird collected it in South Jersey and in 
Rockland County, N. Y. Abbott mentions it from Mercer 
Count} 7 , N. J. It perhaps may be found on Long Island. In 
habits it is shy and seclusive, a nocturnal fish. 

Enneacanthus obesus {Bd.). 

Spotted-fin Sun-fish ; Rock Sun-fish. 

Body deep and short, opercular spot large. Olivaceous with 
5 or more dark cross-bars, spots purplish, golden or pearl} 7 , 
dark bar below eye. Vertical fins large with light spots. Second 
dorsal and anal sometimes ruddy with black line edge. D. IX, 
10; A. Ill, 10. Scales 4-32-10. Length Sj4 to 4 inches. 

Coastwise from Massachusetts to Florida. First found by 
Baird 1 near Boston, Mass. Girard and Storer also mention it 
from Eastern Massachusetts. I have found no record from 
any other place in New England or from Long Island of this 
Carolinian species. In our vicinity it inhabits the entire 
Hackensack valley, prefering quiet, weedy places. For the 
aquarium it is the most desirable of all the sun-fishes, as well 
on account of its hardiness as of its harmless nature. 

Lepomis auritus (L.). 

Long-eared Sun- fish; Yellow Belly. 

Body somewhat elongate. Dorsal spines low. Opercular 

flap, small in young, very long and narrow in adult, black. 

Color olive with blue spots, lower spots and fins red or ruddy; 

1 S. F. Baird, " List of Fishes from Beeseley's Point, N. J., and from 
Long Island, etc." in 9th Annual Report of Smithsonian Inst., 1855. 



43 

cheeks red and blue striped. Young more greenish. D. X, 
10; A. Ill 9 or 10. Scales 38 to 48. Length 8 inches or 
more. 

United States east of the Alleghanies to Louisiana. It does 
not go down stream as far as the next species. Very common 
in the Upper Passaic River and in the Great Swamp, also in 
the Bronx River. A very good aquarium fish. 

Eupomotis gibbosus {L.). 
Common Sun- fish ; Pond Perch, Bream, etc. 

Body deep, profile steep ; sides greenish and bluish with 
orange spots and chainlike bars ; cheeks orange red with blue 
stripes or streaks. Belly or lower fins orange.. Opercular flap 
black, bordered with orange or red. Rear edges of vertical 
fins yellow bordered in the males, which are far brighter than 
the females, especially during breeding time. The females are 
more greenish and bluish, the opercular spot paler bordered. 
D. X, 11; A. Ill, 10. Scales 6-38 to 48-13. Length 8 inches 
or more. The male jealously watches his nest, which is a 
shallow dish excavated near the edge of the water in mud or 
sand. 1 

In the aquarium the common sun-fish by incessant attacks 
often kills its associates of many kinds. It is a very gamey 
fish, common everywhere and is usually found in the company 
of shiners, minnows and killies. 

Found in most of the morain ponds of Long and Staten 
Islands, and in the quarry ponds, etc. , on the Palisades, put there 
frequently by bo3^s. Provided there is water enough through- 
out the year, the sun-fish will thrive and multiply as freely as 
the gold-fish found with it. 

This species ranges from Maine to Minnesota and east of the 
Alleghanies to Florida. Not in the Ohio basin. 

nicropterus dolomieu {Lac). 

Small-mouthed Black Bass. 
Body more elongate, dorsal low. Olive green, lighter below T 
with obscure bars. The young more brassy green and more 
1 Compare also Thoreau, op. cit. 



44 

barred, cheeks with three oblique bars. D. X, 13; A. Ill, 10. 
Scales 10 or 11-72 to 75-17. Length to two feet. 

Originally occurred in the eastern United States, excepting 
from Canada south to the Potomac, east of the Green and 
Alleghany Mountains. It has now been introduced generally, 
and also in Europe. Found in Greenwood Lake, Passaic River, 
etc. A bold, voracious fish, destructive of other species, and 
considered, next to the trout, as the " gamiest" of all fishes. 

Micropterus salmoides {Lac). 
Large-mouthed or Oswego Bass. 

Body more compressed and deeper than in the preceeding 
species. Mouth extremely large. Dorsals low. Dark green, 
silvery below with only indistinct traces of the blackish band, 
wmich is characteristic of the young. D. X, 13; A, III, 11. 
Scales 8-68-16. Length to 2y 2 feet. 

Original distribution similar to that of the last, but now of 
wider occurence. Found in most all of the nearby lakes and 
rivers. 

The Oswego bass is even more destructive to fish than the 
other. It will eat any fish which it can manage to get into its 
mouth and will lie on the bottom for days so gorged that it 
cannot stir. In voracity it is only equaled, but hardly excel- 
led by the pike. This bass bears captivity well. 

Family Percidae. 

Perches. 
Body elongate, teeth usually villiform, sharp on the lower 
pharyngeals ; scales ctenoid ; opercle with a spine ; fins large, 
dorsals separate ; intestinal canal short ; air bladder small or 
wanting. A widely distributed fresh water family. The 
genus Etheostoma of eastern North America embraces a large 
number of species and is considered of recent origin. 1 Many 
of the species grade into each other. 

Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi (Storer). 
Tesselxated Darter. 
Slender : fins high ; spines weak ; no scales on back in 

x See Jordan's "Manual." Also D. S. Jordan, in Bull. 8, U. S. Fish Com- 
mission for 1888, loc. cit., under Xotropis above. 



45 

front of dorsals. D. IX-14; A. I, 9. Scales 4-50-7. Oliva- 
ceous with blotches and zig-zag markings on sides ; fins with 
fine zig-zag lines. Length Sj4 inches. 

Eastern United States, very common; often in tidal creeks, 
where the water is impure but not salty. In the aquarium 
they are delicate and can only be kept if the water remains at 
a low temperature and is not deep, unless in circulation. 

Etheostoma flabellare Raf. 
Fan-tailed Darter. 
Body long and low; head pointed, mouth with both jaws 
well developed. Dorsal spines in male with flesh}' tips. Dusky 
olive with darker bars or streaks. D. and C. with zig-zag bars ; 
caudal fan shaped. D. VIII-12; A. II, 8. Scales 7-50-7. 
Length 2% inches. Not altogether rare in Hackensack Valley 
streams, perhaps the eastermost locality where it is found. 
Jordan's "Manual' ' gives the distribution as Western New York 
to North Carolina and west. As an aquarium fish it is hardier 
than the others and feeds well. 

Etheostoma fusiforme {Gir.). 

Fusiform Darter. 

Slender, terete ; snout short, blunt ; mouth small, oblique ; 
eye large ; caudal rounded. Olivaceous mottled with brown- 
ish, back and sides with green cross shades, sometimes red 
spots on the sides ; spinous dorsal with red spots. D. IX or 
X-10; A. II, 6. Scales 50. Length 2 inches. 

Abbott records it from Bound Brook, N. J. , and as it occurs 
in New England it will very likely be found within our territory. 

Perca flavescens {Mitch.). 
Yeelow Perch. 

Body oblong, somewhat compressed ; back elevated. Pupil 
much oval. Dark olivaceous greenish ; sides yellow with 6 or 
8 dark bars from back down the sides, lower fins orange, upper 
dusky; the young with a black spot on rear part of spinons 
dorsal, paler in the adult. D. XIII-I, 14; A. II, 7. Scales 
5-55-17. Length to 15 inches. 

Canada and the northern and eastern United States, except 
the Ohio Valley. One of our common fishes. Feeds well in 



46 

captivity and does not molest its associates. The perch is 
more of a bottom feeder than the sun-fishes. 

Lucioperca vitrea Mitch. 
Waix-eyed Pike ; Pike Perch. 

Bod}' much elongate, pike-like ; head long. Dark olive, 
mottled with brassy, sides of head vermiculated. First dorsal 
with large black blotch behind ; other fins mottled, yellowish. 
D. XIII-I, 21; A. II, 12. Scales 90. Length to three feet. 
Northern and central United States. 

Introduced last year into Greenwood Lake and Raritan River 
by the New Jersey Fish Commission. It occurs in the Great 
Lakes and west of the Alleghanies. 

Family Serranidae. 

Sea Basses. 
Body oblong ; mouth large, teeth mostly villiform, very nu- 
merous. Opercle with flat points, a lateral line. Tail stout, 
not deeply cut. Intestine short, stomach blind sac with pyloric 
appendages. A large and chiefl}- marine family of nearly uni- 
versal distribution which furnishes many important food fishes. 
It is closely allied to the perches and sun-fishes. 1 

Roccus lineatus {Block), 

Striped Bass or Rock Fish. 

Body somewhat elongate ; spines slender; mouth large ; 

dorsals separate. Olivaceous, silvery on the sides with 7-9 

narrow dark stripes. D IX, I, 12; A. Ill, 11. Scales 65, 

Length 4 to 5 feet. 

Entire eastern United States seaboard to Louisiana. This 

species is anadromous and is often found in pure fresh water; 

also has been confined in ponds with good results. A predatory 

fish which in the brackish water replaces the black basses of 

the inland in respect to voracity and gaminess. Will live well 

in the marine aquarium, but much prefers agitated water. 

Roccus chrysops Raf. 

White or Silver Bass. 

Back arched. Color greenish above, silvery below, with 

1 See Jordan and Eigenmann, "A Review of the Serranidae, etc., in 
Bull. S, U. S. F. C. for 1888. 



47 

dusky stripes on the sides. D. IX-I, 14; A. Ill, *>. Scales 
55. Length 15 inches. 

Canada and northern United States. The silver bass may 
owe its origin to land-locked striped bass. This fish, too, has 
been planted into Greenwood Lake by the New Jersey Fish 
Commission. It has been introduced abroad. 

riorone americana {Gmelin). 

White Perch. 

Bod>- oblong, head pointed, back elevated. Spines strong. 
Mouth moderate. Olivaceous bluish, sides silvery, with faint 
lines, chin violet when removed from the water. D. IX-1, 12; 
A. Ill, 9. Scales 50. Length to 10 inches. 

Atlantic coast north of South Carolina. The white perch is 
distinctly a brackish water fish, found all the year around, and 
runs up into perfectly fresh water; it can be land-locked with 
good results. In the tidal parts of streams, this perch is about 
the most common fish. They go in large schools and play 
about one spot for a long time ; an angler meeting with such a 
swarm may catch a hundred -or more w T ithin an hour, often, 
three at a time. I have on several occasions found a long 
green, brackish water (Enteromorpha) alga in their stomachs, 
indicating that they sometimes eat vegetable matter, though 
perhaps only for the minute organisms found upon it. A good 
aquarium fish in slightly salt water. 

Family Sciaenidae. 

Croakers; Drums. 
Body elongate, compressed ; skull cavernous with wide 
muciform channels. Teeth in villiform bands, none on palate. 
Lateral line continuous, sometimes extending over the caudal 
fin. The air bladder is large with many, often curiously 
shaped appendages or lobes, which structure seems to enable 
these fishes to emit grunting or croaking sounds. Ear bones 
large. Dorsal deeply notched. A large and widely distributed 
family, marine with few exceptions. 

Leiostomus xanthurus Lac. 
Spot; Goody; Lafayette. 
Profile convex, body robust, compressed. Bluish or violet, 
sides silvery with many oblique dark bars, a dark ocellum be- 



4* 

hind operculum. D. X-I, 32; A. II, 12. Scales BO. Length 
12 inches. 

Eastern coast of the United States ; anadromous ; often 
associated with the white perch. A very solidly built fish, 
powerful for its size. 

Family Cottidae. 

Scuupins. 
Body elongate, tapering to the rear. Head broad and 
depressed, sometimes armed with spines. Byes high and 
closely placed ; preopercles armed with spines. Teeth 
feeble, in villiform bands ; body naked or irregularly scaled, or 
warty; anals spineless; pectorals large; ventrals thoracic; 
dorsals generally separate. A large and mostly marine family 
of wide distribution. In their movements they are sudden and 
jerky. Our fresh water Cottids are greatly alike. 

Cottus gracilis (Heckel.) 
Star Gazer; Blob. 

Body slender; head broad ; fins large ; mouth large ; preop- 
ercular spine short and bent upwards. Olivaceous, blotched 
and mottled, top of first dorsal red-edged. D. VIII-16; V. I, 
3; A. 12. Length 3}4 to 4 inches. Somewhat darterlike in 
appearance, voracious, delights in strong currents. 

Found in the northeastern States. It is very plentiful in 

the head streams of the Hackensack and Saddle Rivers in New 

York and New Jersey, in company with black-nosed dace and 

darters. 

Family Gadidae. 

Cod-fishes. 

Body elongate ; mouth large. Scales small, cycloid ; vertical 

fins .separate, dorsals one to three, anals one or two. No spines 

in fins. Tail isocercal. Air bladder present Sometimes a 

barbel. A large family, marine with few exceptions and mostly 

of boreal distribution. With the herrings, the most important 

fish family in our economy. 

Hicrogadus tomcod {Walb.). 
Tomcod; Frost Fish. 
Snout rounded, with a small barbel ; three dorsals and two 



49 

anals. Olive brown, blotched on body and fins with darker, 
punctulate on sides. D. 13-17-18; A. 20-17. Length 12 
inches. 

A diminutive cod-fish, common all along the shore as far south 
as Virginia. Runs up stream into nearly pure fresh water. 
Family Pleuronectidae. 
Flounders. 

The flat-fishes are related to the cod-fishes ; the skull is un- 
symmetrical, twisted about bringing both eyes to the upper 
side ; the lower side is colorless. In early youth the flounders 
swim vertically and are normal of figure, but they gradually 
assume a horizontal one-sided position and shape. No air 
bladder; dorsal and anal very long, no spines. A large and 
widely distributed family of marine fishes of some importance. 
A few are anadromous. 

Achirus fasciatus Lac. 
Sole; Hogchoker, etc. 

Oval ; teeth on the blind side only. The right side upper- 
most. Olive brown, mottled,. with narrow black vertical lines, 
left side white with dark spots. D. 50 or more; A. 40 more or 
less. Scales 66-75. Caudal rounded ; pectorals wanting. 
Length to 8 inches. 

Entire Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States on 
sandy or- muddy bottoms ; anadromous. I caught one very 
small specimen of the sole in a tidal creek of the Hackensack 
River, where the water was fresh. It is thought that soles 
spawn in fresh water. 



The total number of species of our vicinity, as above de- 
scribed, may be summarized as follows : 

Native fresh water species known, 24 ; introduced species, 
11 ; brackish water and anadromous species, 26. Total, 61. 
Adding thereto the probably occuring native species, 12, gives 
a total of about 73, belonging to 54 genera and 24 families. 
This shows that while the number of species is not large, the 
families are well represented. 

None of the species are limited to a small area of nearby 
country. Fishes found by me further east than their supposed 



5o 

range, as far as I am able to learn are : Notropis pvocne (Cope), 
said by Jordan 7 to range from western New York to Maryland; 
reaches east as far as the Palisades on the Hudson. Etheo stoma 
fta bella re Raf., also reaches to Hudson River, though Jordan 
gives its distribution as from western New York to North 
Carolina and westwardly. Further investigation is needed to 
confirm my identification of Hybopsis kentuckiensis ( Raf. ) , and of 
Moxostoma macrolepidotum Les. as correct, both of which would 
then also range further east than is now known. The fresh 
water species of New England 2 and of the Maritime Provinces 
as far as the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3 are nearly all found with 
us, the exceptions being mostly the absence here of the more 
northern Salmonoids. Our vicinity represents a sort of border- 
land between the very restricted fish fauna of the New England 
"Zoological Island," as Agassiz called it, and the far richer 
fauna encountered in the Delaware basin immediately to the 
west of us. + In common with the more southerly States, we 
have a few fishes which properly belong to the eastern Caro- 
linian fauna ; these are : 

Enneacanthus obesus Bd., which, though found in eastern 
Massachusetts, appears to be a southern intruder and may occur 
on Long Island, judging from the appearance there of Aphredod- 
erus sayanns (Gill); lastly Acantharchus pomotis (Bd. ) belongs 
to the same category. These three species are distinctively 
lowland fishes of wide distribution along the seaboard to the 
south. The first reaches Florida, the second Louisiana, and 
the third Carolina. In regard to this I will refer to a conclu- 
sion reached by Prof. Jordan 5 that these fishes represent the 
remains of a fresh water fauna, now nearly extinguished by 
the encroachment of the ocean upon the former shore line of 
the continent. 

1 " Manual," cited above. 

2 D. H. Storer,"A History of the Fishes of Massachusetts, 1867. W. C. 
Kendall, "Notes on the Fresh Water Fishes of Washington Co., Maine," 
in Bull. 14, U. S. F. C. for 1894. 

3 Theo. N. Gill, " Fishes of the St Lawrence Gulf and Bay of Fundy," 
in Canadian Naturalist ', August, 1865. 

•Abbott, op. cit. 

"'In "Fishes of the Alleghany Region, etc.," in Bull. 8, U. S. F. C, cited 
above. 



5i 

Of the introduced species, three, the carp, the gold-fish and 
the brown trout are of Eurasian origin. The quinnat salmon, 
from the Pacific coast, seems not to have become established 
here. The other introduced fishes are all from nearby Atlantic 
and Great Lake States. 

To make a final comparison of the number of fishes in other 
river systems or larger areas with the number found in our cir- 
cumscribed territory, we find in the Connecticut River only 18 
permanent species. Including all the anadromous and brackish 
water fishes, 25 species occur in the easternmost county of 
Maine. From the Neuse River in North Carolina, 55 species 
are known, while Cayuga Lake basin harbors 60. 

As we go west into the Mississippi valley the number of 
species vastly increases, even the smaller tributaries having 
upwards of 50 species within limited areas, while from the 
Wabash River 130 species are recorded. 



INDEX. 



Abbott, C. C, 10, 23, 25, 41, 45, 50. 
Abbreviations, 18. 
Abramis crysoleucas, 11, 28. 
Acantharcus pomotis, 12, 42, 50. 
Accipenser brevirostrum, 13, 17. 

sturio, 13, 17. 
Accipenseridae, 13, 14. 
Achirus fasciatus, 13, 49. 
Africa, 22. 

South, 5. 
Agkistrodon contortrix, 5. 
piscivorus, 5. 
Alewife, 29. 
Alfaro, A., 6. 

Alleghanies, The, 26, 33, 36, 42, 43, 44, 46. 
Allen, J. A., 2; Notes of a Visit to Some 
of the Natural History Museums of 
Europe, 3; Some Mammals from Mex- 
ico and Central America, 5. 
Alosa sapidissima, 11, 30. 
Ambloplites rupestris, 12, 41. 
America, 23. 

North-east, 38. 
Ameirurus albidus, 19. 
catus, 11, 19. 
melas, 19. 
nebulosus, 11, 19. 
niveiventris, 19. 
Anguilla chryspa, 12, 37. 
Anguillidae, 12. 
Apeltes quadracus, 12, 39. 
Aphredoderidae, 14, 40. 
Aphredoderus sayanus, 14, 41, 50. 
Aquila chrysaetos, 1. 
Argentinidae, 12, 31. 
Asia, East, 28. 
Atherinidae, 12, 39. 
Atlantic Coast, 30, 31, 34, 38, 47, 49. 
Ocean, 15, 32. 
Region, 19, 51. 
Audubon, John J., Autograph letter 

from, 5. 
Austro-Hungary, 35. 
Ay res, W. O., 26, 41. 

Baird, S. F., 42. 
Bass, Calico, 41. 

Grass, 41. 

Large-mouthed, 44. 

Oswego, 44. 

Rock, 41. 

Sea, 13, 46. 

Silver, 46. 

Small-mouthed Black, 43. 

Strawben-v, 41. 

Striped, 46. 

White, 46. 
Bean, Tarleton H., Dr., 6. 
Bendire, Major Charles, 6. 
Bergen County, N. J., 10. 
Billfish, 38. 

Birds' eggs, The Alfred Marshall collec- 
tion of, 4. 
Birdskins, The Alfred Marshall collec- 
tion of, 4. 
Bluefish, 12, 40. 



Boa Constrictor, 5. 

Tree, 5. 
Boleichthys fusiformis, 14. 
Boleosoma nigrum olmstedi, 13, 44. 
Bollman, C. H., 41. 
Bony Fishes, 17. 
Boston, Mass., 42. 
Bound Brook, N. J., 45. 
Branta canadensis, 3. 
Brazil, 37. 
Bream, 28, 43. 

Brevoortia tyrannus, 6, 11, 30. 
Bronx River, N. Y., 9, 43. 
Buteo lineatus, 1. 
Butler, A. C, 6. 



California, 32. 

Canada, 26, 27, 33, 37, 44, 45, 47. 

Cape Cod, 40. 

Carassius auratus, 11, 29. 

Cardinal, Mexican, 3. 

Carolina, 35, 36, 50. 

Carp, 6, 11, 14, 22, 28, 51. 

Catfish, 11, 18. 

Common, 19. 

Mud, 19. 

Stone, 20. 

White, 19. 

White Channel, 19. 
Catostomidae, 11, 14, 21. 
Catostomoids, 23. 
Catostomus commersonii, 11, 21. 

nigricans, 11, 22. 
Cayuga Take, 51. 
Central Park, 3. 
Centi-archidae, 12, 14, 41. 
Ceratichthys biguttatus, 27. 
Chapman, F. M., Notes on Birds Observed 
in Yucatan, 3; 3; An Ornithological Re- 
connaisancein Mexico, 4, 6; Public Lec- 
ture, A Little Journey in Yucatan, 6, 7. 
Chen hyperborea, 2. 
Cherrie, G. K., 6. 
Chub, 27. 

Creek, 27. 
River, 27. 
Chubb, S. H., 1. 
Clupeidae, 11, 29. 
Cobbler, 34. 
Codfish, 13, 48. 
Connecticut River, 51. 
Copperhead, 5. 
Corallus cookei, 5. 
Cottidae, 13, 48. 
Cottns gracilis, 48. 
Croakers, 13, 47. 
Crotalus horridus, 5. 
Cyclostomi, 14. 
Cyprinidae, 11, 14, 22. 
Cyprinodon variegatus, 12, 33. 
Cyprinoids, 22. 
Cyprinus carpio, 6, 11, 28. 



Dace, 25. 



54 



Dace, Black-nosed, 2H. 
Horned, 27. 
Long-nosed, 2<>. 
Darter, Fan-tailed, -to. 
Fusiform, 45. 
Tessellated, 44. 
Delaware Canal, 38. 
River, 24. 
Valley, 20. 
Dendroica vigorsii, 2. 

Ditmars, R. L., 2; Notes on the Habits 
of Some Trinidad Snakes, 4 ; Notes on 
the Breeding of Viperine Snakes in 
Captivity, 5. 
Dogfish, 35. 
Drum, 6, 47. 
Dumeril, A., 15. 
Dutcher, William, 2, 3, 5. 
Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., M. D., Some 
Moulting Birds, 4. 7. 



Eagle, Golden, 1. 

Sea. 2. 
Edgar, Newbold, 2. 
Eel, 12. 37. 
Eiajenmann, C. H., 46. 
Elmsford, N. Y., 2. 
Etnpomotis gibbosus, 12, 43. 
Enneacanthus obesus, 12, 42, 50. 
Enteromorpha, 47. 
Erimvzon sucetta, 11, 22. 
Esocidae. 12, 38. 
Etheostoma, 44. 

flabellare, 13, 45, 50. 

fusiforme, 45. 
Europe, 28, 30, 32, 44. 
Evermann, B. W.. 11. 



Fallfish, 27. 

Fat-head, 23. 

Field, H. P., 3. 

Florida, 42, 43, 50. 

Flounders, 13, 49. 

Foster, Miss E. A.. 5. 

Foster, L. S., Notes on the Tyrannidte, 
1; 2: A Summar)' of Bird Notes from 
Greene County, New York, 4, 7. 

Fowl. Domestic, 5. 

'Fragments of the Natural History of 
Pennsylvania,'' Barton, 2. 

Frostfish, 31, 40. 

Fundulus diaphanus, 12, 34. 
heteroclitus. 12, :!4. 
majalis, 12, 34. 

Gadidae, 13, 48. 
Gallus bankiva, 5. 
Ganoidei. 16. 
Garfish, 38. 
Gasterosteidae, 12, 39. 
Gasterosteus bispinosus, 12, 3d. 
Georgia, 25, 33. 
Geothlypis formosa, 1. 

Philadelphia, 3. 
Gill, Theodore N., 50. 
Girard, Charles, 42. 
Glut. 30. 
Goggle-eve, 41. 
Goldfish. '20, 51. 
Goody, 47. 
Goose, Canada, •".. 

Snow, 2. 
Crackle, Purple, 1. 
Grander, Walter W., 7. 



Great Gull Island, 3. 
Great Swamp, N. J., 43. 
Green Mountains, 44. 
Greenwood Lake, 20, 44, 46, 47. 
Guinea Fowl, 5. 
Gulf Coast Region, 19, 34, 49. 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, 3, 50. 
Gull, Great Black-backed, 3. 
Gunther, A. C, 10. 



Hackensack River, 9, 49. 

Head Streams of, 48. 

Hackensack Valley, 10, 20, 42, 45. 

Haines, E. I., 2 ; The Starlings at Home 
and Abroad, 2 ; Birds of the Vicinity of 
Stamford, Delaware County, New York, 
4: Remarks on the Ruby-crowned King- 
let, 4 ; Bird Notes at Christmas-tide, 4 ; 
Notes on the White-breasted Nuthatch, 
; Evidences of the Carolinian Fauna 
in the Catskill Mountains, 7. 

Hawk, Red-shouldered, 1. 

Hemisphere, Northern, 22. 

Hemitremia bifrenata, 24. 

Heron, Black-crowned Night, 2. 

Herring, 11, 29. 

Branch, 29. 
River, 29. 
Summer, 30. 

Hogchoker, 49. 

Horneyhead, 27. 

Howell, A. H., Notes on the Early Spring 
Migrants of 1896 at Lake Grove, Suf- 
folk County, N. Y., 3. 

Hudson Countv, N. J., 10. 

Hudson River,' 32, 50. 

Hybognathus nuchalis, 14, 23. 
osmerinus, 23. 

Hybopsis kentuckiensis, 11, 27, 50. 

Hydrophidte, 2. 

Hypsilepis procne. 25. 



Ichthyomys stolzmanni, 2. 



JERKER, 27. 

Jersey, South, 22, 41, 42. 

Jordan, D. S.. 10, 11, 20, 24, 26, 44, 46, 50. 



Kane, S. Nicholson, 5. 
Kansas, 24. 
Killifish, 12, 33. 
Kilty, Common, 34. 

Freshwater, 34. 

Transparent, 34. 



LaFarge. Bancel, :'.. 

Lafayette, 47. 

Lake" Grove, N. Y.. 3. 

Lamprey. 11, 15. 

Sea, 15. 

Larimus, Banded, 6. 
fasciatus, 6. 

Larus marinus, 3. 

Leiostomus xauthurus, 13, 47. 

Lepomis auritus, 12, 47. 

Leucisons nasutns. 26. 

Libbey. William, Public Lecture, "Four 
Months in the Sierra Madre of Mex- 
ico," 5. 

Librarian, Report of, 7. 

Long Island, N. Y., 9, 26, 41, 42, 4:?, 50 



55 



Louisiana, 43, 46, .10. 
Lucania parva, 12, 35. 
Luciidae, 12, 36. 
Lucioperca vitrea, 46. 
Lucius, 36. 

americanus, 12, 36. 

reticulatus, 12, 37. 



Maine. 32, 43, 51. 
Maritime Provinces, 50. 
Maryland, 24, 25, 50. 
Massachusetts, 24, 42. 

Eastern, 50. 
Mearns, E. A., M. D., 3. 
Menhaden, 30. 
Menidia notata, 12, 40. 
Mercer County, N. J., 41, 42. 
Mexican Boundary Surveys, 3. 
Mexico, 41. 

Microgadus tomcod, 13, 48. 
Micropterus dolomieu, 12, 43. 
salmoides, 12, 44. 
Minnesota, 35, 43. 
Minnow, 11, 14, 22. 

Black-headed, 23. 

Blunt-nosed, 24. 

Mud, 12, 35. 

Purse, 33. 

Silvery, 23. 
Mississippi, 24. 

Valley, 51. 
Moccasin, Water, 5. 
Morone americana, 13, 47. 
Morris, R. T., M. D.. 3. 
Mossbunker, 30. 
Moxostoma macrolepidotum, 14, 22, 50. 

oblongum, 22. 
Mullet, 22. 
Museums of Europe, 3. 



Navesink River, 9. 

Needlefish, 12, 38. 

Nelson, Julius, 10. 

Neuse River, 26, 51. 

New Brunswick, N. J., 26. 

New England, 23, 26, 42, 45, 50. 

New Jersey, 5, 9, 10, 25, 48. 

Central, 25. 
New Rochelle, N. Y., 2. 
New York, 9, 36, 48. 

Western, 23, 45, 50. 
City, 3, 9. 
Harbor, 9. 
North America, 24, 41. 

Eastern. 44. 
North Carolina, 45, 50, 51. 
Notropis, 24. 

amoenus, 14, 26. 

analostanus, 14, 25. 

bifrenata, 14, 24. 

cornutus, 11, 25. 

hudsonius, 14, 24. 

megalops, 25. 

photogeuis, 26. 

procne, 11, 25, 50. 
Numida meleagris, 5. 
Nycticorax nycticorax mevius, 2. 



Ohio Basin, 43. 

Valley, 45. 
Old World, 22. 

Oncorhynchus tschawytscha, 14, 32, 
Ontario, 35. 



O'Reilly, G. R., How Snakes Find their 
Prev, 5 ; Snake Hunting in the Orinoco 
Delta, 7. 

Osmerus mordax, 12, 31. 



Pacific Coast, 30, 51. 

Palisade Ridge, 25. 

Palisades, The, 43, 50. 

Passaic River, 9, 22, 27, 29. 43, 44. 

Pennsylvania, 27. 

Perca, americana, 6. 

flavescens, 13, 45. 
Perch, 13, 14, 44. 

Pike, 46. 

Pirate, 14, 40, 41. 

Pond, 43. 

White, 47. 

Yellow, 6, 45. 
Percidae, 13, 14, 44. 
Perfect Mouths, 16. 
Petromyzon marinus, 11, 15. 
Petromyzontidae, 11, 15. 
Physoclisti, 37. 
Physostomi, 18. 
Pickerel, 36. 

Reticulated, 37. 
Pike, 12, 36. 

Green, 38. 
Wall-eyed, 46. 
Pimephales notatus, 14, 24. 

promelas, 14, 23. 
Pipilo maculatus megalonyx, 1. 
Pisces, 16. 

Pleuronectidae, 13, 49. 
Poeciliidae, 12, 33. 
Pogonias chromis, 6. 
Pomatomus saltatrix, 12, 40. 
Pomatomidae, 12, 40. 
Pomolobus testivalis, 11, 30. 

pseudoharengus, 11, 2 
Pomoxis sparoides, 14, 41. 
Port Daniel, 2. 
Potomac River, 44. 
Public Lectures, 4, 5, 6. 
Publication, 7. 
Pygosteus pungitius, 12, 38. 

Quebec, 24. 
Quiscalus quiscula, 1. 

Rain-water Fish, 35. 
Ramapo River Valley, 20. 
Raritan Canal, 38. 

River, 9, 26, 46. 
Rattlesnake, 5. 
Red Eye, 41. 

Fin, 25. 

Horse, 22. 
Rhinichthys atrouasus, 11, 26. 
cataractae, 14, 26. 
Roach, 28. 
Roccus chrysops, 13, 46. 

lineatus, 13, 46. 
Rockfish, 35, 46. 
Rockland County, N. Y., 42. 
Rocky Mountains, 27, 28. 
Round Mouths, 14. 



Sabine, G. A., M. D., 6. 

Saddle River, Head Streams of, 48. 

Sal mo fario, 13, 32. 

irideus, 14, 32. 

salar, 13, 31. 



56 



Salmon, 11, 13, 14, 31. 
Atlantic, 31. 
Columbia, 32. 

Ouinnat, 32, 51. 
Salmonidae, 11, 13, 14, 31. 
Salvelinus fontinalis, 11, 33. 
Sandpiper, Solitary, 2. 
Schilbeodes, 20. 

gyrinus, 11, 20. 
Schroeter, Anton H., 2. 
Sciaenidae, 13, 47. 
Sculpin, 13, 48. 
Secaucus, N. J., 27, 38. 
Secretary, Report of, 6, 
Semotilus atromaculatus, 14, 27. 
corporalis, 11, 27. 
rhotheus, 27. 
Serranidae, 13, 46. 
Shark, 2. 
Sheepshead, 33. 
Shiner, 24, 25, 28. 
Siluridae, 11, 18, 19. 
Silver-fin, 25. 
Silversides, 12. 39, 40. 
Smelt, 12, 24, 31. 

Smith, Eugene, The Fishes of the Fresh 
and Brackish Waters in the Vicinity of 
New York City, 6, 9-51. 
Smith, H. M., 32. 
Snake, Black, 5. 
Snakes. Sea, 2. 
Sole, 49. 

South Carolina, 47. 
Sparrow, White-crowned, 2. 
Spawneater, 24. 
Spearing, 40. 
Spot, 47. 
Star Gazer. 48. 
Starlings, 2. 
Staten Island, 9, 43. 
Stickleback, 12, 38. 

Common Two or Three- 

spined, 39. 
Nine or Ten-spined, 38. 
Stizostedion vitreum, 13. 
Storer, D. H., 42, 50. 
Sturgeon, 13, 17. 

Short-nosed, 17. 
Sucker, 11, 21. 

Black, 22. 
Chub, 22. 
White, 21, 22. 
Suffolk County, N. Y., 41. 
Sunfish, 12, 14, 41. 

Common, 43. 
Long-eared, 42. 
Mud, 42. 
Rock, 42. 
Spotted-fin, 42. 



Taylor, H. R., Individuality in Eggs of 

Particular Pairs of Birds, 1. 
Teleostei, 17. 
Teleostomi. 16. 
Teleosts, 17, IS. 
Terns, 3. 

Thoreau, Henrv D., 15, 43. 
Tomcod, 40. 
Totanus solitarius, 2. 
Towhee, Spurred, 1. 
Treasurer, Report of, 7. 
Trinidad, Island of, 5. 
Trout, Brook, 32, 33. 

Brown, 32, 51. 

Rainbow, 32. 

Speckled, 33. 
True Fishes, 17. 
True Mouths, 16. 
Tylosurus marinus, 12, 38. 
Tyrannidse, 1. 



Umbra crameri, 35. 

pygmaea, 12, 35. 
Umbridae, 12, 3.>. 
United States, 26, 28. 

Central, 46. 

Eastern, 21, 27, 28, 32, 34, 35, 40, 
41, 42, 43, 44, 45. 

Seaboard of, 46. 

Northern, 26, 33, 34, 45, 46, 47. 
Uranidae gracilis, 13. 



Vaughan, C. W., 3. 

Venezuela, 5. 

Vilaro, Dr. Juan, Hybridism Among 

Cuban Gallinse, 5. 
Virginia, 15, 25, 49. 



Wabash River, 51. 
Warbler, Kentucky, 1. 

Mourning, 3. 

Pine, 2. 
Wawayanda Take, 20. 
Whitefish, 6. 
Windfish, 27. 



Yellow Belly, 42. 
Young, C. C, 2. 



Zonotrichia leucophrys, 3. 



Officers of the Linnaean Society 

OF* NEW YORK. 

1897-1898. 



President, 
Vice-President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, - 



Frank M. Chapman. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
Walter W. Granger. 
L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnsan Society 

OF NEW YORK. 

MARCH, 1897. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M. D., Ph.D. Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. B. 



CORRESPONDING. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 

B. H. DuTCHER, M.D. 

A. K. Fisher, M. D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M. D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

C. L,. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
Arthur H. Howell. 

A. M. INGERSOLL. 

F. W. IvANGDON, M. D. 

Mrs. F. E. B. Latham. 
Wm. K. Lente. 



Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. It. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 

James C. Merrill, M. D. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

George B. Sennett. 

R. W. Shueeldt, M. D. 

Ernest Seton Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, M. D. 

B. H. Warren, M. D. 

S. W. Williston, M. D., Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wilson. 

(over.) 



Resident flembers of the Linncean Society of New York. 



John Akhurst 
W. T. Alexander, M.D. 
J. A. Allen, Ph.D. 
J. M. Andreini 
C. K. Averill, Jr. 
Samuel P. Avery 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery 
George Strong Baxter, Jr. 
Miss Grace B. Beach 
Daniel C. Beard 
Charles M. Berrian 
Louis B. Bishop, M.D. 
William C. Braislin, M.D. 
H. C. Burton 
William J. Cassard 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Frank M. Chapman 
S. H. Chubb 
Frederick Clarkson 
Herbert W. Congdon 
Charles F. Cox • 
S. D. Coykendall 
Thomas Craig 
George A. Crocker 
Charles P. Daly, LL.D. 
Theodore L. DeVinne 
Raymond L- Ditmars 
Cleveland H. Dodge 
William B. Dodge 
O. B. Douglas, M.D. 
Andrew E- Douglass 
William Dutcher 



Walter W. Granger 
Isaac J. Greenwood 
William H. Gregg, M.D. 
Alexander Hadden, M.D. 
Edwin I. Haines 
Jacob Hartmann, M.D. 
H. O. Havemeyer, Jr. 
J. C. Havemeyer 
R. G. Hazard 
Harold Herrick 
Mrs. Esther Herrman 
Henry Holt 

B. Talbot B. Hyde 

E. Francis Hyde 
Frederick E. Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. 
John B. Ireland 

John Irving 

C. Bradley Isham 
David B. Ivison 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Alex. B. Johnson, M.D. 
Frank E. Johnson 

S. Nicholson Kane 
L. Scott Kemper 
Rev. A. B. Kendig 
Rudolph Keppler 
H. C. A. Leutloff 
Bancel LaFarge 
Woodbury G. Langdon 

F. Lange, M.D. 
J. D. Lange 



Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. G. Langmann, M.D. 
Robert W. Eastman, M.D. John B. Lawrence, Jr. 



Newbold Edgar 
William Ellsworth 
Evan M. Evans, M.D. 
Miss E. A. Foster 
L. S. Foster 
Samuel A. French 
Henry Gade 
Theodore K. Gibbs 
Louis B. Gillet 
E. L. Godkin 



Newbold T. Lawrence 
Charles A. Leale, M.D. 
A. Liautard, M.D. 
Walter S. Logan 
Benjamin Lord, M.D. 
Seth Low, LL.D. 
John Luhrman, Jr. 
A. J. Macdonald 
Robert L. Maitlaud 
Edgar A. Mearns, M.D. 



Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller 

A. G. Mills 



Robert T. Morris, M.D. 
Henry F. Osborn, ScD. 
William C. Osborn 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips 
Louis H. Porter 
Joseph M. Pray 
Mrs. Henry Read 
Edward S. Renwick 
William M. Richardson 

C. B. Riker 

William C. Rives, M.D. 
S. H. Robbins 
William A. Robbins 
John Rowley, Jr. 
Clarence A. Rundall 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
Anton H. Schroeter 
William F. Sebert 
T. G. Sellew 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
Charles Sill 
S. T. Skidmore 
James Baker Smith 
James C. Spencer 
John C. Sprague 
Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern 
Alexander H. Stevens 
George T. Stevens, M.D. 
Mason A. Stone 
William E. Tefft 
Samuel Thorne 
Cornelius Vanderbilt 
Clifford W. Vanghan 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
William Wicke 

D. O. Wickham 
John T. Willets 
Robert R. Willets 
Reginald Willis 

Mrs. Cynthia A. Wood 
Lewis B. Woodruff 
Curtis C. Young 
Louis A. Zerega, M.D. 



I,. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 



1897-08. NO. lO. 

ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^EAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NKW YORK 

For the Year Ending March 8, 1898. 

WITH 

THE FROGS AND TOADS FOUND IN THE 

VICINITY OF NEW YORK 

CITY. 

By William Iy. Sherwood. 



The Society meets on the second a?id fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History, 77th Street and 8th Avenue, New York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

The Linnsean Society of New York. 
TRANSACTIONS. 

Transactions of the Linnjean Society oe New York, Volume L, 

Royal Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece-Portrait of Linnaeus. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 
General introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the 
Panther, Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least 
Weasel, Ermine, Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear, and 
Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW {Corvus ossifragus Wilson) A WINTER 
AS WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN 
LIMIT OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM DUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE CATS- 
KILL MOUNTAINS, WITH PREFATORY REMARKS ON THE 
FAUNAL AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE REGION. 
New York, December, 1882. By EUGENE PINTARD BICKNELL. 

Price: Paper - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Transactions of the Linnjean Society of New York, Volume 

II., Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents: Frontispiece — Pirate of Ben- 

dire'S Shrew. 

THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTH- 
EASTERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia Concluded.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 
Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose and Elk ; of the Moles and 

Shrews (six species) ; the Bats (five species) ; the Squirrels (six species) ; 

the Woodchuck, the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats 

and Mice (seven species), and the Hares (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORICID^E. {Atophyrax bendirii, with a plate.) 
New York, August, 1884. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M. D. 

Price: Paper, - $2-00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the I^inn^ean Society of New York. 
1, for the year ending March 1, 1889, 8vo., paper cover, 9 pp 
" ; 7, 1890, " " 10 pp 

" 6,1891, " » 11 pp 

" 2,1892, " " 8pp 

" 1,1893, " « 41 pp 

" 27,1894, " " 103 pp 

" 26,1895, " " 41 pp 

" 24.1896, " " 27 pp 

" 9; 1897, " " 56 pp 

" 8,1898, " » 27 pp 

Free to Members of the Society at the date of issue. 
To others, Nos. 1, 2, 3 and 4, 25 cents each. 

No. 5, 50 cents. No. 8, 50 cents. 

No. 6, 75 cents. No. 9, 50 cents. 

No. 7, 50 cents. No. 10, 50 cents. 

For any information concerning the publications, address the Secre- 
tary of The Ljnn^an Society of New York, care of American 
Museum of Natural History, New York City. 



No. 


1, for the 


No. 


2, 


No. 


3, 


No. 


4, 


No. 


5, 


No. 


6, 


No. 


7, 


No. 


8, 


No. 


9, 
in «« 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LIN N^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NKW YORK 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 8, 1898. 



This is the tenth in the series of " Abstracts " published by 
the Linnaean Society of New York, and like the preceding 
issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of the work of the 
Society during the year closing with the date indicated above. 
When papers have been elsewhere printed, the customary 
reference is given. 

March 11, 1897. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History by J. L,. Wortman, M. 
D. , entitled ' ' Life in the Nacimiento Desert of New Mex- 
ico," with stereopticon illustrations. 

March 23, 1897.— The Vice-President in the chair. Five 
members and thirteen visitors present. 

Miss Grace B. Beach was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented the second part of his paper on 
' ' The Fishes of the Fresh and Brackish Waters in the Vicin- 
ity of New York City." [See Abs. Proc. Linn. Soc, No. 9, 
1897, pp. 9-51.] 

April 13, 1897.— The Vice-President in the chair. Eight 
members and eight visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster was appointed Secretary pro tern, by the 
chair, to serve during the extended absence of the Secretary. 

Mr. William L. Sherwood presented a paper entitled ' ' The 
Frogs and Toads found in the Vicinity of New York City." 
[Printed at the end of this abstract.] 



April 27, 1897.— The Vice-President in the chair. Five 
members and sixteen visitors present. 

A resolution was passed favoring the placing of specimens 
of natural history on the same schedule in the mails of the In- 
ternational Postal Union as samples of merchandise. The Sec- 
retary pro tern, was instructed to forward a copy of the same 
to the U. S. Postmaster General and to the Chairman of the 
International Postal Convention of 1897." 

Mr. Thomas Proctor presented a paper entitled ' ' The Night- 
ingale and the Mockingbird, the Chief Songsters of the Old 
World and the New, respectively. ' ' He exhibited living speci- 
mens of two species of Nightingales (Doliits luscinia and D. 
philomeld), Brown Thrasher {Harporhynchus rufus), Catbird 
{Galeoscoptes carolinensis) , Robin Redbreast {Erithacus rube- 
cida), and White-throated Warbler {Sylvia rufa). 

May 11, 1897. — The President in the chair. Ten members 
and eighteen visitors present. 

Messrs. M. H. Beers, John I. D. Bristol, Charles Butler, 
Francis M. Harris, William C. Harris, Walter M. Jones and 
Charles P. Kreizer, M. D. , were elected Resident Members of 
the Society. 

Mr. William T. Hornaday presented a paper on " The Lon- 
don Zoological Society and its Gardens." [See Second An- 
nual Report, N. Y. Zool. Soc, 1898, pp. 43-67.] 

Mr. Iy. S. Foster reported on sixteen species of our common 
birds observed May 9, 1897, during a trip to Hackensack, N. J. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman stated that on his return from his recent 
trip to Mexico he saw between Tampico and Havana a Small- 
billed Water Thrush (Scitirus noveboracensis) . Three Carolina 
Doves (Zenaidtira macroara) , accompanied the ship for some 
time. Shearwaters, especially Audubon's Shearwater {Puffinus 
analuboni), were seen near the Bahamas. Red Phalaropes 
{Crymophihis fulicarius^ , Northern Phalaropes {Phalaropus 
lobatus) , Petrels and fifty Loons came under his observation 
off the Delaware coast. Mr. Chapman arrived in New York 
May 10. 

May 25, 1898. — The President in the chair. Ten members 
and ten visitors present. 



The following sixteen gentlemen were elected Resident Mem- 
bers of the Society: Messrs. Gerard Beekman, August ( Bel- 
mont, M. Langdon Bird, Frank S. Bond, Charles C. Clarke, 
James M. Constable, Charles Dieterich, R. G. Dun, Robert 
Dunlap, A. H. Haynes, E. R. Holden, Theodore D. Howell, 
William Kevan, William T. Eusk, M. D., J. Hampden Robb 
and Rev. Cornelius B. Smith. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented a paper entitled ' ' Notes on 
Birds observed in Mexico. ' ' (See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Vol. X, 1898, pp. 15-43.) 

October 12, 1897. — The President in the chair. Eleven mem- 
bers and ten visitors present. 

The Secretary reported the receipt of a letter from the 
Bureau International de 1' Union Postale Universelle, which 
stated that specimens of natural history would be received in 
the mails of the International Postal Union at the same rate as 
samples of merchandise after January 1, 1898. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper entitled "The' Mam- 
mals Found Within Fifty Miles of New York City." • 

Mr. E. B. Southwick said that he had two specimens of the 
Hoary Bat (Atalapha cinerea), taken in Central Park, New 
York City. 

Mr. William Dutcher remarked upon the large number of 
Opossums (Didelphis virginiana) at present on Long 
Island, N. Y. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll had repeatedly observed Gray Squirrels 
(Sciurus carolinensis leucotis) dig up buried acorns after a snow- 
fall of eighteen inches. 

October 26, 1897.— The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and twelve visitors present. 

Messrs. J. Camoreau Hatie, Ernest Ingersoll, John A. King, 
William P. Eemmon and Rev. Haslett McKim were elected 
Resident Members of the Society. 

.Dr. J. A. Allen presented a paper entitled ' ' The Origin of 
the Migration of Birds." [See The Auk, Vol. XV., Jan. 
1898, pp. 67-70.] 

Adjourned to November 23, thus omitting the first meeting 
in November on account of the meetings during that week of 



the American Ornithologists' Union at the American Museum 
of Natural History. 

November 23, 1897. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and eleven visitors present. 

Mr. J. Chr. G. Hiipfel was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

An appropriation was made for the usual winter course of 
public lectures. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll presented an essay on " Birds' Eggs," 
from an evolutionist's point of view. [See Harper's Mo?ithly 
Magazine, December 1897, p. 7.] 

December 14, 1897. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and five visitors present. 

Mrs. Mabel Osgood Wright was elected a Resident Member 
of the Society. 

The Chairman of the Lecture Committee reported the fol- 
lowing dates and lectures for the fifth annual course : 

1. January 6, 1898. " Cats, and the Lands They Inhabit." 
By Daniel Giraud Elliot, F. R. S. E. 

2. February 3, 1898. "From Vera Cruz to Mexico City." 
By Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 

3. March 17, 1898. "The Mammals of North America." 
By Mr. Ernest Seton Thompson. 

4. April 7, 1898. " Protective and Directive Coloration of 
Animals." By C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 

The Society appropriated the sum of twenty-five dollars to 
be presented to the Audubon Society of the State of New York, 
for use in the general work of the organization. 

Mr. Ernest Seton Thompson presented a paper on ' ' The 
Mammals of Yellowstone National Park." Mr. Thompson's 
observations were made during the summer of 1897, and 
embraced about thirty species of mammals. [See Recreation, 
Vol. VIII, May 1898, pp. 365-371.] 

December 28, 1897.— The President in the chair. Twelve 
members and fifty-three visitors present. 

Mr. Thomas H. Hubbard was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 



Mr. William Dutcher presented to the Society, for convey- 
ance to the Local Collection of Birdskins in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, four skins of the Pine Siskin (Spinus 
pitius) , two skins of the Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus 
savannarum passerinus), two skins of the Sharp-tailed Spar- 
row (Ammodramus caudacutus) , two skins of the Bobolink 
(Dolichonyx oryzivorus) , and one skin of the Scarlet Tanager 
(Piranga erythromelas) . 

Mr. F. M. Chapman showed upon the screen over eighty 
lantern-slides from photographs of birds in life, with descrip- 
tive remarks. 

January 6, 1898. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History by Daniel Giraud Elliot, 
F. R. S. E., entitled " Cats, and the Lands They Inhabit," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 

January 11, 1898. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and seven visitors present. 

Mr. Ernest Seton Thompson presented a paper on ' ' The 
Summer Birds of Yellowstone National Park." Mr. Thomp- 
son, being unable, owing to' the Park regulations, to collect 
specimens, recorded but sixty-five species. He gave interesting 
notes concerning these, especially the Gulls, Terns and White 
Pelicans, which breed in great numbers on islands in Yellow- 
stone Lake. 

Mr. Thompson also spoke of the habits and distribution of 
the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus griseoalbus) . 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll presented evidence concerning the 
abundance of Badgers ( Taxidea americana) in the State of 
Minnesota. 

January 25, 1898. — The President in the chair. Six mem- 
bers and thirteen visitors present. 

Mr. W. K. Parmelee presented a paper entitled ' ' Notes on 
the Habits of Turtles, with Special Reference to Those Species 
Found within Fifty Miles of New York City." 

A letter from Mr. John H. Sage of Portland, Conn., was 
read, stating that Goshawks (Accipiter atricapillus) were fairly 
common in that vicinity this winter. 

February 3, 1898. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 



American Museum of Natural History by Mr. Frank M. Chap- 
man, entitled " From Vera Cruz to Mexico City," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

February 8, 1898. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and eight visitors present. 

Mr. William Dutcher presented to the Society, for convey- 
ance to the Local Collection of Birdskins in the American 
Museum of Natural History, one skin of the King Eider 
(Somateria spectabilis) . 

Mr. William Dutcher read a paper entitled "Some Birds of 
the Thousand Islands, St. Lawrence River, N. Y." His ob- 
servations were made between May 29 and June 14, and on 
July 23 and 24, 1897, and about fifty species were recorded 
and many interesting facts concerning their breeding habits 
noted. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented " Remarks on the Measurements 
of Some of the Common Hawks," illustrated by sections of 
cardboard, giving length, extent, and wing and tail measure- 
ments. 

Mr. H. W. Congdon recorded the capture of an Olive-sided 
Flycatcher {Co?itopus borealis) in Sullivan county, New York, 
in the summer of 1897. 

February 22, 1898. — The Vice-President in the chair. Seven 
members and eight visitors present. 

Mr. William T. Price was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper entitled "The Growth 
and Transformation of Reptiles and Batrachians," illustrated 
by many beautiful specimens in formaldehyde. 

Dr. G. Langmann spoke of the checking of the transforma- 
tion in salamanders by allowing them no opportunity of leav- 
ing the water at the time the change would naturally occur. 

Mr. A. H. Helme reported having seen a Catbird (Ga/eo- 
scoptes carolinensis) at Millers Place, Long Island, N. Y., in 
December, 1897. 

March 8, 1898. — Annual meeting. The Vice-President in 
the chair. Nine members and five visitors present. 



Messrs. Eli W. Blake and Walter A. Johnson were elected 
Resident Members of the Society. 

The Secretary presented his annual report, as follows : 

' ' There have been held during the past year fifteen meetings 
of the Society, being one more than was held last year. The 
first meeting in November was omitted on account of the meet- 
ing of the American Ornithologists' Union, held in this city. 

The total number of persons present at all meetings of the 
Society during the year was 322. Although the average num- 
ber of members present at the meetings is the same as last 
year, 9, that of the visitors has more than doubled, being 
13, as against 6 for the previous year. The largest number of 
members present at any one meeting has been 12, and of visit- 
ors 53. There has been no failure to secure a quorum. 

" Thirty-three Resident Members have been elected, 2 have 
resigned, and the following have been lost by death : Frank 
Abbott, M. D., and Messrs. Charles Butler, Theodore D. 
Howell and William T. Lusk, M. D. The membership of 
the Society at present is, Resident, 163 ; Corresponding, 35 ; 
Honorary, 2— a total of 200. 

" There have been presented at the meetings of the Society 
eighteen papers on the following subjects : Eight on ornithol- 
ogy, three on mammalogy, four on herpetology, one on 
ichthyology, one on oology, and one on the London Zool- 
ogical Society Gardens. 

" The Society has issued 'Abstract of Proceedings No. 9,' 
to which were added ' The Fishes of the Fresh and Brackish 
Waters in the Vicinity of New York City,' b} 7 Mr. Eugene 
Smith, and an index, the whole forming a pamphlet of fifty-six 
pages. One copy has been given to each member and the 
usual exchanges made." 

The Librarian presented his annual report as follows : 

" The Library of the Society has been increased by about 150 
publications. The volumes have been rearranged, but no fur- 
ther work towards completing the catalogue has been done." 

The Treasurer presented his annual report, showing a bal- 
anceonhandof $307.80. 



8 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Mr. Frank M. Chapman. 

Vice-President, Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented a paper on "The Red Squirrels of 
North America." [See Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Vol. X, 
1898, pp. 249-298.] 



The Frogs and Toads Found in the 
Vicinity of New York City. 

By William L. Sherwood. 



To describe a class of animals and to collate such informa- 
tion as is of general interest, one finds it necessary to refer to 
text books and difficult to avoid using the terms there em- 
ployed. Some of the descriptions in the following paper will 
be found to be couched in language taken from such sources, 
with additions suggested b}^ personal observation. Rather 
than frequently quote short clauses or single adjectives, the 
writer prefers to state at the beginning that he is indebted to 
Professor Cope's " Batrachia of North America" for many 
parts of descriptions, which could not be expressed in better 
language than that found in the book mentioned. 

The batrachians l differ froni all other vertebrates in having 
both gills and lungs, the former persisting throughout life in 
some of the tailed forms,* as the sirens and mud-puppies of the 
United States and the Proteus of Europe. After leaving the 
egg there is a more or less prolonged gill-bearing period. 2 

This is accompanied by a metamorphosis which involves 
changes from a fish-like form, without limbs or functional lungs, 
to an adult with four limbs and with lungs. The batrachians 
share with the reptiles in having cold blood, owing to it not being 
fully oxygenated as in the birds and mammals. The heart 
has three cavities, two auricles and a ventricle. The venous 
blood enters the right auricle from a cavity called the sinus 
venosus and passes into the ventricle, -where it is mixed with 
aerated blood from the left auricle, which in turn has received 
this from the lungs. The mixed blood passes from the ven- 
tricle through a bulbous cavity known as the truncus arterio- 
sus, from which it is propelled in part to the lungs for further 

1 Batrachos, frog. 

2 Salamandra atra of Europe forms an exception, the young being 
brought forth fully formed, although possessing gills in the mother. 



10 



aeration, and in part, in its mixed condition, to the aorta and 
arteries of the body. In the birds and mammals the blood is 
fully oxygenated through the functional activity of a fourth 
cavit}^ of the heart, and is therefore warm. 

The batrachians were the first air-breathing vertebrates. 
The fishes and other low forms breathe oxygen existing free 
in the water, instead of atmospheric air. Many modern anat- 
omists use the term amphibia for the batrachia, but the latter 
name was first properly used by Brongniart to define a cor- 
rectly limited group and is retained. 

The batrachians are divided into three groups, one of which 
embraces extinct forms more nearly related to the fishes than 
to either of the others. The second division includes the sala- 
manders (Ccecilia and Urodela) and the third the frogs and 
toads. To this is given the name Salieniia. 1 This division is 
the most specialized and the farthest away from the type. 

The Salientia are separated from other batrachia by diversi- 
ties in anatomical and skeletal structure, especially in the loss 
and coosification of various parts of the skeleton. In common 
with Urodela (salamanders) they have a naked skin, four 
limbs, three cavities in the heart and lungs, while the latter 
receive ox} T gen, active elimination of carbon dioxide takes place 
through the skin. 2 They differ noticeably from salamanders 
in having no ribs, no tail in the adult, and in the anchylosis of 
the radius and ulna and tibia and fibula. 



1 Latin, Salio (ppr. ), salien(t-)s, leap. 

2 It has recently been discovered that several of our adult salamanders 
lack lungs and gills, and that the respiratory function is carried on by 
other structures or organs. Professor Harris H. Wilder of Smith Col- 
lege, has described this peculiar condition and arrived at the conclusion 
that respiration was probably carried on by the skin and perhaps to some 
extent by the mucosa of the intestine. 

In a paper read by G. S. Hopkins, of Cornell University, before the 
American Association for the Advancement of Science, August 24, 1896, 
attention is called to the rich supply of blood-vessels of the skin, which 
are so close to the surface as to admit of ready interchange of the gases 
of the blood and air. Mr. Hopkins says that it is often possible to dis- 
tinguish between salamanders with and without lungs by examination of 
the heart alone. In the lungless forms examined the left auricle is very 
small and no pulmonary vein was found opening into it. The sinus 
venosus, instead of opening into the right auricle only, opens more freely 
into the left auricle than into the right. Mr. Hopkins examined eight 



11 

The foetus has no embryonic sac (amnion) and the allantois 
(organ by which foetal blood is aerated in the higher animals) 
is absent. 3 

The skeleton is internal. The vertebrae of our frogs and 
toads are procoelous (concave in front only). There are nine 
of these and a peculiar bone, the urostyle, which articulates 
with the sacrum. The skull articulates with the first vertebra 
or atlas by two occipital condyles, and the nasal sacs open pos- 
teriorly into the pharynx. The reproductive, urinary and 
digestive organs open into a common receptacle, the cloaca. 

Our Salientia are divided into two sub-orders, the Arcifera 
(toads and tree-frogs), in which the opposite halves of the 
scapular arch are connected by an overlapping arched cartilage 
(the shoulder girdle), so that the thorax may contract or ex- 
pand ; and the Firmisternia (frogs), in which the opposite 
halves are connected by a single median cartilage and are 
incapable of movement. In the tadpoles of the latter division 
the shoulder girdle is movable (arciferous), but becomes con- 
solidated upon maturity. 

The family divisions are based principally upon the presence 
or absence of teeth and their arrangement and the shape of the 
sacral diapophyses, and present many parallel modifications of 
structure. 

The genera exhibit differences in the bones and webs of the 
feet and the ossification of the bones of the cranium. 

Specific differences will be found under their respective 
headings. 

The known North American frogs and toads are embraced 
in twelve genera and fifty species, of which five genera and 
eleven species are found in this vicinity. Some of these are 

lungless species, all agreeing closely with this description. Up to the 
time of his paper seventeen species had been described as without lungs, 
and he had found an additional one, Spelerpes guttolineatus. 
Of our local forms, those thus described were : 

Amblystoma opacicm, Spelerpes bilineata, 

Plethodon cinereus, Spelerpes ruber ; 

Plethodon erythronotus ; Desmognathusfusca. 
Ptethodon glutinosus, 

3 An explanation of the means of nourishment of the fcetus will be 
found in Note 2, page 13. 



12 

less secretive in habit than the salamanders and therefore 
much better known. The frog has played a part in connection 
with some great discoveries, notably that of galvanism through 
Galvani observing the twitching of the muscles of a frog's hind 
limbs when these were suspended by copper wires which came 
into contact with iron. The frog and the chick have been 
employed as good typical examples of vertebrates in the prep- 
aration of works on anatomy, histology and embryology. The 
frog's foot is so frequently used to show the circulation of the 
blood that dealers in microscopes make a ' ' frog-plate ' ' espe- 
cially for this purpose. In literature the toad has been men- 
tioned as being venomous and possessed of occult powers. It 
was long believed capable of producing warts. On account of 
its insect-destroying propensities, it is now commonly recog- 
nized as one of man's best friends in the field and garden. 

As ponds and ditches have been drained, the aquatic forms 
have removed to greater distances from human dwellings, and 
only the more terrestrial toad and the arboreal tree-frogs have 
remained. All of our species have been described, but I think 
the first mention of the cricket frog being found in this region 
was made in my paper upon salamanders, read before this 
Society in 1895. 

The breeding habits of these animals vary, but all lay their 
eggs in water or moist places. 

The purety amphibious and really aquatic species are three. 
Of the other eight, one is burrowing, five tend to be terres- 
trial, inhabiting the woods and fields and two are arboreal. 
The times and places of breeding, as well as the period of met- 
amorphosis will be mentioned under specific headings. 

The frog tadpole ("pollywog") is believed to repeat the 
history of a fish-like ancestor. Its habits, its mode of breathing, 
even the arrangement of its blood-vessels and many structural 
details, are those of fishes. One of the theories of evolution 
is that during development each animal tends to repeat in 
some degree the history of its ancestors, and that the later in 
life variation took place in them, the later in embryonic life 
would we find the disused structures persisting. Per contra, 
the earliest phases of development must repeat that of the 



13 



earliest, i. e. , the most remote ancestors. Temporary organs 
may be of actual use, but there is no good reason why a 
frog should pass through an aquatic stage of existence when 
a straight development towards the adult condition could be 
explained as more seemingly normal, were it not for the per- 
sistence of hereditary traits. The Hy lodes (West Indian frog) 
omits the tadpole stage entirely. 

The tendency to repeat the history of lower ancestral condi- 
tion is believed to explain the fact that the red blood corpuscles 
of mammals are at first nucleated, as are those of adult frogs, 
and the still more striking one that during the period when the 
unborn human infant gets aerated blood from the lungs of the 
parent, the septum dividing the right and left auricles has an 
aperture ( K forai?ie?i ovale) which is represented by a constant 
opening in the adult frog. 

In the development of the frog, the embryo leaves the egg 
in a condition so far removed from that of the adult as to de- 
serve a somewhat detailed account of its growth. The eggs 
are laid in masses or strings, and are impregnated as they 
leave the body of the female. 1 

They are about one-sixteenth of an inch in diameter, and 
contain enough food yolk to carry the young to the tadpole 
stage. 2 

The eggs are laid in gelatinous envelopes, which swell after 
leaving the adult. At the time of hatching there are three 
pairs of external gills, but no mouth or anal opening. To pre- 
vent the young tadpole from dropping to the bottom of the 
pond, where it would soon be smothered in the mud, it is pro- 
vided with two small " suckers " just back of where the mouth 
is to appear, and by these it clings to aquatic plants. Soon 

1 The male uses his anterior limbs to seize the female near the fore- 
legs and presses the eggs from the body. The salamanders seize the 
female with the hinder feet. 

2 The chick is developed fully before leaving the egg at the expense 
of the food yolk. The egg of the frog is sixteen times as large as that of 
a rabbit, but the embryo of the latter is developed from the time of using 
food yolk by the placenta, thus receiving nourishment directly from the 
blood of the mother. As the frog has no membranes for foetal nourish- 
ment, the large quantity of food yolk and consequent size of egg are 
explained. 



14 

after hatching the mouth appears, with horny jaws which have 
a sharp biting beak. The upper jaw has a free edge, upon 
which are minute, horny teeth ; the edge of the lower jaw has 
small, fleshy papillae. Between these edges and the beak the 
upper jaw has three incomplete rows of teeth and the lower 
jaw four complete rows. At the time of hatching the aliment- 
ary canal is perfectly straight, but it soon becomes a long, 
spirally-coiled intestine. At this stage the tadpole begins to 
feed. The mouth opens, internal gills soon appear upon fleshy 
processes of the branchial arches * and the external gills soon 
shrivel and disappear. A hood (operculum) grows backward 
from the arches and soon incloses the gills and fore limbs, 
which have appeared about this time. 2 The operculum fuses 
at the right side and along the lower surface, but an opening 
remains on the left side through which the external gills often 
protrude for a time before' shrinking. The tadpole then be- 
gins to breathe like a fish, taking water into the mouth and 
passing it through the gills, and finally out of the opercular 
spout (left-hand aperture). The lungs, which had existed at 
the time of hatching as diverticula of the oesophagus, now 
extend along the sides of the bod3 T -cavity and begin to be 
used, respiration for a time being by both lungs and gills. The 
tadpole comes to the surface for air. The final metamorphosis 
takes place while the tail is still very long, and is of great in- 
terest on account of the changes. The outer layer of skin is 
cast, the horny jaws are thrown off, the mouth widens and the 
tongue becomes large, the eyes more prominent, the right fore- 
leg forces its way through the operculum and the left one 
appears out of the spout described above. The long intestine 
takes on a condition of active inflammation and rapidly shrinks 
to a straight alimentary canal. During this period no food is 
taken and nutrition is carried on at the expense of the tail, 



1 In fishes the gills are upon the arches themselves. There are no 
internal gills in salamanders. 

2 In development the anterior limbs appear first, but are concealed by 
the operculum. In the salamanders the development is the same, but 
there is no concealing hood. By this distinguishing character the novice 
may ascertain whether he has a frog or salamander tadpole. 



15 



which is soon absorbed. 1 The gills disappear, the clefts be- 
come closed by the fusion of their walls, and the blood-vessels 
which went to them are divided into-those which send blood 
to the lungs and those which carry mixed blood direct to the 
body. As the horny beak, used for masticating vegetable 
food, has been lost, when feeding is resumed it is with the 
wide mouth of the carnivorous adult frog. 

During the period of both gill and lung respiration, if the 
tadpole is prevented from coming to the surface of the water, 
no metamorphosis will take place. Retardation also is effected 
by keeping them in cold water or away from the light. 

In my aquarium, which I keep in a darkened room in which 
the air is always cool, tadpoles of the wood-frog have re- 
mained from early in 1895 until now. Small hinder limbs 
appeared months ago, but no further metamorphosis is visible. 
Others captured at the same time and kept under ordinary 
conditions completed their metamorphosis in from six to eight 
weeks. 

Classification and List of our Local Species* 



The local fauna is embraced in the following classification : 

Class . — Batrachia . 
Order. — Salientia. 

Sub-order. — Arcifera. 
Family I. — Bufonidse. 
Family II. — Scaphiopidse. 
Family III.— Hylidse. 

1 At the 1896 Liverpool meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, Sir Joseph Lister called attention to the discov- 
ery by the Russian naturalist and pathologist, Metchnikoff, that the 
white blood corpuscles crawl about like amoebae, and like them, receive 
nutritious materials into their bodies and there digest them. The tad- 
pole having attained the period for the cyclical change involved in the 
atrophy of the tail, its materials are absorbed by the white corpuscles, 
digested and carried to the body for nutrition during the temporary fast 
of the animal. 



16 



Sub-ordkr . — Firmisternia. 
Family IV. — Ranidae. 

GENERA AND SPECIES. 
Family I. — Bufo lentiginosis americanus. 
Family II. — Scaphiopus holbrooki. 
Family III. — Acris gryllus crepitans. 

Hyla andersoni. 

Hyla pickeringi. 

Hyla versicolor. 
Family IV, — Rana virescens virescens. 

Rana palustris. 

Rana clamata. 

Rana sylvatica. 

Rana catesbiana. 
Some of the family differences are as interesting as the 
specific. These and differences in habitat are shown in the 
following table: 

Bufonidae. 

No teeth. 

Sacral diapophyses dilated. 
Urostyle with two condyles. 

Habitat everywhere except Australia. Headquarters, 
South America. 

Scaphiopidae, 

Vomerine teeth ; a few undeveloped teeth in margin of 

jaw. 
Urostyle confluent with sacrum. (No condyles). 
Habitat, Northern Hemisphere. 

Hylidas. 

Maxillary and vomerine teeth. 
Sacral diapophyses dilated. 
Urostyle distinct. 
Habitat, Europe and America. 

In Australia there are Hylas, but no toads or frogs. None 
in the ^Ethiopian region. 



17 



Ranida?. 

Maxillary and vomerine teeth. 
Sacral diapophyses cylindric. 

Habitat, Europe and North America. None in Australia 
or South America. 

Bufo lentiginosis americanus Le Conte. 
Common Toad. 

There are four well-defined sub-species of the common toad, 
one of which is confined to northeastern Massachusetts, one is 
the Rocky Mountain species, one is southern and one is our 
own, which extends from British America to Louisiana and 
west to Arizona. 

Color usually yellowish or darker brown above, with 
pairs of deeper yellow-edged spots on back and with a light 
vertebral line. One or two yellowish streaks on sides. 
Below dirty yellow, frequently with black spots. Length, 
two to three inches. Females larger than males and more 
variegated in colors. The voice is a wierd ur-r-r-r. They 
rarely walk but progress by hops. Their food consists 
largely of insects and worms. 

Eggs in two long thick- walled tubes of transparent albumen. 
These tubes lie in long coils on the bottoms of ponds and are 
laid from about April 20 to May 15, sometimes as late as June. 
They hatch in about ten days. The metamorphosis is rapid 
and probably complete in less than a month. The young are 
very dark and remain so until near the close of the metamor- 
phosis. This is complete when they are about three-eighths 
of an inch in length. They hibernate very early, — about 
September 1. 

Scaphiopus holbrooki Harla?i. 
Hkrmit Spade-foot Toad. 

This is the Scaphiopus solitarins (Hoi brook) of DeKay. It 
is well- distributed but rarely seen, as it spends most of the time 
in burrows well under ground. The form is robust, the front 
wide and rounded. Prominent parotid glands. Color dark, 
sometimes with two pale longitudinal lines. Skin pustular 



18 



with small tubercles. The pupil of eye is vertical and cat- 
like ; l iris brassy-colored. Vomerine teeth in two patches. A 
peculiar spade- like process at the base of inner toe. 

The eggs are laid at any time from April to June in bunches 
from one to three inches in diameter, and are placed around a 
spike of grass. They hatch in about a week, the metamor- 
phosis being complete in about two to three weeks. The 
young immediately assume the terrestrial habits of the adult. 

Acris gryllus crepitans Baird. 

Cricket-Frog. 

This is the Hy lodes gryllus of DeKay. 

The cricket-frog is described in the Geological Survey of 
New Jersey, as more usually found " in the southern third of 
the State " and Cope places its northern limit at New Haven. 
I find it abundant along the Saddle River valley as far north 
as Hohokus, N. J., and it is sparingly found in the low-lying 
lands to the east. I have heard their notes at Fort Lee and 
have captured specimens at NordhofT. They may be found in 
numbers around the pond on the old Joseph Jefferson place 
about one mile east of Hohokus. Very early in the spring 
and before the appearance of the "peepers" (Hyla pickeringi) , 
their rattling, broken cry may be heard. It is not sharp like 
that of Hyla, and would not be noticed unless one were near. 

Our subspecies is northern and differs principally from Acris 
gryllus gryllus of the South, in having shorter hind feet, large 
dermal tubercles and less distinct lines on the posterior face of 
thigh. General color brownish, with a dark brown triangular 
patch between the eyes. A dorsal band varying from bright 
green to a rusty red, which changes to a more subdued color 
when the animal is frightened. Eyes large and prominent. 
Length, one inch. 

They are rarely found away from the borders of ponds, and 
their long leaps and swimming powers render capture very 
difficult. 

1 In the common toad the pupil is horizontal and there are no teeth. 



19 

The eggs are laid early in May, in small bunches attached 
to grass or weeds. Development is prolonged. 

Hyla andersoni Baird. 

Only three specimens of this frog have been observed, one 
at Anderson, S.C., one at Jackson, and one at May's Landing, 
N.J. It resembles in size and appearance the tree-frog of 
Europe. Cope describes it as of a rather deep pea-green color 
above, everywhere margined with pure white except posterior- 
ly on the femur and tibia and anteriorly on the former, wdiere 
a beautiful saffron takes its place. 

Hyla pickeringi Storer. 

" Peeper." 

This is the Hylodes pickeringii of DeKay. 

Nearly everyone has heard the sharp, shrill, penetrating cry 
of the "peepers" late in March and during part of April, 
when they repair to shallow bodies of water to breed. Most 
persons suppose that they have seen this frog, but few recog- 
nize it when shown. They may seem to be at one's feet, but 
only a knowledge of their probable whereabouts will enable 
one to see them at all during the breeding season. At this 
time of the year, the pools in the woods and bog-lots seem to 
be alive with them, but they become silent as a person ap- 
proaches and dive so quickly out of sight that they are very 
difficult of capture. During the summer they may be found 
almost everywhere in the woods at Fort Lee and in Bronx 
Park, generally clinging to undershrubs and the smaller herbs. 
Late in the fall, before hibernation, they may be found thickly 
congregated where Impatiens fulva grows along the banks of 
streams, and their cry is then often as frequent and sharp as 
during the breeding season. 

Color grayish yellow to reddish brown, but nearly white 
during the summer months. Beneath yellowish white. In 
spring, the vocal sac is dark brown, and thus distinctly set off 
from the lighter ventral surface. The lines on the back form 
a well-defined X- A few brown specks show on posterior of 
thighs. They are rarely over an inch in length and many are 



20 



mUch smaller. The discs are large and conspicuous and the 
abdomen and thighs are covered with fine granulations. 

The eggs are laid in masses containing from four to ten, and 
hatch in a few days. The tadpoles are active as soon as 
hatched and omit the clinging stage, at once swimming about 
in search of food. 

Hyla versicolor Le Conte. 
Common Tree-Toad. 
, This frog is common from British America to Florida and 
Texas, and is frequently found in orchards and on trees about 
dwellings. Their cry is a loud, coarse trill, and is thought by 
many to be a precursor of rain. They are more apt to cry 
during damp weather, but often may be heard for hours at a 
time when no rain has been seen in days. I have taken them 
from the ground in a hot day in July, when others were heard 
at the tops of tall trees near by. It is said that the Germans 
keep the European tree-frog captive so as to know when to go 
to picnics, but ours is unreliable so far as generally observed. 

On the 30th of May, I captured over forty among the wil- 
lows bordering the pond at Nordhoff , where they kept up an 
incessant clamor. A week later not one was to be found and I 
set this as the time of their repairing to the water to breed. 
In summer one will often be seen crouching along an old fence 
rail, resembling in color the lichens which there abound. 
The} r possess in a remarkable degree the power of ' ' color- 
change," varying from brown or ashy white to gray and 
green. 1 There are several blotches, one prominently sub-cru- 
ciform. 

Body stout and thick. Eyes large and prominent. Skin 
warty and coarse. Prominent fold across breast. The feet 
are more or less webbed, the hinder membranes extending to 
the discs. Broad discs on fingers and toes. These and parts 
of the abdomen of tree-frogs secrete a slime or mucus which 
enables them to cling to smooth, vertical surfaces. 2 

1 The color of upper layer of skin is light and changes are produced by 
introduction of darker color-bearing cells from below. 

2 The discs are not suctorial organs as commonly believed. 



21 



The eggs are laid in small bunches in shallow water, and the 
metamorphosis is complete while the young are very small. 

Rana virescens virescens {Kalni) Cope. 

Leopard Frog. 

This is the Rana halecina of DeKay. 

Many of the country people in New England call this frog 
" poison- toad," probably with reference to its bright colors 
and dark spots, which to them would suggest those of some 
serpents. It is really our most beautiful frog, varying from a 
bright bronze along the lighter'lines when found near water, to 
a green when captured in meadows. The species is widely 
distributed, our subspecies forming one of four found in North 
and Central America. One occurs in Florida and Georgia, one 
in Mexico and one on the southern and western plains. Ours 
is found from Maine to Texas. 

In our form there is a black spot on the top of each orbit and 
several ovate spots ranging from black to dark olive in two 
rows along the back. Two less distinct rows are seen along 
the sides. On each side of the dorsal region is an elevated fold 
of bright yellow, and a very bright bronze Hne runs from each 
eye to the nose. The upper surface between the spots and 
lines varies from a yellowish green to a general yellowish or 
bronzed olive. The throat is whitish and the abdomen yellow- 
ish. They differ from the following species {Rana palustris) 
in the position of the vomerine teeth, the size and arrangement 
of the spots, the number of glandular folds on the back, and 
in having external vocal sacs in the males. Eyes large and 
prominent, pupil black and iris golden yellow. 

This species appears very early in the spring and is most 
frequently found in swampy places. Its voice is a guttural 
chock-chock. 

Rana palustris Le Conte. 

Pickeree-Frog. 

In general appearance this frog differs from the leopard frog 

in having four thick folds on the back and four rows of spots. 

Color pale brown above, with longitudinal rows of square 

spots on back and flanks. Yellowish white beneath ; hinder 



22 



part of thighs bright yellow, with black mottlings. Upper 
part of thighs with transverse bands of dark brown which are 
represented in Rana virescens virescens by dark olive oblong 
blotches. The under surface of thighs is more granulated than 
in the leopard frog, and the mottled yellow of hinder part is 
replaced in the latter by flesh color. 

Habitat, cold streams and grassy meadows. Voice, a low, 
prolonged croak. 

Rana clamata Daudin. 
Green Frog ; Spring-Frog. 

This is the Rana fontinalis of DeKay. 

This is our common green frog, found near or in every 
body of water from small brooks to rivers and ponds. Before 
the metamorphosis is fully completed a ridge or fold of skin 
extends along the sides from behind each eye, sharply distin- 
guishing the species from the bullfrog, which has no such 
folds and in general appearance is round-bodied and stouter. 
The adult growth reaches from three to four inches, while the 
bullfrog attains from seven to eight in length of head and 
body. The young generally complete the metamorphosis when 
about one and one-half inches long, the bullfrog often remain- 
ing without limbs until nearly twice this size. 

Body stout but not so bulky and clumsy as that of the bull- 
frog. Head acute, round and deep. 

The young require two years to mature and the metamor- 
phosis is readily retarded by keeping them in cold water 
removed from light. 

Color greenish to greenish brown, with indistinct blotches 
on back, sides and limbs. Frequently the chin and throat are 
finely netted or spotted with brown. When jumping from the 
bank they give a sharp, squeaking cry and generally dive with 
a loud splash. They are decidedly voracious. A specimen of 
three inches will swallow a large tadpole of its own species, 
and smaller ones in my aquarium have frequently captured 
fishes as long as themselves, sitting for hours with the fish's 
tail projecting from the mouth, waiting for the other end to 
digest. 



23 

Rana sylvatica Le Conle. 
Wood-Frog. 

This frog is common in our woods during the summer, most 
specimens being of a light color somewhat resembling fallen 
leaves, and all with a black to reddish brown band along the 
side of the head. During the breeding season the males are 
nearly black, with a prominent yellowish white line at each 
side of back. At this period their voices can be heard at quite 
a distance, resembling at times the barking or yapping of a 
small dog when close at hand. At a greater distance I have 
taken their combined voices for the rumbling of an approach- 
ing trolley-car. 

They appear as early as March 10. I have found numbers 
in pools in the woods where the winter ice had not half melted. 
The eggs are laid in masses about three inches in diameter and 
hatch in about six days. The tad poles are very dark above 
and peculiarly bronzed underneath. I have found young 
adults half an inch in length. The metamorphosis is generally 
complete when a little above 'this size. In colder waters the 
tad poles are found during the following winter, and such 
specimens must undergo retardation of metamorphosis until 
the following spring. After breeding they soon take to the 
woods, where they remain until autumn, when they hibernate 
in mellow soil about two feet from the surface. 

Length about two inches. Body flat and broad. Limbs long 
and slender. Head pointed and broad. Fore feet not webbed. 
Hind feet webbed except terminal phalanges of all the toes 
and last two of the longest. 

Rana catesbiana Shaw. 
Buixfrog ; Jug-o'-Rum; Bloody- Nouns. 

This is the Rana pipiens of DeKay. 

These well-known frogs are not seen as often as the spring- 
frogs, as they prefer large bodies of water, where they are 
more inaccessible. 

Body very thick and clumsy. Head wide, legs short and 



24 



thick. Under Rana clamata I have mentioned the lack of lat- 
eral folds, which renders it easy to distinguish the adult from 
that of the latter species. This is by far the largest of our 
frogs. A chemist of reputation told me of one captive in his 
laboratory, measuring nineteen inches from tip of snout to 
extremity of hind leg. The longest specimen in the U. S. 
National Museum would reach about seventeen inches thus 
extended, and this may be taken as about the maximum 
growth. 

Color above olive brown, with rather uniformly distributed 
darker blotches. The young adults have rather sharply-de- 
fined black spots on a lighter brownish surface. The blotches 
become more distinctly transverse bars on legs. Under sur- 
face silvery white, everywhere somewhat brownish mottled. 
The skin above is moderately rough and the hinder faces of 
buttocks granulated. The fore feet are without any web. 
The hind feet are fully webbed from tip to tip of the toes, 
forming a powerful swimming organ. 

Voice a heavy bass, which may be heard for miles. Cope 
says it may be imitated by uttering a bass br-wum several 
times in succession with a hoarse voice while standing in front 
of an empty cask. The country boys say the frog calls " be- 
drowned " and " more rum." 

Eggs, May and June. Time of metamorphosis, about two 
years. 



INDEX 



Abbott, Frank, M. D., 7. 
Accipiter atricapillus, 5. 
Acris gryllus crepitans, 16, 18. 

gryllus gryllus, 18. 
Amblystoma opacurn, 11. 
Allen, J. A., The origin of the Migration 

of Birds, 3 ; The Red Squirrels of North 

America, 8. 
American Museum of Natural History, 

5,6. 
Ammodramus candacutus, 5. 

savannarum passerinus, 5. 
Anderson, S. C, 19. 
Arcifera, 11, 15. 
Arizona, 17. 
Atalapha cinerea, 8. 
Audubon Society of the State of New 

York, 4. 
Australia, 17. 



Badger, 5. 

Bahamas, 2. 

Bat, Hoary. 3. 

Batrachia, 15. 

Beach. Miss Grace B., 1. 

Beekman, Gerard, 3. 

Beers, M. H, 2. 

Belmont, August, 3. 

Bird, M. Langdon, 3. 

Blake, EH W., 7. 

Bloody Nouns, 23. 

Bobolink, 5. 

Bond, Frank S., 3. 

Bristol, John I. D., 2. 

British America, 17, 20. 

Bronx Park, N. Y., 19. 

Bufo lentiginosus americanus, 16, 11 

BufonidEe, 15. 16. 

Butler, Charles, 2, 7. 



Caecilia, 10. 

Canis lupus griseoalbus, 5. 

Cats, 5. 

Catbird, 2, 6. 

Central America, 21. 

Central Park, 3. 

Chapman, F. M., Birds observed at sea 
while returning from Mexico, 2; Notes 
on Birds observed in Mexico, 3 : The 
Mammals found within fifty miles of 
New York City, 3; Public Lecture, From 
Vera Cruz to Mexico City, 6, 8. 

Clarke, Charles C, 3. 

Congdon, H. W., 6. 

Constable, James M., 3. 

Contopus borealis. 6. 

Cope, Prof. E. D., 9, 18, 19. 

Crymophilus fulicarius, 2. 



Delaware, Coast of, 2. 
Desmognathus fusca, 11. 



Didelphis virginiana, 3. 

Dieterich, Charles, 3. 

Ditmars, R. L-, The Growth and Trans- 
formation of Reptiles and Batrachians, 
6. 

Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 5. 

Dolius luscinia, 2. 
philomela, 2. 

Dove, Carolina, 2. 

Dun. R. G., 3. 

Dunlap, Robert, 3. 

Dutcher, William, 3, 5, 6 ; Some Birds of 
the Thousand Islands, St. Lawrence 
River, N. Y., 6. 

Dwight, Jonathan, Jr., M. D., 8. 



Eggs, Birds', 4. 
Eider, King, 6. 
Elliot, Daniel Giraud, Public Lecture, 

Cats and the Lands they Inhabit, 5. 
Erithacus rubecula, 2. 
Europe, 9, 17. 



FlRMISTERNA, 11, 16. 

Florida, 20, 21. 
Flycatcher, Olive-sided, 6. 
Fort Lee, N. J., 18, 19. 
Foster, L. S., 1 ; Hackensack Bird Notes, 
2 ; Remarks on the Measurements of 
Some of the Common Hawks, 6, 8. 
Frog, Bull, 23. 

Cricket, 18. 

Green, 22. 

Leopard, 21. 

Pickerel, 21. 

Spring, 22. 

Wood, 23. 
Frogs and Toads, 1, 9-24. 



Galeoscoptes carolinensis, 2, 
Georgia, 21. 
Goshawks, 5. 
Granger, Walter W., 8. 
Gulls, 5. 



Harporhynchus rufus, 2. 
Harris, Francis M., 2. 
Harris, William C, 2. 
Hatie, J. Camoreau, 3. 
Havana, 2. 
Hawks, Common, 6. 
Haynes, A. E-, 3. 
Helme, A. H., 6. 
Hohokus, N. J., 18. 
Holden, E. R., 3. 
Hopkins, G. S., 10. 

Hornaday, William T , The London Zo- 
ological Society and its Gardens, 2. 



26 



Howell, Theodore D., 3, 7. 
Hubbard, Thomas H., 4. 
Hiipfel, J. Chr. G., 4. 
Hyla andersoni, 16, 19. 

pickeringi, 16, 18, 19. 
versicolor, 16, 20. 
Hylidse, 15, 16. 
Hylodes, 13. 

gryllus, IS. 

pickeringii, 19. 



Impatikns fulva, 19. 

Ingersoll, Ernest, 3 ; Birds' Eggs, 4, 5. 

International Postal Union, 2, 3. 



Jackson, N. J., 19. 
Johnson, Walter A., 7. 
Jones, Walter M., 2. 
Jug-o'-Rum, 28. 



Kevan, William, 3. 

King, John A., 3. 

Kreizer, Charles P., M. D., 2. 



Langmann, G., M. D., 6. 

Lenimon, William P., 3. 

Librarian, Report of, 7. 

Lister, Sir Joseph, 15. 

Louisiana, 17. 

Long Island, N. Y., 3, 6. 

Loon, 2. 

Lusk, William T., M. D., 3, 



McKim, Rev. Haslett, 3. 

Maine, 21. 

Massachusetts, Northeastern, 11 

May's Landing, N. J., 19. 

Metchnikoff, 15. 

Mexico, 2, 3, 21. 

Mexico, City of, 6. 

Migration, 3. 

Millers Place, N. Y., 6. 

Minnesota, 5. 

Mockingbird, 2. 



New Haven, Conn., 18. 
New Mexico, 1. 
New York City, 1, 3, 5. 
Nightingale, 2. 
Nordhoff, N. J., 18, 20. 
North America, 11, 17, 21. 



Opossum, 3. 



Par melee, W. K., Notes on the Habits 
of Turtles, with special reference to 
those Species found within Fifty Miles 
of New York City, 5. 

Peeper, 19. 

Pelicans, White, 5. 

Petrel, 2. 

Phalarope, Northern, 2. 
Red, 2 

Phalaropus lobatus, 2. 

Piranga erythromelas, 5. 

Plethodon cinereus, 11. 

erythronotus. 11. 
glutinosus, 11. 

Portland, Conn., 5. 

Price, William T., 6. 

Proctor, Thomas, The Nightingale and 
the Mockingbird, the Chief Songsters 
of the Old World and the New, 2. 

Proteus, 9. 

Publication, 7. 

Public Lectures, 1, 4. 5. 

Pumnus auduboni, 2. 



Rana catesbiana, 16, 23. 

clamata, 16, 22, 24. 

fontinalis, 22. 

halecina, 21. 

palustris, 16, 21. 

pipiens, 23. 

sylvatica, 16, 23. 

virescens virescens, 16, 21, 22. 
Ranidee, 16, 17. 
Redbreast, Robin, 2. 
Robb, J. Hampden, 3. 
Rocky Mountains, 17. 



Saddle River, Valley of, 18. 
Sage, John H., 5. 
vSt. Lawrence River, 6. 
Salamander atra, 9. 
Salamanders, 6. 
Salientia, 10, 15. 
Scaphiopidse, 15, 16. 
Scaphiopus holbrooki, hi, 17. 

solitarius, 17. 
Sciurus carolinensis leucotis, 3. 
Secretary, Report of, 7. 
Seiurus noveboracensis, 2. 
Shearwater, 2. 

Audubon's, 2. 
Sherwood, William L., The Frogs and 

Toads found in the Vicinity of New 

York City, 1, 9-24. 
Siskin, Pine, 5. 
Smith, Rev. Cornelius B., 3. 
Smith, Eugene, The Fishes of the Fresh 

and Brackish Waters in the Vicinity of 

New York City, [Second Part], 1. 
Somateria spectabilis, 6. 
South America, 17. 
Southwick, E. B., 3. 
Sparrow, Grasshopper, 5. 
Sharp-tailed, 5. 
Spelerpes bilineata, 11. 

guttolineatus, 11. 
ruber, 11. 
Spinus pinus, 5. 
Squirrel, Gray, 3. 
Squirrels, Red, 8. 
Sullivan County, N. V., <i. 
Sylvia rufa, 2. 



27 



Tampico, 2. 

Tanager, Scarlet, 5. 

Taxidea ataericana, 5. 

Terns, 5. 

Texas, 20, 21. 

Thompson, Ernest Seton, The Mammals 
of Yellowstone National Park, 4 ; The 
Summer Birds of Yellowstone National 
Park, 5. 

Thousand Islands, 6. 

Thrasher, Brown, 2. 

Toad, Common, 17. 

Hermit Spade-foot, 17. 
Poison, 21. 

Toads, Frogs and, 1, 9-24. 

Treasurer, Report of, 7. 

Tree-Toad, Common, 20. 

Turtles, 5. 



United States, 9. 

National Museum, 24. 
Urodela, 10. 



Vera Cruz, 



Warbler, White-throated, 2. 

Water-Thrush, Small-billed, 2. 

Wilder. Professor Harris H., 10. 

Wolf, Gray, 5. 

Wortman, J. L,., M. D., Public Lecture, 

Life in the Nacimieuto Desert of New 

Mexico, 1. 
Wright, Mrs. Mabel Osgood, 4. 



Yellowstone Lake, 5. 
Yellowstone National Park, 4, 5. 



Zenaidura macroura, 2. 



Officers of the Linnsaii Society 



President, 
Vice-President, 
Secretary, 
Treasurer, - 



OF NEW YORK. 

1898-1899. 



Frank M. Chapman. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 
Waeter W. Granger. 
Iv. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OR NKW YORK. 

MARCH, 1898. 



HONORARY. 

EeeioTT CouES, M. D., Ph.D. Daniee G. EeeioT, F. R. S. E. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Frankein Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charges B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charees Dury. 
B. H. DuTCHER, M. D. 

A. K. Fisher, M. D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M. D. 

B. S. GlEBERT. 

C. L. Herrick. 
Charees F. Hoeder. 
Arthur H. Howeee. 

A. M. INGERSOEE. 

F. W. Langdon, M. D. 
Mrs. F. B. B. Latham. 
Wm. K. LenTE. 



CORRESPONDING. 



Leverett m. Loomis. 

Aeered Marshaee. 

Theo. Iv. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 

James C. Merriee, M. D. 

Harry C. Oberhoeser. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 

Theodore Rooseveet. 

John H. Sage. 

George B. Sennett. 

R. W. Shufeedt, M. D. 

Brnest Seton Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, m. d. 

B. H. Warren, M. D. 

S. W. WieeisTon, M. D., Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wieson. 

{Over.) 



■ 

Resident Members of the Linnsean Society of New York. 



John Akhurst 

J. A. Allen, Ph. D. 

C. K. Averill 

Samuel P. Avery 

Mrs. Samuel P. Avery 

George Strong Baxter, Jr. 

Miss Grace B. Beach 

Daniel C. Beard 

Gerard Beekman 

M. H. Beers 

August Belmont 

Charles M. Berrian 

M. Langdon Bird 

Louis B. Bishop, M. D. 

Eli W. Blake 

Frank L. Bond 

William C. Braislin, M. D. 

Jno. I. D. Bristol 

H. C. Burton 

William J. Cassard 

H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 

Frank M. Chapman 

S. H. Chubb 

Charles C. Clarke 

Frederick Clarkson 

James M. Constable 

Charles F. Cox 

S. D. Coykendall 

Thomas Craig 

George A. Crocker 

Charles P. Daly, LL. D. 

Theodore L. DeVinne 

Charles F. Dieterich 

Raymond L. Ditmars 

Cleveland H. Dodge 

William E. Dodge 

O. B. Douglas, M. D. 

Andrew E. Douglass 

R. G. Dun 

Robert Dunlap 

William Dutcher 

Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M. D. 

Robert W. Eastman, M. D. 

Newbold Edgar 

William Ellsworth 

Evan M. Evans, M. D. 

Miss E. A. Foster 

L. S. Foster 

Samuel A. French . 

Theodore K. Gibbs 

Louis B. Gillet 

E. L. Godkin 

Edwin A. Goodridge, M. D. 



Walter W. Granger 
Isaac J. Greenwood 
William H. Gregg, M. D. 
Alexander Hadden, M. D. 
Edwin I. Haines 
William C. Harris 
Jacob Hartmann, M. D. 
J. Camoreau Hatie* 
H. 0. Havemeyer, Jr. 
J. C. Havemeyer 

A. E. Haynes 
R. G. Hazard 
Harold Herrick 

Mrs. Esther Herrman. 
E. R. Holden 
Henry Holt 
Thomas H. Hubbard 
J. Chr. G. Hiipfel 

B. Talbot B. Hyde 

E. Francis Hyde 
Frederick E. Hyde, M. D. 
Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. 
Ernest Ingersoll 

John B. Ireland 
John Irving 

C. Bradley Isham 
David B. Ivison 
Mortimer Jesurum, M. D. 
Alex. B. Johnson, M. D. 
Frank Edgar Johnson 
Walter D. Johnson 
Walter M. Jones 

S. Nicholson Kane 
L. Scott Kemper 
Rev. A. B. Kendig 
Rudolph Keppler 
William Kevan 
John A. King 
Bancel LaFarge 
Woodbury G. Langdon 

F. Lange, M. D. 
J. D. Lange 

G. Langmann, M. D. 
John B. Lawrence, Jr. 
Newbold T. Lawrence 
Charles A. Leale, M. D. 
William P. Lemmon 
H. C. A. Leutloff 

A. Liautard, M. D. 
Walter S. Logan 
Benjamin Lord, M. D. 
Seth Low, LL. D. 
Rev. Haslett McKim 



A. J. Macdonald 
Robert L. Maitland 
Edgar A. Mearns, M. D. 
Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller 
Waldron D. W. Miller 
A. G. Mills 

Robert T. Morris, M. D. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc. D. 
William C. Osborn 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips 
Louis H. Porter 
Joseph M. Pray 
Mrs. Henry Read 
Edward S. Renwick 
William M. Richardson 

C. B. Riker 

William C. Rives, M. D. 
J. Hampden Robb 
S. H. Robbins 
John Rowley 
Clarence A. Rundall 
Bernard Sachs, M. D. 
Anton H. Schroeter 
William F. Sebert 
T. G. Sellew 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
Charles Sill 
S. T. Skidmore 
Rev. Cornelius B. Smith 
James Baker Smith 
James C. Spencer 
John C. Sprague 
Edward R. Squibb, M. D. 
Benjamin Stern 
Alexander H. Stevens 
George T. Stevens, M. D. 
Mason A. Stone 
William E. Tefft 
Samuel Thorne 
Cornelius Vanderbilt 
Clifford W. Vaughan 
Henry F. Walker, M. D. 
William Wicke 

D. O. Wickham 
John T. Willets 
Robert R. Willets 
Reginald Willis 

Mrs. Cynthia A. Wood 
Lewis B. Woodruff 
Mrs. James O. Wright 
Curtis C. Young 
Louis A. Zerega, M. D. 



I,. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 



1898-99 No. 11 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^EAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YC5RK, 

For the Year Ending March 14, 1899, 

WITH 

THE TURTLES AND LIZARDS OF THE 

VICINITY OF NEW YORK 

CITY. 

By Eugene Smith. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History, 77th Street and 8th Avenue, New York City. 






PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

The Linnaean Society of New York. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Transactions of the Linfuean Society of New York, Volume I., R jya 
Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece— Portrait of Linnaeus-. 
THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEAST- 
ERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, jtt.l). 

General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. • Biographies of the Panther, 
Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least Weasel, Ermine, 
Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW ( Corvus ossifragus Wilson J A WINTER AS 
WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN LIMIT 
OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM DUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE CATSKILL 
MOUNTAINS, WITH PREFATORY REMARKS ON THE FAUNAL 
AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE REGION. 

By EUGENE PINTARD BICKNELL. 
New York, December, 1882. 

Price: Paper, - &2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Transactions of the Linis^ean Society of New York, Volume II., 
Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents : Frontispiece— Plate of Bendire's Shrew. 
THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEAST- 
ERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia Concluded.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.l). 

Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose, and Elk ; of the Moles and Shrews 
(six species); the Bats (five species); the Squirrels (six species); the Woodchuck, 
the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats and Mice ( seven species), 
and the Hares (three species). 
DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 

SORICIDyE. {Atophyrax Bender li, with a plate. ) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.I>. 

New \ ork, August, 1884. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - S3.00. 

ABSTRACT Or PROCEEDINGS. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the Linn/ean Society of New York. 



No. 1, 


for 


the year 


ending 


March 1, 1889 8v>, 


papei 


cove 


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No. 2, 




(< 


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7- 1890, " 




' 


10 pp. 


No. 3, 




(< 


" 


" 


6, 1891, " 




' 


11 pp 


No. 4, 




" 


• < 


" 


2, 1892, " 




' 


8 pp. 


No. 5, 




" 


" 


< < 


1, 1893, " 




i 


41 pp. 


No. 6, 




<« 


" 


" 


27, 1894, " 




1 


103 pp. 


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a 


t< 


a 


26 1895, " 




' 


41 pp. 


No. 8, 




(< 


.< 


" 


24, 1896, " 




' 


27 pp. 


No. 9, 




<< 


" 


a 


9, 1807, '«• 




1 


56 pp. 


No. 10, 




it 


<< 


<( 


8, 1898. ' 




' 


27 pp. 


No. 11, 




a 


i 4 


" 


14 1899, " 




" 


32 PP- 



Free to Members of the Society at the date of issue. 
To others, Nos. I, 2. 3, and 4, 25 cents each. 

No. 5, 50 cents. No. 9, 50 cents. 

No. 6, 75 cents. No.* 10, 50 cents. 

No. 7, 50 cents. No. 11, 50 cents. 

No. 8, 50 cents. 
For any information concerning the publications, address the Secretary of 
The Linn/ean Society of New York, care of American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

TsTKW YORK, 
FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 14, 1899. 



This is the eleventh in the- series of " Abstracts" pub- 
lished by the Linnaean Society of New York, and, like the 
preceding issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of 
the work of the Society during the year closing with the 
date indicated above. Papers presented before the Society 
but published elsewhere are given by title only, with proper 
reference to place of publication. 

March 17, 1898. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 
American Museum of Natural History by Mr. Ernest Seton 
Thompson, entitled " The Mammals of North America," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 

March 22, 1898. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Eight 
members and two visitors present. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented " Notes on the Turtles and 
Lizards of the Vicinity of New York City." 

Mr. C. B. Riker spoke of an assembly of Blue Jays (Cyano- 
citta cristata) seen by him in the spring of 1898 near 
Maplewood, N. J. 

April 7, 1898. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of the 



American Museum of Natural History by Dr. C. Hart Mer- 
riam, entitled "Protective and Directive Coloration of 
Animals,' 7 with stereopticon illustrations. 

April 12, 1898. — The Vice-President in the chair. Nine 
members and one visitor present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster was appointed Secretary pro tern, by 
the Chair, to serve during the extended absence of the 
Secretary. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll spoke of the presence in Newport 
Harbor of the Portuguese Man-of-war (Pkysalia pelagica) 
and other tropical forms of marine life. This he considered 
due to the Gulf Stream. Mr. William Ellsworth gave the 
same influence credit for sending certain species of Squids 
(Loligalidce) to the waters of Newfoundland. 

Mr. William Dutcher remarked that a carcase of the 
Biscayan form of the Right Whale {Balcena biscayensis) 
had recently been cast upon the coast of North Carolina. 

April 26, 1898. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and seven visitors present. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll presented " A Little Biography of 
the Whip-poor-will {Antrostomus vociferus)." He stated 
that this species is well represented here by the first of May, 
and has its complete call upon arrival. Mr. Ingersoll had 
made a series of observations on the call notes. He has 
found that the bird never calls when in the air, and that its 
voice may be heard for half a mile. One individual repeated 
the cry uninterruptedly eight hundred and thirty-one times 
in fifteen minutes. 

Mr. S. H. Chubb had taken an entire Luna Moth (Actias 
luna) from the stomach of a Whip-poor-will. He had heard 
the call note of this bird in Greene County, N. Y., on 
September 8. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read the published records collected by 
the Local Fauna Committee of the Society, concerning this 
bird. He also stated that a male Whip-poor-will had been 
shot at Bedloe's Island, New York Harbor, on April 23, 1898. 

Mr. W. D. W. Miller exhibited a specimen of the Cave 



Salamander (Spelerpes longicauda), taken by him on 
April 23, at Plainfield, N. J. 

May 10, 1898. — The President in the chair. Fifteen 
members and nineteen visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper on " The Pelicans 
of Pelican Island, Indian River, Florida." The Brown 
Pelican (Pelecanus fuscus) breeds in large numbers on this 
island, the nests being situated in the low mangrove 
bushes or, more frequently, on the ground. The young 
are extremely noisy, but strong evidence attests the com- 
plete silence of the adult birds. Mr. Chapman exhibited a 
series of specimens, extending from the pipped egg to the 
adult bird, and his remarks were also illustrated by a num- 
ber of lantern slides from photographs taken by himself. 

Mr. C. B. Riker exhibited a lantern slide showing a large 
number of cocoons (Attacns cynthia) on an Ailantus tree 
on Jersey City Heights, N. J. 

May 24, 1898. — The President in the chair. Fifteen 
members and two visitors present. 

Mr. W. D. W. Miller was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

Mr. F. E. Johnson read a paper entitled "Some Notes 
regarding the Carolina Wren {Thryothorus ludovicianus) ." 

Dr. W. C. Braislin exhibited an immature specimen of 
the Iceland Gull {Lartis leucopterus), taken off Rockaway 
Beach, N. Y., on March 9, 1898. [The Auk, Vol. XVI., 
April, 1899, p. 190.] 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented " Remarks on the Re- 
lationships and Distribution of the Seaside Finches." He 
spoke at length of the inter-relations of the five members 
of this group, — Ammodramus nigrescens, A. maritimus, 
A. m. peninsidcz, A. m. macgillivraii, and A. m. sennetti; 
pointed out the connection existing between their colors 
and the climatic conditions under which they live; and 
discussed the nomenclatural standing of the birds now 
called peninsula and macgillivraii. [See The Auk, Vol. 
XVI., Jan., 1899, pp. 1-12.] 



Mr. H. W. Congdon noted the appearance in Battery 
Park, New York City, on May 9, 1898, of a Mockingbird 
(Mimus polyglottos). He had seen there during this migra- 
tion several Brown Thrashers {Harporhynchus rufus), Che- 
winks (Pipilo erythrophthalimis), and Hooded Warblers 
{Wilsonia mitrata). 

Mr. S. H. Chubb reported birds as abundant, but late in 
arrival. The great May flight in Central Park occurred on 
May 17. 

Mr. A. H. Helme stated that the great flight at Millers 
Place, Long Island, N. Y., w^as on May 16, and that he had 
discovered at this time a nest with two fresh eggs of Coop- 
er's Hawk (Accipzter cooperi). 

Dr. W. C. Braislin reported the capture of five Caspian 
Terns {Sterna ca.spia) on Long Island, May 12, 1898. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman had observed a Mourning Warbler 
{GeotJilypis Philadelphia) at Englewood, N. J., on May 22, 
,1898. 

October 1 1, 1898. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and nine visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster exhibited a skin of the Black-capped 
Petrel (A^strelata hasitata) taken on Seneca River, Cayuga 
County, N. Y., early in September, 1893. Dr. J. A. Allen 
referred to two other hitherto unpublished records for this 
species. [See The Auk, Vol. XVI., 1899, p. 75.] 

Mr. William Dutcher reported that he had seen thousands 
of Wilson's Petrels (Oceanites oce aniens) on July 20, 1898, 
in lower New York Bay, attracted by the " chum " em- 
ployed by fishermen in catching bluefish. 

He also exhibited a series of skins of the Red Phalarope 
(Crymophilus fulicanus). Ten of these, eight males and 
two females, struck Montauk Light, night of April 30. He 
also spoke of the distribution, relative abundance, and 
changes of plumage of the three North American species 
of Phalaropes. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman stated that he had seen at sea, about 
one hundred miles east of Virginia, hundreds of thousands 



5 

of Phalaropes, appearing like a line of foam on the ocean, 
as, in rising, they exposed their white underparts. 

Dr. L. B. Bishop spoke of an adult female Buff-breasted 
Sandpiper {Tryngites subraficollis), taken on Cape Cod, 
Mass., on August 16, 1898. 

Mr. Dutcher reported that on August 28, 1898, he re- 
ceived a box of two hundred and ninety-one birds, killed 
by striking Fire Island light-house. Thirty species were 
represented, including five Worm-eating Warblers (//<•/- 
mitherus vermivorus) and one Hooded Warbler {Wilsotiia 
mi t rat a). 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher presented to the Society, for convey- 
ance to the Local Collection of Bird-skins in the American 
Museum of Natural History, ten skins of the Red Phalarope 
(Crymophihis fiilicarhis), and one skin of the Little Blue 
Heron (Ardea coerulea), and also one skin of an albino 
Meadow Mouse (Microtus riparia). 

The Secretary read a communication from Mr. John H 
Sage, of Portland, Conn., giving notes on the spring migra- 
tion, the great wave having' occurred on May 18, 1898 
Sixty-five species were identified by him on that day, nine- 
teen species being warblers. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman had observed Lincoln's Finch (Melos- 
piza lincolni) at Englewood, N. J., on September 10, 1898, 
and a Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus) at Leonia, 
N. J., on September 27, 1898. Other records for the latter 
bird were : Ontario, June, I898, by Mr. Dutcher ; Plainfield, 
N. J., in August and December, by Mr. W. D. W. Miller; 
and New Haven, Conn., by Dr. L. B. Bishop. Lincoln's 
Finch was reported as not rare at Millers Place, N. Y., by 
Dr. W. C. Braislin. 

October 25, 1898. — The President in the chair. Nine 
members and thirty-two visitors present. 

Mr. W. L. Sherwood and Mr. H. L. Utter were elected 
Resident Members of the Society. 

The Chairman of the Lecture Committee reported the 
following dates and lectures for the sixth annual course : 



1. January 19, 1899. "A Naturalist in Florida." By Mr. 
Frank M. Chapman. 

2. January 26, 1899. "A Naturalist in Labrador." By 
Dr. Robert T. Morris. 

3. February 2, 1899. "A Naturalist on the Plains." By 
Mr. Ernest Seton Thompson. 

4. February 9, 1899. "A Naturalist on the Pacific 
Coast." By Dr. Bashford Dean. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper, illustrated by 
lantern slides, entitled " The Bird Rocks of the Gulf of 
St. Lawrence." 

November 8, 1898. — The President in the chair. Nine 
members and five visitors present. 

Mr. C. G. Abbott was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. L. A. Fuertes presented "Notes on Birds observed 
in Florida in March and April, 1898." The locality visited 
by Mr. Fuertes was Indian River, and he also made expe- 
ditions into the surrounding- country to view the heronries. 
He made remarks upon the number of floating islands 
found in the lagoons occurring in that part of Florida. 

Following the stated paper was an exhibition with re- 
marks, by members, of specimens of Black and White 
Warbler {Mniotilta varid), Prothonotary Warbler {Proton- 
otaria citrea), Swainson's Warbler {Helinaia swainsonii), 
and Worm-eating Warbler {Helmitherus vermivorus). 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., showed a series of these birds and spoke 
briefly of their plumages and moult. Mr. L. S. Foster read 
the published records, collected by the Local Fauna 
Committee of this society, concerning the birds under dis- 
cussion. 

November 24, 1898 — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and eight visitors present. 

Mrs. Parker Morrison was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

There was an exhibition of specimens, with remarks by 
members, of Bachman's Warbler {Helminthophila bach- 



mani), Blue-winged Warbler (77. pinus), Golden-winged 
Warbler (H. cJirysoptera), Brewster's Warbler (H. leuco- 
bronchialis), and Lawrence's Warbler (H. lawrencei). The 
birds were exhibited in large series, especially Bachman's 
and Brewster's Warblers. Mr. F. M. Chapman spoke of the 
increase in our knowledge of Bachman's Warbler, showing 
the fourth known specimen, belonging to the Museum col- 
lection, of this bird, and referred to the fact that the first 
nest and eggs had recently been found in the Mississippi 
Valley by Mr. Otto Widmann. Dr. L. B. Bishop exhibited 
an exceedingly fine series of Brewster's Warbler taken near 
New Haven, Conn , and Mr. L, S. Foster read the published 
records, collected by the Local Fauna Committee, concern- 
ing this group of warblers. 

December 13, 1898. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. 
Twelve members and thirteen visitors present. 

Mr. Ernest Seton Thompson presented " Notes on the 
Texas Wild Cattle," based on his own experience. 

An exhibition, with remarks by members, of specimens 
of the following warblers then took place : Lucy's Warbler 
(Helminthophiia lucice), Virginia's Warbler {H. virginice), 
Nashville Warbler (H. ruftcapilla), Calaveras Warbler 
(77. r. gutturalis), Orange-crowned Warbler (H. celata), 
Lutescent Warbler \H. c. lutescens), and Tennessee War- 
bler [H. peregrina). Mr. L. S. Foster read the published 
records, collected by the Local Fauna Committee, concern- 
ing these birds. 

Mr. William Dutcher presented to the Society, for con- 
veyance to the Local Collection of Bird-skins in the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History, two skins of the American 
Bittern (Botauncs lentiginoses), one skin of the Green Heron 
{Ardea virescens), and two skins of the Hairy Woodpecker 
(Dry 00 ate s villosus). 

December 27, 1898. — The Vice-President in the chair. Ten 
members and eighteen visitors present. 

The paper of the evening was by Mr. J. D. Figgins, and 
was entitled " Notes on Birds Observed in Greenland with 



8 

the Peary Expeditions of 1896 and 1897." The author 
treated twenty species of water birds and eight land birds. 

Specimens of the Parula Warbler (Compsothlypis amer- 
icana), Sennett's Warbler (C. ?iigrilora), Cape May Warbler 
(Dendroica tigrina), and Olive Warbler (D. olivacea) were 
exhibited and discussed, and the published records of their 
local occurrence read. 

January 10, 1899. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and sixteen visitors present. 

Dr. J. L. Wortman presented remarks on " The Evolu- 
tion of the Camel," and exhibited a series of specimens of 
skulls and feet, ranging from the earliest known represen- 
tatives from the Eocene of North America down to the 
modern camel. He referred specially to the modifications 
which have taken place in the teeth and feet. Dr. Wortman 
closed his remarks by showing many lantern slides illus- 
trating the Bad Lands of the West, the localities from 
which these specimens were taken. 

The warblers exhibited and discussed were the Yellow 
Warbler {Dendroica cestiva), Black-throated Blue Warbler 
(D. ccerulescens), Myrtle Warbler (D. coronatd), and 
Audubon's Warbler (D. audubojti.) 

January 19, 1899. — -Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Mr. F. 
M. Chapman, entitled " A Naturalist in Florida," with 
stereopticon illustrations. 

January 24, 1899. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Five members and one visitor present. 

Owing to the small attendance, due to inclement weather, 
the paper of the evening was postponed. 

January 26, 1899. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Dr. R. T. 
Morris, entitled " A Naturalist in Labrador," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

February 2, 1899. — 'Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Mr. Ernest 
Seton Thompson, entitled " A Naturalist on the Plains," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 



9 

February 9, 1899. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Dr. Bashford 
Dean, entitled " A Naturalist on the Pacific Coast," with 
stereopticon illustrations. 

February 14, 1899. — The Vice-President in the chair. 
Five members and four visitors present. 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., presented " Notes on the Moults and 
Plumages of Some of Our Common Birds." 

February 28, 1899. — Mr. L. S. Foster in the chair. Nine 
members and twelve visitors present. 

Dr. J. L. Wortman presented remarks on ''Explora- 
tions for Extinct Reptiles in the Rocky Mountain Plateau 
Region." The explorations referred to were those con- 
ducted by the American Museum during the last two 
summers in the Jurassic beds near Medicine Bow in 
Southern Wyoming. Dr. Wortman said that these gigantic 
extinct reptiles known as dinosaurs were first discovered in 
this country by Professor O. C. Marsh of Yale, who had 
obtained his remarkable collection from this locality. This 
is the richest of the several regions in North America where 
these reptiles are found. Dr. Wortman described very 
fully the methods adopted by his party in locating the 
specimens, removing them from the matrix, and preparing 
them for shipment; and he showed lantern slides illustrat- 
ing the work and camp life of the party, and also restora- 
tions of dinosaurs by Professor Marsh and Mr. Charles R. 
Knight. 

March 14, 1899. — Annual Meeting. The President in the 
chair. Eleven members and seven visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his Annual Report, as follows : 

" The Society has held during the past year sixteen 
meetings, — two meetings each month, with the exception 
of June, July, August and September. 

" Although the attendance has fallen off slightly from 
that of last year it has been greater than for any year prior 
to 1898. The total attendance at all meetings has been 
303. The average attendance has been of members 9, and 
of visitors 10. The largest attendance at any one meeting 



IO 



was on October 25, when there were 10 members and 32 
visitors present. 

" Seven Resident Members have been elected, three have 
resigned, four have been dropped, and two, — Mr. Henry 
Gade and Mr. Francis M. Harris, — have been lost by death. 
The membership of the Society at present is, Resident, 161 ; 
Corresponding, 35; Honorary, 2 — a total of 198. 

"Ten authors have presented before the Society thirteen 
papers on the following subjects : Eight on ornithology, 
two on mammalogy, two on palaeontology, and one on 
herpetology. 

" The sixth annual lecture course of the Society com- 
prised four lectures delivered at the American Museum of 
Natural History during the months of January and Febru- 
ary. The attendance at these lectures was exceptionally 
good. 

"The Society has issued 'Abstract of Proceedings No. 
10,' including a paper entitled ' The Frogs and Toads Found 
in the Vicinity of New York City,' by Mr. William L. Sher- 
wood, and an index, the whole forming a pamphlet of 
twenty-seven pages. Copies were distributed as usual 
among the exchanges and one copy was mailed to each 
member." 

The Librarian presented his Annual Report, as follows : 

" The Library has been augmented by over 150 publica- 
tions, chiefly exchanges. Otherwise the Library is in ex- 
actly the same condition as last year, no further work hav- 
ing been done on the catalogue." 

The Treasurer presented his Annual Report, showing a 
balance on hand of $424.10. 

The following officers were elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Vice-President, Mr. William Dutcher. 

SECRETARY, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented a paper on " The Turtles 
and Lizards of the Vicinity of New York City." [Printed 
at the end of this Abstract.] 



The Turtles and Lizards Found in the 
Vicinity of New York City. 

By Eugene Smith. 



Before proceeding to the special description of the rep- 
tilian fauna of this vicinity it will be necessary to give a 
preliminary review of the class Reptilia and its orders, and 
the differences existing between it and the class of Am- 
phibia or Batrachia. 

Most persons use the terms indiscriminately, calling a 
salamander a lizard, a snake an amphibian, or a frog a rep- 
tile. Indeed, it is only within a comparatively recent 
period that scientists make proper distinctions between 
these so very different classes of animals. These dif- 
ferences are so great that Reptiles have more affinities 
with Birds, whilst Amphibia are most nearly allied to 
Fishes. 

In preparing this paper I have referred for general pur- 
poses to the following authorities : A. C. Glinther and St. 
George Mivart, Articles on Reptiles, Turtles and Lizards 1 ; 
J. E. Holbrook, North American Herpetology ; G. A. Bou- 
lenger, British Museum Catalogues ; Alexander Strauch's 
Vertheilung der Schildkroten iiber den Erdball 2 ; D. t S. 
Jordan, Manual of the Vertebrates, etc. 3 

The descriptions of families and species, as used by me, 
are largely those of Jordan's Manual. Another paper of 
value consulted on the Turtles is that of F. W. True, Use- 
ful Aquatic Reptiles and Batrachians of the United States. 4 

1 In Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th edition. 

2 See Mem. de l'academie imperiale de St. Petersbourg, tome X., No. 13, 
1865. 

3 7th edition, 1896. 

4 See Section One of the Fisheries and Fishery Industries of the U. S., 
Washington, 1893. 



The geographical district embraced in the list averages 
about thirty miles around New York City. 

For the sake of completeness a few species of doubtful 
occurrence have been included. 



Classification and List of Local Turtles and Lizards. 



Class Reptilia. 
Order Lacertilia. Lizards. 

Family Scincidce. Skinks, 

Genus and Species : 

Eumeces fasciatus (L.). 

Family Teidce. Teids. 

Genus and Species : 

Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (L.).* 

Family Ignanidce. Iguanas. 

Genus and Species : 

Sceloporus undulatus (Datiditi). 

Order Testudinata. Turtles. 

Family Dermoclielydidce. Leather Turtles. 

Genus and Species : 

Dermochelys coriacea ( Vandelli). 

Family Cheloniidce. Loggerhead Turtles. 

Genera and Species : 

Thalassochelys caretta (Z.). 
Chelonia mydas (L.). 

* Species of doubtful occurrence. 



13 

Family TrionychidcE. Soft-shelled Turtles. 

Genera and Species : 

Amyda mutica (Le 5.).* 
Aspidonectes spinifer (Le S.).* 

Family Chelydridce. Snapping Turtles. 

Genus and Species : 

Chelydra serpentina (L.). 

Family Kinosternidce. Box Turtles. 

Genera and Species : 

Kinosternon pennsylvanicum {Bosc). 
Aromochelys odoratus (Latr.). 

Family Emydidce. Pond Turtles. 

Genera and Species : 

Malaclemmys palustris (Gmel.). 
Pseudemys rugosa (Shaw). 
Chrysemys picta (Herm.). 
Chelopus muhlenbergi (Schw). 
Chelopus insculptus (Le C). 
Chelopus guttatus (Schn.). 
Emys meleagris {Shaw)* 
Cistudo Carolina (L.). 

Class Reptilia. 

Reptiles are distinguished from the lower class of Ba- 
trachia by being perfect at birth, there being no tadpole 
stage as in the case of frogs and salamanders. When the little 
turtle, often no larger than a small coin, or the little snake, 
not bigger than a medium-sized earthworm, escapes from 
the egg, it seeks food, it swims, crawls or darts about as 
able as its progenitors. Life begins without parental as- 
sistance. In this respect the reptile is more self-sufficient 

* Species of doubtful occurrence. 



H 

than most birds and all mammals. Reptiles differ other- 
wise from Batrachia in having scales, scutes or plates in- 
stead of a naked skin, though to this there are a few excep- 
tions. The skeleton is more developed and the bones are 
stronger. 

From Birds, on the other hand, they now differ in having 
no feathers, in not having the power of aerial locomotion, and 
in having a far less perfect circulatory system. The heart 
is always located in the pectoral cavity; it has two auricles 
and one ventricle ; the latter is generally imperfectly di- 
vided by a septum, and on this account the venous and 
arterial blood mingles to a greater or less extent in the 
ventricle. Only in crocodiles is the septum perfect. From 
the heart three great arterial trunks emerge close together, 
sometimes from a common point and more towards the 
right side of the ventricle ; one goes to the lungs, the other 
two unite at some distance from the heart and form the 
great dorsal aorta. The right auricle receives the three 
main trunk veins in a sinus venosus, the left auricle re- 
ceives the pulmonary veins. The right side of the ventri- 
cle receives venous, the left arterial blood. Respiration is 
slow and irregular, and the blood is cold. 

Reptiles agree with birds in having perfect lungs at 
birth ; an imperfect diaphragm ; a single convex occipital 
condyle which articulates with the spinal column ; and in 
all having internal fertilization of the eggs, which are large 
and in most cases hatched outside of the parent's body by 
solar incubation, or by the heat derived from decaying 
matter in which they may have been deposited. A few are 
ovoviviparous. 

As in Birds and Mammals, the fcetus has an allantois and 
an amnion. The intestines and urogenital organs open into 
a common cloaca, as in Birds and Batrachia. Turtles have 
simple copulatory organs, in lizards and snakes they are 
paired. As in Birds the mandible consists of several dis- 
tinct pieces. The articular bone of the jaw plays upon a 
quadrate bone between the skull and the mandible. Skeletal 



i5 

differences are very great between the various orders of 
reptiles, and this is evident at a glance. 

Reptiles may have four limbs, or either two front or two 
hind limbs, or none, or they may be rudimentary, in which 
case they may be either visible or internal only. 

Though reptiles live much in dark or underground 
places, or in the water, yet as a class they need warmth 
more than all other vertebrates. Very few are found in 
the colder climates, and as distance from the tropics in- 
creases they rapidly decrease in numbers. All reptiles 
delight in sunning themselves, lying motionless in the full 
glare of the sun, as snakes and turtles do, or playing about 
with great agility like the lizards, but they are ever alert 
to possible prey or to threatening danger. All are timid 
animals. 

Walk along the edge of a pond. Here and there you will 
see little points above the water surface ; they may be 
floating chips or projecting sticks, but the vibration im- 
parted to bank and water by your step, or the sight of 
your body moving ever so' cautiously, suddenly causes 
these little points to vanish. The turtles have sought 
refuge in the mud beneath or they are swimming away 
below the surface. Remain perfectly still, and by and by 
a nose tip, and gradually a whole head, will re-appear. 
This is turned about with great caution until the whole field 
has been overlooked and all danger appears to have passed. 
Sit down near an old wall or fence and " study to be 
quiet " ; presently a pointed little head will protrude from 
between two stones or from under the bark of a stump ; 
the head carefully scans its surroundings, the little eyes 
dance about, and in a moment a bright little elf will crawl 
out and enjoy the warm light. Soon another and another 
will appear from their hiding places, and a search for in- 
sects begins or a lively game of tag will take place. One 
inconsiderate move on your part, the fall of a pebble, or 
even the sudden shadow of a bird flying overhead, and the 
lizards are gone. Such are some of the peculiarities of this 



much despised, much maligned and much persecuted class 
of animals. 

Still, of all living things reptiles are of no less impor- 
tance as vermin destroyers than birds, they are with few 
exceptions carnivorous. Lizards and snakes are of great 
value as insect and rodent eaters. Turtles act as scaven- 
gers in the water, but they are frequently destructive to fish. 

Turtles are universally used as food by man, while in 
many countries lizards and snakes, and even crocodiles, 
are eaten. Excepting the poisonous snakes, the large 
Crocodilia and a few others, reptiles are entirely harmless 
animals which should be protected instead of persecuted 
through ignorance and prejudice. Even poisonous snakes, 
with but few exceptions, are far more useful than danger- 
ous to man. In intelligence lizards outrank all others, 
whilst turtles show less of it than snakes. 

Reptiles are known from the Permian certainly, though 
there are indications of their having existed in the Carbon- 
iferous period. They reached their greatest development 
during the Cretaceous period. 

The total number of Reptile species now known is about 
4,000. 

Orders of Reptiles. 

Owing to their many structural resemblances Birds and 
Reptiles have been placed together by Huxley in the great 
group of Sauropsida. Dr. Giinther 1 divides the class Rep- 
tilia into ten orders, five of which are extinct. The other 
five, embracing but insignificant animals as compared with 
their forerunners, are : 

Crocodilia, Alligators and crocodiles. 

Rhynchocephalia, one genus and species only, the Hat- 
teria punctata of New Zealand. 

Lacertilia, Lizards. 

Ophidia, Snakes. 

Testudinata' 1 , Turtles. 

'Article "Reptiles," Encycl. Brit., Vol. 20. 

2 Giinther uses Chelonia instead of Testudinata, using the latter term for a 
subdivision of the order. 



17 

Of these orders only the last three are represented with 
us, and, omitting the Ophidia, as outside the scope of this 
paper, we now will take up the remaining two orders. 

Order Lacertilia. Lizards. 

Lizards have in common with snakes imbricated scales 
(the chameleons excepted). The vent is a cross-slit ; the 
skull bones are separate ; the jaws toothed ; the dorsal 
vertebrae and ribs are movable, not grown together as in 
the turtles. The tongue is free and projectile to a greater 
or less degree, but is not used for tactile purposes as much 
as by snakes, owing to the better eyesight of lizards. 

Lizards differ from snakes in having non-dilatable 
mouths ; they have four, two or no limbs ; a shoulder 
girdle ; long tails ; mostly three eyelids (including the so- 
called nictitating membrane), and a tympanum. A pe- 
culiarity of lizards is, that the tails in a great number of 
them are very brittle and easily snap off. This is due to the 
fact that there is a thin septum in each vertebra which 
does not ossify, the break occurring across a vertebra, not 
between two of them, as is generally supposed. Tails 
broken off can be reproduced in many species. 

The vertebrae are generally proccelus and very numer- 
ous, the transverse processes are short and rudimentary. 
There are never more than two sacral nor more than nine 
cervical vertebrae. The quadrate bone articulates with the 
skull. 

The lungs are equal in size, except in the snake-like 
forms in which the right lung is the larger, while the left 
sometimes becomes rudimentary. 

Lizards are terrestrial or arboreal in their habits, pre- 
ferring warm, dry localities, the only known exception is 
the seaweed-eating leguan of the Gallapagos Islands. 1 The 
only lizard known to be venomous is the Gila monster 
{Heloderma suspectum) of the Sonoran Region of North 
America. 

1 See Darwin, " Voyage of the Beagle." 



i8 



Lizards are more cosmopolitan than snakes and are 
found on many islands from which snakes are absent. 
They first appeared in the Jurassic period. 

At present the entire number known probably reaches 
2,000. The classification of lizards is based on skeletal and 
lingual features. Boulenger 1 arranges them into two sub- 
orders and twenty-one families. All True Lizards belong to 
one suborder, the Chameleons forming the second. Our 
local species belong to three families ; two species are 
positively known, the other is of doubtful occurrence. 

Family Scincidse. Skinks. 

Tongue covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae; tem- 
poral fossse roofed over by bone ; head regularly shielded ; 
scales smooth, underlaid by bony plates ; body fusiform 
or subcylindric ; nasal plate single, ungrooved, the nostril 
in the centre ; head usually without posterior vertical plate. 
A cosmopolitan family with over 200 species. 

Eumeces fasciatus (L.). 
Blue-tail. Scorpion. 

This species has two supra-nasal plates ; a large ear, the 
front edge of which is toothed. It has teeth on the palate 
and is quite a hard biter when carelessly handled. It grows 
to a length of 8 to 11 inches ; its color is quite variable, 
but generally dark olive, with five yellowish streaks, the 
middle one of which forks on the head ; the tail is bright 
blue, but in older specimens it becomes reddish, as well as 
the body and head, while the stripes become very dull 
or disappear. Older specimens often are called Red-heads, 
but that name applies more properly to a distinct species 
of the Southern States. 

This lizard is quite common throughout the United 
States east of the Rocky Mountains. In our vicinity it is 
not frequently seen, though by no means so very rare. It 

■ Catalogue of Lizards in the British Museum. Vol. I., London 1885. 



19 

is to be found on the bluffs of the Palisades ; on Bearfort 
Mountain at Greenwood Lake ; on the rocky bluffs of the 
Passaic River gorge at Paterson. Abbott speaks of its 
occurrence at Lake Hopatcong ; Storer in Eastern Massa- 
chusetts ; and others mention it from various nearby 
places. 

In confinement it is hardy, but can scarcely be called 
tamable, as it will use all opportunities to escape. Cap- 
ture is difficult and often can be effected only with the loss 
of its very brittle tail. It burrows in the sand or earth, 
where, too, it hibernates. A worm or a bit of fresh meat 
placed where it burrows will soon bring it to the surface, 
the sense of touch or of smell indicating the presence of 
the food. Flies, roaches and insects generally are eagerly 
eaten by it. 

Family Teidse. Teids. 

Tongue flat, elongate, ending in two long, smooth points, 
its surface covered with imbricate, scale-like papillae ; pre- 
maxillaries single ; temporal' fossae not roofed over by 
bone. A large American family. 

Cnemidophorus sexlineatus (£.). 
Six-lined Lizard. 

Tail not compressed, shields of head large, eyelids de- 
veloped, ear exposed, a double collar-fold, scales small, 
ventral plates large. Length, 6 to 9 inches. Dusky brown, 
with three yellow streaks on each side ; the spaces between 
jet black ; throat silvery ; belly blue in breeding male. 

Said to occur from Connecticut to Virginia, Wisconsin 
and Mexico ; habitat, dry, sandy places on the ground ; 
said to hunt towards evening and to be very timid (Hol- 
brook). 

As I cannot find any statement regarding its occurrence 
within our limits, it is probably very rare in this section of 
country. 



20 



Family Iguanidae. Iguanas. 

The tongue is thick, villous, almost fixed to the floor of 
the mouth and but little cleft in front. The eyelids are 
well developed ; head scales usually smaller than those on 
body. The temporal fossae are not roofed over. A large 
family, mostly American. The greater number are insec- 
tivorous. The little green fellows sold here as Florida 
" chameleons" belong to this family. . Some of the larger 
West Indian and South American species are eaten as 
great delicacies. 

Sceloporus undulatus (Daudiri). 

Common Lizard. Brown Scorpion. Swift. 
Pine Lizard. 

There is no throat fold ; a distinct tympanum ; scales 
keeled, those of the back large, mucronate, similar to lat- 
eral scales; head shields striated or wrinkled ; body de- 
pressed ; tail slender. Length, 7 inches. Greenish, bluish 
or bronzed, with dark, wavy crossbands on back. Males 
blue or green and black underneath, with a whitish cross. 
Found widely distributed in North America, preferring 
coniferous lands, where it hunts for insects under the bark 
of decaying trees and about fences. It is very quick in its 
motions and difficult to capture. There are several sub- 
species. It does not range much further east than New 
York, and is scarce hereabouts. I know of it only from 
Monmouth County, N. J. De Kay reported it from along 
the Hudson River in Dutchess and Putnam Counties, 
N. Y. According to Abbott it is very plentiful in South 
Jersey. It becomes quite tame in captivity. 

Order Testudinata. Turtles. 

The order is mainly characterized by having the two 
main axes of the body approximating in length, while the 
vertical axis is very short. The head, tail and limbs are 
all more or less protractile between the upper and lower 



enclosing shields. The upper shield is called the carapace, 
the lower the plastron. The carapace is formed by the 
coalescing of the vertebrae of the back with the much ex- 
panded and suturally united ribs, 1 and usually by an addi- 
tional series of dermal marginal bones ; this whole shield 
is overlaid by epidermal scales or plates. The plastron is 
formed by eight to eleven dermal bones which do not rep- 
resent a true sternum ; this shield, too, is covered by epi- 
dermal plates. In neither shield do the covering plates 
agree in size or arrangement with the underlying bones. 
Both shields are united in varying degree at the sides. 

The only parts of the spinal column independently mo- 
bile are the neck and tail. There are always eight cervi- 
cal, twelve dorsal and two sacral vertebrae ; the caudal 
vertebrae vary in number, but they are never numerous. 
The pelvic bones are not attached to a sacrum. The limbs 
are four, which sometimes are paddle-like. 

The toothless jaws are provided with horny cutting 
sheaths. The skull is massive, the bones united by 
sutures ; a quadrate is present. There are eyelids and 
nictitating membrane ; also a tympanum. The vent is 
never a cross-slit. The limbs, head and tail are covered 
with naked skin, usually more or less provided with scales 
or tubercles. 

The earliest remains of turtles are found in the Triassic 
formations. 

Upwards of 220 living species are now known. 

The eastern United States are quite rich in species and 
bear much resemblance in several respects to the Indian 
region. 

Turtles usually have been subdivided according to their 
habitat, into marine, fluviatile, paludine and terrestrial. 

Of the true land turtles, more properly called tortoises, 
none are found in the Northern States. Our local specie^ 
(including those of doubtful occurrence) we will now con- 
sider individually. 

1 Except in the Dermochelydidce, which see. 



22 



Family Dermochelydidse. Leathek Turtles. 

The only family of turtles in which vertebrae and ribs 
are free and not connected with the carapace proper, which 
in this case consists of a leathery integument overlying 
many small suturally united plates. Seven longitudinal 
rows of these are large and ridge-like ; the intermediary 
rows are composed of much smaller bones. The plastron 
is made up of a large, thin median plate, adjoining which 
there are a few smaller ones. The body is highest in front. 
The limbs are paddle-like, the anterior pair much the 
longer. There are no nails on the toes. 

Dermochelys coriacea ( Vandelli). 

Trunkback. Leather Turtle. 

The only species of the family is a large, heavy animal, 
growing to a length of six to eight feet. The general color 
is dark brown. It is entirely pelagic in habits and lives in 
the Atlantic Ocean, northwards as far as Massachusetts 
and Great Britain. Occasionally met with on our coast. 
It likewise occurs in the warmer parts of the other oceans. 

Family Oheloniidae. Loggerheads. 

Here the heart-shaped carapace is broad and flat, covered 
with bony plates. It is highest in front. The plastron 
consists of nine bones. The limbs are paddle-like, the feet 
scaleless, the toes bound together by the integument. The 
head is large, the jaws without tooth-like projections along 
the edge. This also is a pelagic family and comes shorev/ard 
only to deposit its eggs. As a whole the Loggerheads 
include the most valuable of the turtles for economic pur- 
poses. Tortoise shell comes from a species of this family. 

Thalassochelys caret ta (L.). 

Loggerhead. 

This large species has the plates of the carapace not im- 
bricated ; there are two nails on each foot ; the cutting 



23 

edge of the lower jaw is not serrate. It is said to grow to 
a length of six feet or more. This species is of a brown 
olive color above, the shell of not much value as " tor- 
toise." It is occasionally hooked by anglers on our shores. 
Its distribution is wide along our Atlantic coast from Mas- 
sachusetts to Brazil ; in Europe from Scotland southwards, 
as well as in the Mediterranean Sea. The flesh is not very 
palatable, but the eggs are sought for. It does not breed 
as far north as our local shores. 

Chelonia mydas (L.). 

Green Turtle. 

The carapace plates are thin and not imbricate. The 
limbs are paddle-like, with a single nail on each foot. The 
lower jaw has a cutting edge. The animal is herbivorous. 
The color of the upper parts is dusky greenish or olive. 
This turtle, which is occasionally taken on our shores, 
though only small specimens, grows to a weight of, it is 
said, a thousand pounds off the southern Florida coast. 
Its range is from Rhode Island to Brazil. On the other 
side of the Atlantic its range is said to be southward along 
the west coast of Africa, as well as northward to England. 
The breeding season lasts from April to July, when they 
lay their eggs on the Florida and West India shores. In 
addition to the food value of the flesh and eggs, the latter 
also are used for making oil. 

Family Trionychidee. Soft-shelled or River Turtles. 

Here the limbs are no longer paddle-shaped ; the feet 
are capable of free movements. The body is flat, the 
carapace not fully ossified ; along the margin of the body 
the tough covering skin is quite flexible owing to the 
absence of dermal bones. The neck and head are long 
the snout pointed and tubular. The feet are broadly 
webbed. The plastron consists of nine bones. 



• These turtles are all savage animals, capable of inflicting 
severe bites, and without doubt they are very destructive 
to fish. Their flesh and eggs are considered very eatable, 
and their capture is usually made by hook and line or by 
shooting them. Sluggish, mud-bottomed waters are pre- 
ferably their abodes. They are of very wide distribution 
and vary in size up to three feet or more. 

If any of the soft-shelled turtles occur nearby, no record 
to my knowledge has ever been made of that fact. The 
" Descriptive Catalogue of the Vertebrates of New Jersey " 
(a revision of Dr. Abbott's Catalogue of 1868), by Julius 
Nelson, 1 gives the following two as salt water turtles : 

Amy da mutica (Le S.)\ 

Leathery Turtle. 

" An occasional specimen has been met with in the 
Raritan River. None appear to be found in the Delaware- 
Occasionally seen in the Hudson." 

Aspidonectes spinifer (Le S.) . 

Common Soft-shelled Turtle. 

" Found in all the salt water rivers and creeks." 
These statements are erroneous. The Trionychidae are 
distinctly not salt water turtles, and it is very doubtful 
whether they do occur here at all. Through the Erie 
Canal one species has entered the upper Hudson River, 2 
and there is a possibility that it may also have reached the 
Delaware River by way of the Delaware and Hudson Canal. 
Of late years a few have been found in the Delaware water- 
shed. 3 



'See Final Report of the State Geologist. Vol. II., pt. 2. Trenton, 1890. 
2 Holbrook. 

3 See American Naturalist, Vol. XXVIIL, 1894, p. 889. "Trionychidae 
in New Jersey." 



25 

Family Chelydridse. Snapping Turtles. 

The shell is higher in front, sloping backwards, so that 
the body is heavy in front ; head and neck large and very 
projectile, the snout pointed, jaws hooked ; tail long, com- 
pressed, with a horny crest, alligator-like. The plastron 
is small and cross-shaped, composed of nine bones, leaving 
the limbs largely uncovered, even when drawn close to the 
body. 

Chelydra serpentina (L.). 

Common Snapping Turtle. 

This is perhaps the most widely known of all our turtles 
and grows to a size of two feet or over. General color 
dusky brown or blackish, sometimes blotched, head with 
dark spots. The iris grayish yellow, with darker lines 
radiating from the pupil. When old the back is often 
partly overgrown with algae (confervae), giving it the ap- 
pearance of a moss-grown stone or piece of tree bark. 
Smell very musky. The young are much keeled and look 
like water-soaked walnuts. A very common animal, 
ranging from Canada to Ecuador, but in the United States 
not west of the Rocky Mountains. 

It prefers soft-bottomed waters, or sloughs, where it lies 
in the mud, only the nose protruding, awaiting prey, which 
consists of every thing of an animal nature within reach. 
The jaws are very strong and capable of dangerous bites. 
A severed head will not let go its grip for a long while. 
Said to grow to a weight of over forty pounds. The meat 
is edible unless the animal is too old. Very hardy in cap- 
tivity, but dangerous to most all of its fellow captives. It 
is extremely voracious, and is said to draw ducks and geese 
under water to devour them at leisure. 

About the middle of June in this vicinity the snapping 
turtle lays from twenty to forty eggs, often quite away 
from the water. 



26 



Family Kinosternidse. Box or Musk Turtles 

Shell more elongate, rising towards the rear, so that the 
weight of the animal lies backwards of the center ; plastron 
somewhat cross-shaped, though not nearly so much as in 
the snapping turtle ; it consists of eight bones ; the front 
and sometimes also the rear part is movable. The head is 
pointed, the jaws strong, the limbs weak. 

These turtles are voracious and good scavengers, and of 
somewhat nocturnal habits. 

Kinosternon pennsylvanicum (Bosc). 
Mud Turtle. 

The two lobes of the plastron of nearly equal length, 
movable so as to shut up against the carapace, though 
when the animal becomes fat the closing can be done but 
imperfectly. The carapace of the young is but little 
keeled. Color of the shell, brown, more or less dull, the 
edges of the plastron plates lighter in color, the plates 
much striate along their inner margins. The head is dark- 
er, with light dots or stripes. Length, four inches. Oc- 
curs from New York to Florida, but is here quite rare. 
This is less of a water turtle than the others of the family 
and frequently burrows in drier ground, where it also 
hibernates. It is harmless in its habits. 

Aromochelys odoratus (Latr.). 

Musk Turtle. Stink Pot. 

In this species the rear lobe of the plastron is the 
longer ; the lobes cannot close the shell nearly as much 
as in the former species. The carapace is much keeled in 
the young and traces of the keels can be found in the 
adult ; carapace somewhat pointed in the rear. Head 
large, jaws strong. Color dusky brown or olive, with small 
and indistinct spots or markings ; lighter beneath ; neck 
with two yellow stripes. 



27 

Very abundant throughout the eastern United States as 
far west as Illinois. 

This turtle gives off a fetid, musky odor. It is a very 
voracious animal, a vicious biter, and altogether is a small 
understudy of the snapping turtle. Older specimens fre- 
quently are overgrown with confervae and plentifully cov- 
ered with small leeches. They are quite active, and when 
very small can be kept with fishes in the aquarium. They 
are slow growers and will live for years in captivity, 
apparently better than any of our other turtles. 

Family Emydidae. Pond Tuetles. 

Carapace ovate, broader behind, edge of shell more or 
less flaring out, usually less convex than in the previous 
two families ; plastron larger, more rigid, of nine bones- 
Toes more or less webbed, according to their habitat. 
Active turtles, mostly of diurnal habits. 

This family embraces the greater number of all turtles 
now living. It is subdivided according to the presence or 
absence of a movable cross-hinge on the plastron, and also 
by the aspect of the alveolar surfaces of the jaws. 1 

Malaclemmys palustris (Gmel). 
Salt-marsh Turtle. Diamond-back. Terrapin. 

Alveolar surface of the jaws broad and smooth, a deep 
groove in front ; edges of jaws smooth, upper jaw not 
notched in front ; carapace depressed, keeled in the young 
and less so in the adult ; toes short, webbed. Color 
greenish to olive, of different shades, plates of both shells 
with more or less pronounced concentric darker bands or 
lines, sometimes grooved. Length up to ten inches. 

Occurs all along our coast from Nantucket to Florida 
and Texas in salt marshes, and is said to have been found 
on the South American coast. 

1 That part of the jaw of a turtle corresponding to the part where the teeth 
sockets are developed in other reptiles. 



28 

This is apparently the only turtle (excepting the few 
really marine species) which frequents salt water. It is 
much sought for and highly valued as a delicacy, and is 
now systematically raised for market, since the wild animal 
is becoming scarce. The diamond-back is a slow breeder, 
laying only five to seven eggs about the beginning of July. 
It is occasionally found on the shores of Long and Stateii 
Islands and New Jersey. 

Pseudemys rugosa {Shaw). 

Red-bellied Terrapin. Slider. 

Alveolar surface of upper jaw divided by a longitudinal 
tuberculated ridge parallel to its margin ; jaws serrate, tip 
of upper with a hook ; carapace hardly keeled, depressed ; 
toes short, webbed. In coloration it is an exceedingly 
variable species ; dusky or blackish with irregular red 
markings above and along rim of shell ; plastron red or 
yellowish with dusky shades ; head and neck brown with 
yellow or red lines. Length, eleven inches. 

This turtle occurs in the Chesapeake and Delaware 
drainages. De Kay 1 speaks of it from near New York City. 
I have not found it. Holbrook 2 says it is generally met 
with in running water, preferably that with rocky bed. 
The slider is much used as a substitute for the real dia- 
mond-back terrapin, now that the latter turtle is becoming 
scarce. 

Chrysemys picta (Herm.). 
Painted Turtle. Mud Turtle. 

Alveolar surface of jaws narrow, the groove well marked, 
except in front ; carapace depressed, never keeled ; toes 
webbed ; upper jaw notched in front. The young are or- 
bicular in shape. Color greenish or brownish black, mar- 
gin of plates paler, with sometimes a little red, marginal 

i Op. cit. 
2 Op cit. 



2 9 

plates with much red ; plastron yellow or brownish ; legs 
and tail with red lines, head with yellow lines, neck with 
red and yellow lines. Length, eight inches. 

Eastern United States from Nova Scotia to Louisiana. 
The western species of the genus are possibly only varieties 
of this species. 

The most plentiful of our turtles, found indifferently in 
ditches, ponds, streams or swamps. It is always amusing 
to see them bask in the sun on logs, stumps or banks, in 
long rows and of all sizes, and at the least alarm drop with 
a slump, one after the other, into the water. 

Though wary when wild, they soon learn to take food 
from the fingers of their captor. They are more delicate 
than any of the other species and are kept alive over win- 
ter with difficulty unless permitted to hibernate. The 
young will frequently feed on the delicate leaves of aquatic 
plants, like sagittaria and vallisneria. 

The next genus, Chelopus, is characterized by a narrow 
alveolar surface of the jaws, a well arched carapace and 
but slightly webbed feet. There are three species here. 

Chelopus muhlenbergi (Schweigger). 

Muhlenberg's Turtle. Mud Turtle. 

Upper jaw deeply notched and arched downward ; cara- 
pace little keeled. Color brown with yellowish markings, 
plastron black with yellowish blotches, an orange spot on 
each side of the neck ; plates of back plain or concentri- 
cally grooved. Length, four and a half inches. Occurs in 
Southern New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania. It is 
usually found in restricted localities in swampy places. 

Chelopus insculptus (Le Conte). 

Wood Tortoise. 

Upper jaw deeply notched and arched downward ; head 
narrower below than above ; carapace keeled, plates 
marked with concentric grooves, as if roughly cut in wood. 



30 

Color brownish or darker, plastron lighter brownish with a 
black blotch on each plate. Length, 8 inches. Eastern 
United States, from Maine to Pennsylvania and Ohio. 

This, though given as living mostly in ponds, appears to 
be the most terrestrial of our turtles next to the Carolina 
box turtle, and is quite a good walker, raising itself well 
from the ground. It appears constantly on guard, ready 
to defend itself. 

Chelopus guttatus (Schn.). 
Speckled Tortoise. Spotted Turtle. 

Carapace not keeled, upper jaw notched but slightly. 
Black with well-defined roundish orange or yellow spots, 
which vary from sparse or almost absent to thickly scat- 
tered ; plastron yellow or flesh color, blotched with black. 
Length, four and a half inches 

New England to Pennsylvania and Indiana. Common 
both in running and stagnant water, as well as in bogs. 
This species is hardy in captivity and becomes very tame ; 
its disposition towards others is harmless. 

Emys meleagris {Shaw). 
Blanding's Turtle. 

Plastron with a movable transverse hinge across its mid- 
dle ; the lateral suture between both shells also cartilagi- 
nous ; body depressed, plastron emarginate behind ; toes 
webbed. Black, usually with yellowish spots, which be- 
come more elongate and streak-like as they reach the mar- 
gins of the plates ; plastron yellowish and black ; head and 
limbs with yellow spots and markings. The chin, lower 
jaw and neck bright yellow. The young are black and 
nearly circular. Length, eight inches. 

This animal is described as occurring from New Hamp- 
shire and Massachusetts westward to Michigan, Illinois 
and Wisconsin. Abbott * mentions it from central New 
Jersey. 

1 See "A Naturalist's Rambles about Home." 



3i 

The statements of authors concerning it are summed up 
in the words "scarce," "rare," "seldom seen," etc. 1 It is 
very closely related to Emys earopcza (Schn.) of Europe- 
Asia, and views have been expressed as to its being identi- 
cal with it. If so, no facts are known of its occurrence in 
the vast region lying between our North Central States 
and the arid region of Central Asia. A statement by 
Dumeril, that it was found in Japan, has been doubted by 
Strauch and never seems to have been further confirmed. 2 

As dealers and sailors now-a-days frequently bring over 
the European species, there is a possibility of finding stray 
specimens nearby, so that identifications must be carefully 
made to avoid mistaking the two turtles. 

Our species has a more elongate form and the carapace 
is arched considerably more than in the European species. 
The chin and jaws, too, are far more yellow in extent of 
color. The meagre descriptions of our species seem to 
indicate it as somewhat more of a terrestrial species, while 
that of the Old World is quite aquatic in its habits. 

Cistudo Carolina (L.). 
Common Box Turtle. 

Plastron with a movable tranverse hinge permitting it to 
shut both lobes tightly against the carapace, so that the 
animal is completely protected within a bony case ; the 
plastron when closed forms an obtuse angle, the point of 
the angle turned out ; the joint of carapace and plastron 
laterally is also a cartilaginous membrane ; the body is 
highly arched and the margins of the carapace flare out 
considerably, especially towards the rear. The toes are not 
webbed ; the hind feet have four toes. The young have 
large keels which are gradually absorbed with age. 

The box turtle is very variable in color. The ground is 
blackish with yellow markings, forming various patterns ; 

1 See also L. Agassiz, "Contributions to the Natural History of the U. S. 
Vols. I. and II. Boston, 1857. 

2 Op. cit. 



32 

underneath much blotched. The males have bright red 
irides, those of the females are duller in color ; the body is 
brownish or darker, with often much bright yellow or 
orange, especially on the scales of the limbs and on the 
head and neck. The box turtle is found in the United 
States from the Atlantic coast to the plains west of the 
Mississippi River. There are several closely allied species, 
or perhaps only sub-species, in the South and West, the 
chief one of which has only three toes on the rear feet.- 

The only other species of the genus Cistudo, three in 
number, occur in the Indian region. 

The box turtle is one of our most common reptiles and 
is terrestrial in its habits, often wandering a distance from 
water. It is omnivorous, but seems to subsist largely on 
vegetable matter. Some of my captives ate lettuce, straw- 
berries, and above all relished blackberries. One killed 
and ate a little brown snake. They become very tame, 
and when thirsty or desiring a bath seek the neighborhood 
of sink or faucet, and with head erect beg for water. 

The young are seldom found when of a very small size. 

Altogether our local reptilian fauna (omitting the doubt- 
ful species) is made up of — 

13 Turtles, belonging to 11 genera and 5 families ; 
2 Lizards, " " 2 " " 2 " 

15 Snakes, 1 " " 13 " " 2 

forming a total of — 

30 species, belonging to 26 genera, 9 families 
and 3 orders. 

To the north and east of our section their numbers rap- 
idly diminish, while to the south and west they greatly in- 
crease, especially in the proportional number of the 
Lizards. 

1 For the snakes see R. L. Ditmars', " The Snakes found within Fifty Miles 
of New York Citv." Abstract of the Proceedings of the Linn. Soc. of N. Y. 
No. 8. 1896. 



INDEX 



Natural His- 
10. 



Abbott, C. C, 19, 20, 
Abbott, C. G., 6. 
Accipiter cooperi, 4. 
Actias luna, 2. 
yEstrelata hasitata, 4, 
Africa, 23. 
Agassiz, L., 31. 
Ailantus Tree, 3. 
Allen, Dr. J. A., 4. 
Alligator, 16. 
American Museum of 
tory, 1, 2, 5, 7, 8, g, 
Ammodramus maritimus, 3. 

maritimus m a c g i 1 1 i- 
vraii, 3. 

maritimus peninsulse,3. 

maritimus sennetti, 3. 

nigrescens, 3. 
Amyda mutica, 13, 24. 
Antrostomus vociferus, 2. 
Ardea caerulea, 5. 

virescens, 7. 
Aromochelys odoratus, 13, 26. 
Asia, 31. 

Aspidonectes spinifer, 13, 24. 
Atlantic Ocean, 22. 
Attacus cynthia, 3. 

Bal/ENA biscayensis, 2. 
Battery Park, N. Y. City, 4. 
Bearfort Mountain, 19. 
Bedloes Island, 2. 
Bishop, Dr. L. B., 5. 
Bittern, American, 7. 
Blue-tail, 18. 
Botaurus lentiginosis, 7. 
Boulenger, G. A., 11, 18. 
Braislin, Dr. W. C, 3, 4, 5. 
Brazil, 23. 
Brewster's Warbler, 7. 

Canada, 5, 25. 

Cape Cod, Mass , 5. 

Cayuga County, N. Y., 4. 

Central Park, N. Y. City, 4. 

Chameleon, 18, 20. 

Chapman, F. M.. The Pelicans of Pel- 
ican Island, Indian River, Florida, 
3, Remarks on the Relationships 
and Distribution of the Seaside 
Finches, 3; 4, 5, The Bird Rocks 



of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 6; 7, 
Public Lecture, A Naturalist in 
Florida. 8. 
Chelonia mydas, 12, 23. 
Cheloniidae, 12, 22. 
Chelopus, 29. 

guttatus, 13, 30. 

insculptus, 13, 29. 

muhlenbergi, 13, 29. 
Chelydra serpentina, 13. 
Chelydridae, 13, 25. 
Chewink, 4. 

Chrysemys picta, 13, 28. 
Chubb, S. LL, 2, 4. 
Cistudo, 32. 

Carolina, 13, 31. 
Cnemidophorus sexlineatus, 12, 19. 
Compsothlypis americana. 8. 

nigrilor.t, 8. 
Congdon, H.W,, 4. 
Connecticut, 5, 19. 
Crocodile, 16. 
Crocodilia, 16. 
Crymophilus fulicarius, 4, 5. 
Cyanocitta cristata, 1. 

Dean, Dr. Bashford, Public Lecture, 
A Naturalist on the Pacific Coast, 9. 
DeKay, James E., 20, 28. 
Dendroica sestiva, 8. 

auduboni, 8. 

caerulescens, 8. 

coronata, 8. 

olivacea, 8. 

tigrina, 8. 
Dermochelydidse, 12, 21, 22. 
Dermochelys coriacea, 12, 22. 
Diamond-back, 27. 
Ditmars, R. L., 32. 
Dryobates villosus, 7. 
Dutchess County, N. Y., 20. 
Dutcher, William, 2, 4, 5, 7, 10. 
Dwight, Dr. J., Jr., 6, Notes on the 
Moults and Plumages of Some of 
Our Common Birds, 9; 10. 

Ecuador, 25. 
Emydidee, 13, 27. 
Emys europaea, 31. 

meleagris-, 13, 30. 
Englewood, N. J., 4, 5. 



34 



Ellsworth, William, 2. 
Eumeces fasciatus, 12, 18. 

Figgins, J. D., Notes on Birds Ob- 
served in Greenland with the Peary 
Expeditions of 1896 and 1897, 7. 

Finch, Lincoln's, 5. 
seaside, 3. 

Fire Island Light-house, 5. 

Florida, 3, 6, 20, 23, 26, 27. 

Foster, L. S., 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 10. 

Fuertes, L. A., Notes on Birds Ob- 
served in Florida in March and 
April, 1898, 6. 

Gade, Henry, 10. 
Gallapagos Islands, 17. 
Geothlypis Philadelphia, 4. 
Gila monster, 17. 
Granger, Walter W. , 10. 
Great Britain, 22. 
Greene County, N. Y., 2. 
Greenwood Lake, 19. 
Gulf Stream, 2. 
Gull, Iceland. 3. 
Gunther, A. C , II, 16. 

Harporhynchus rufus, 4, 
Harris, Francis M., 10. 
Hateria punctata, 16. 
Hawk, Cooper's, 4. 
Helinaia swainsonii, 6. 
Helme, A. H., 4. 
Helminthophila bachmani, 6. 

celata, 7. 

celata lutescens, 7. 

chrysoptera, 7. 

lawrencei, 7. 

leucobronchialis, 7. 

lucias, 7. 

peregrina, 7. 

pinus, 7. 

ruficapilla, 7. 

ruficapilla gutturalis, 
7- 

virginiae, 7. 
Helmitherus vermivorus, 5, 6. 
Heloderma suspectum, 17. 
Heron, Green, 7. 

Little Blue, 5. 
Holbrook, J. E., 11, 19, 24, 28. 
Huxley, Thomas H., 16. 

Iguana, 12, 20. 
Iguanidae, 12, 20. 
Illinois, 29, 30. 
Indiana, 30. 



Indian River, Fla., 3, 6, 

Ingersoll, Ernest, 2, A Little Biogra- 

'phy of the Whip-poor-will (Antro- 

stomus vociferus), 2. 

Japan, 31. 

Jay, Blue, 1. 

Jersey City Heights, N. J., 3. 

Johnson, F. E., Some Notes regard- 
ing the Carolina Wren (Thryothorus 
ludovicianus), 3. 

Jordon, D. S., 11. 

KlNOSTERNID/E, 13, 26. 

Kinosternon pennsylvanicum, 13, 26. 
Knight, Charles K., 9. 

Lacektii.ia, 12, 16, 17. 
Lake Hopatcong, N. I., 19. 
Lanius ludovicianus 5. 
Larus leucopterus, 3. 
Leguan, Seaweed-eating, 17. 
Leonia, N. J., 5 
Librarian, Report of, 10. 
Lizard, 1, 10, 1 1-32 

Six-lined, 19. 
Local Fauna, Committee on, 2, 6, 7. 
Loligalidae. 2. 

Long Island. N. Y., 3, 4, 28. 
Louisiana, 29. 

Maine, 30. 

Malaclemmys palustris, 13, 27. 

Mammals of North America, 1. 

Maplewood, N. J., 1. 

Marsh, Prof. O. C, 9. 

Massachusetts, 5, 19, 22, 23, 30. 

Medicine Bow, Wyo., 9. 

Mediterranean Sea, 23. 

Melospiza lincolni, 5. 

Merriam. Dr. C. Hart, Public Lec- 
ture, Protective and Directive Col- 
oration of Animals, 2. 

Mexico, 19. 

Michigan, 30. 

Microtus riparia, "5. 

Miller. W. D. W., 2, 3. 5. 

Millers Place, N. Y , 4, 5. 

Mimus polyglottos, 4. 

Mississippi Valley, 7. 

Mivart, St. George, 1 r. 

Mniotilta varia, 6. 

Mockingbird, 4. 

Monmouth County, N. J., 20. 

Mont auk Light-house, 4 

Morris. Dr. R. T., Public Lecture, 
A Naturalist in Labrador, 8. 



35 



Morrison, Mrs. Parker, 6, 
Moth, Luna, 2. 
Mouse, Meadow, 5. 

Nantucket, Mass., 27. 

Nelson, Julius, 24. 

New England, 30. 

Newfoundland, 2. 

New Hampshire, 30. 

New Haven, Conn., 5. 

New Jersey, 1, 3, 4, 5, 19, 20, 28, 29, 

30. 
Newport, R. I., 2. 
New York, 2. 3, 4, 26, 29. 
New York City, 4. 
New York Harbor, 2, 4. 
New Zealand, 16. 
North America, 1. 
North Carolina. 2. 
Nova Scotia 29. 

Oceanites oceanicus, 4. 
Ohio, 30. 

Ontario, Canada, 5. 
Ophidia, 16. 

Palisades, 19. 
Passaic River, N. J., 19. 
Paterson, N. J., 19. 
Pelican, Brown, 3. 
Pelecanu=; fuscus, 3. 
Pennsylvania, 29, 30. 
Petrel, Black-capped, 4. 

'Wilson's, 4. 
Phalarope, Red, 4, 5. 
Physalia pelagica, 2. 
Pipilo erythrophtbalmus, 4. 
Plainfield, N. J., 3, 5. 
Portland, Conn., 5. 
Portuguese Man-of-war. 2. 
Protonotaria citrea, 6. 
Pseudemys rugosa, 13, 28. 
Public Lectures, 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10. 
Putnam County, N. Y , 20. 

Raritan River, N. J., 24. 
Region, Sonoran, 17. 
Reptilia, 12, 13. 
Rhode Island, 2, 23. 
Rhynocephalia, j6. 
Rockaway Beach. N. Y., 3. 
Riker, C. B., 1, 3. 

Sage, John H , 5. 
Salamander, Cave, 2. 
Sandpiper, Buff-breasted, 5. 
Sauropsida, 16. 



Sceloporus undulatus, 12, 20. 

Scincidae, 12", 18. 

Scorpion, 18. 

Scotland, 23. 

Secretary pro tern, 2. 

Secretary, Report of, 9. 

Seneca River, N. Y., 4. 

Sherwood, W. L., 5. 

Shrike, Loggerhead, 5. 

Skinks, 12, 18. 

Slider, 28. 

Smith, Eugene, Notes on the Turtles 
and Lizards of the Vicinity of New 
York City, 1 ; The Turtles and 
Lizards Found in the Vicinity of 
New York City, 10, 11-32. 

Snake, Little Brown, 32. 

Snakes, 16, 32. 

Spelerpes longicauda, 3. 

Squids, 2. 

Staten Island, 28. 

Sterna caspia, 4. 

Stink Pot, 26. 

Strauch, Alexander, 11, 31. 

Teid^e, 12, 19. 
Teids, 12, 19. 
Tern, Caspian, 4. 
Terrapin, 27. 

Red-bellied, 28. 
Testudinata, 12, 16, 20. 
Texas, 27. 

Thalassochelys caretta, 12, 22. 
Thompson, Ernest Seton, Public 
Lecture, The Mammals of North 
America, 1 ; Notes on the Texas 
Wild Cattle, 7; Public Lecture. A 
Naturalist on the Plains, 8. 
Thrasher, Brown, 4. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus, 3. 
Tortoise, Speckled, 30. 

Wood, 29. 
Treasurer, Report of, 10. 
True, F. W., II. 
Tryngites subruficollis. 5. 
Tryonychidae, 13, 23. 
Turtle', I, T2, 16, 32. 

Blanding's, 30. 

Box. 26. 

Carolina Box, 30. 

Common Box, 31. 

Common Soft-shelled, 24. 

Green, 23. 

Leather, 12, 22. 

Leathery, 24. 

Loggerhead, 12, 22. 

Mud, 26, 28, 29. 



3« 



Turtle, Muhlenberg's, 29. 
Musk, 26. 
Painted, 28. 
Pond, 13, 27. 
River, 23. 
Salt-marsh, 27. 
Snapping. 13, 25. 
Soft-shelled, 13, 23. 
Spotted, 30. 
Trunkback, 22. 

United States, Eastern, 18, 21, 27, 29, 

30. 
Utter, H. L., 5. 

Virginia, 19. 

Warbler, Audubon's. 8. 
Bachman's, 6. 
Black and White, 6. 
Black-throated Blue, 8. 
Blue-winged, 7. 
Calaveras, 7. 
Cape May, 8. 
Golden-winged, 7. 
Hooded, 4, 5. 
Lawrence's, 7. 
Lucy's, 7. 



Wakbler, Lutescent, 7. 

Mourning, 4. 

Myrtle, 8. 

Nashville, 7 

Olive, 8. 

Orange-crowned, 7. 

Parula, 8. 

Prothonotary, 6. 

Sennett's, 8. 

Swainson's, 6. 

Tennessee, 7. 

Virginia's, 7. 

Worm-eating, 5, 6. 

Yellow, 8. 
West India, 23. 
Whale, Right, 2. 
Whip-poor-will, 2. 
Widman, Otto, 7. 
Wilsonia mitrata, 4, 5. 
Wisconsin, 30. 
Woodpecker, Hairy, 7. 
Wortman, Dr. J. L., The Evolution 
of the Camel, 8; Explorations for 
Extinct Reptiles in the Rocky 
Mountain Plateau Region, 9. 
Wren, Carolina, 3. 
Wyoming, Southern, 9. 



Officers of the Linnsean Society 

OF NEW YORK. 

1899-1900. 

President, Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Vice-President, William Dutcher. 

Secretary, ------ Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YORK. 

MARCH, 1899. 



HONORARY. 

Elliott Coues, M.D., Ph.D. - Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E, 



C. C. Abbott, M.D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 

B. H. Dutcher, M.D. 
A. K. Fisher, M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M.D. 

E. S. Gilbert. 

C. L Herrick 
Charles F. Holder. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M.D. 
Mrs. F. E. B. Latham 
Wm K. Lente. 



CORRESPONDING. 

Leverett M Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

C Hart Merriam, M.D. 

James C. Merrill, M.D. 

Harry C Oberholser. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S Roberts, M.D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

George B. Sennett. 

R W. Shufeldt, M.D. 

Ernest Seton Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, M.D. 

B. H Warren, M.D. 

S. W. Williston, M D., Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wilson. 



Resident Members of the Linuseaii Society of New York, 



Clinton G. Abbott. 
John Akhurst. 
J A. Allen, Ph.D. 

C. K. AVERILL. 

Samuel P. Avery. 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
George Strong Baxter, Jr, 
Miss Grace B. Beach. 
Daniel C. Beard. 
Gerard Beekman. 
M. H Beers. 
August Belmont. 
Charles M. Berrian. 
M. Langdon Bird. 
Louis B. Bishop, M.D. 
Eli W. Blake. 
Frank S. Bond. 
William C. Braislin, M.D. 
Jno. I. D. Bristol. 
H. C. Burton. 
William J. Cassard. 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
S. H. Chubb. 
Charles C. Clarke. 
Frederick Clarkson. 
James M. Constable. 
Charles F. Cox. 

S. D. COYKENDALL. 

Thomas Craig, 
George A. Crocker. 
Charles P. Daly, LL.D. 
Theodore L. DeVinne, 
Charles F. Dieterich. 
Raymond L. Ditmars. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
O. B. Douglas, M.D. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
R. G. Dun. 
Robert Dunlap. 
William Dutcher. 



Theodore K. Gibbs. 

Louis B. Gillet. 

E. L. Godkin. 

Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D 

Walter W. Granger. 

Isaac J. Greenwood. 

Alexander Hadden, M.D. 

William C. Harris. 

J. Camoreau Hatie. 

H. O. Havemeyer, Jr. 

J*ohn C. Havemeyer. 

A. E. Haynes. 
R. G. Hazard. 
Harold Herrick. 
Mrs. Esther Herrman. 
e. r. holden. 
Henry Holt. 
Thomas H Hubbard. 

B. Talbot B. Hyde. 

E. Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E. Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. 
Ernest Ingersoll. 

John B. Ireland. 
John Irving. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Frank Edgar Johnson. 
S. Nicholson Kane. 
Rev. A B. Kendig. 
Rudolph Keppler. 
William Kevan. 
John A. King. 
Bancel LaFarge. 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 

F. Lange, M.D. 
J. D. Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B. Lawrence. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles A. Leale, M.D. 
William P. Lemmon. 



Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. H. C. A. Leutloff. 

Robert W. Eastman, M.D. Walter S. Logan. 

Newbold Edgar. Benjamin Lord, M.D. 

William Ellsworth. Seth Low, LL.D. 

Miss E. A. Foster, Rev. Haslett McKim. 

L. S. Foster. A. J. Macdonald. 

Samuel A. French. Robert L. Maitland 



Edgar A. Mearns, M D. 
Mrs. Olive Thorne Miller. 
Waldron D. W. Miller. 
A. G. Mills. 
Robert T. Morris, M D. 
Mrs. Parker Morrison. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc. D. 
William C. Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips. 
Louis H. Porter. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
Mrs. Henry Read, 
Edward S. Renwick. 
C. B. Riker. 

William C. Rives, M.D. 
J. Hampden Robb. 
S. H, Robbins. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
William F. Sebert. 
T. G. Sellew. 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
William L. Sherwood. 
Charles Sill. 
S. T. Skidmore. 
Rev. Cornelius B. Smith. 
James Baker Smith. 
Edward R. Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H Stevens. 
George T. Stevens, M.D. 
Mason A. Stone. 
William E. Tefft. 
Samuel Thorite. 
H. L. Utter. 
Cornelius Vanderbilt. 
Clifford W. Vaughan. 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
William Wicke. 
D. O. Wickham. 
John T. Willets. 
Robert R. Willets. 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Wood. 
Lewis B. Woodruff. 
Mrs. James O. Wright. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Louis A. Zerega. M.D. 



1899-1900. No. 12. 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^AN SOCIETY 



NEW YORK, 
For the Year Ending March 13, 1900. 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday 
evenings of each month at the American Museum of Natural 
History, yytk Street and 8th Avenue, Nezv York City. 



PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

The Linnaean Society of New York. 



TRANSACTIONS. 



Transactions of the Linn^ean Society of New York, Volume I., Royal 
Octavo, 168 pp. Contents : Frontispiece — Portrait of Linnaeus. 
THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEAST- 
ERN NEW YORK. By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.D. 

General Introduction. Mammalia : Carnivora. Biographies of the Panther, 
Canada Lynx, Wild Cat, Wolf, Fox, Fisher, Marten, Least Weasel, Ermine, 
Mink, Skunk, Otter, Raccoon, Black Bear and Harbor Seal. 

IS NOT THE FISH CROW \Corvus ossifragus Wilson) A WINTER AS 
WELL AS A SUMMER RESIDENT AT THE NORTHERN LIMIT 
OF ITS RANGE? By WILLIAM BUTCHER. 

A REVIEW OF THE SUMMER BIRDS OF A PART OF THE CATSKILL 
MOUNTAINS, WITH PREFATORY REMARKS ON THE FAUNAL 
AND FLORAL FEATURES OF THE REGION. 

By EUGENE POTARD B1CKNELL. 
New York, December, 1882. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

Transactions of the Linnaean Society of New York, Volume II., 
Royal Octavo, 233 pp. Contents: Frontispiece— Plate of Bendire's Shrew. 
THE VERTEBRATES OF THE ADIRONDACK REGION, NORTHEAST- 
ERN NEW YORK. (Mammalia Concluded.) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.B. 

Contains Biographies of the Deer, Moose, and Elk ; of the Moles and Shrews 

(six species) ; the Bats (five species) ; the Squirrels (six species ) ; the Woodchuck, 

the Beaver, the Porcupine, the House and Field Rats and Mice (seven species), 

and the Hares (three species). 

DESCRIPTION OF A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES OF THE 
SORICID^E. (Atophyrax Bendirii, with a plate. ) 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAM, M.B. 
New York, August, 1884. 

Price: Paper, - $2.00. Cloth, - $3.00. 

ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Abstract of Proceedings of the Linnaean Society of New York. 



No. 1, 


for the year 


ending March 1, 1889, 8vo 


paper 


cover 


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No. 2, 


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" 27, 18 4, " 






103 pp. 


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(< 


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" 26, 18^5, - « 






41pp. 


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" 


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" 24, 1890, " 






27 pp. 


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" 


" 


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27 pp. 


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" 


<« 


" 14, 1899, " 






32 pp. 


No. 12, 


" 


(< 


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9 pp. 


Free to Members of the Society 


at the date of issue. 




Toothers, Nos. J, 2, 


3, 4 and 


12, 25 cents each. 








No. 5, 50 


cents. 


No. 


9, 50 cents. 






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cents. 


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of New 


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History, New York City. 













ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LIN NvEAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK, 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 13, 1900. 



This is the twelfth in the series of " Abstracts " published 
by the Linnaean Society of New York, and, like the preced- 
ing issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of the work 
of the Society during the year closing with the date indi- 
cated above. Papers presented before the Society, but pub- 
lished elsewhere. are given by title only, with proper refer- 
ence to place of publication. 

March 28, 1899. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and thirteen visitors present. 

Mr. Ernest Ingersoll presented extended remarks on 
" Scenery and Life in British Columbia," illustrated by 
about seventy-five lantern slides. 

April 11, 1899. — No quorum present. 

April 25, 1899. — The President in the chair. Five mem- 
bers present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster read a paper entitled " Suggestions Re- 
garding the Study of Ornithological Literature." The sub- 
ject was treated from various standpoints, and the paper 
contained copious references to topics and publications. 



Specimens of the following species were exhibited and 
discussed, viz. : Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica maculosa), 
Cerulean Warbler (D. ccerulea), Chestnut-sided Warbler 
D. pennsylvanica), Bay-breasted Warbler (D. castanea), 
Black-poll Warbler (D. striata), Blackburnian Warbler (D. 
blackburnice), Yellow- throated Warbler (D. dominica), 
Grace's Warbler (D. gracice), Black-throated Gray Warb- 
ler (D. nigrescens), Golden-cheeked Warbler (D. chryso- 
paria), Black-throated Green Warbler {D. virens), Towns- 
end's Warbler (D. townsendi), and Hermit Warbler (D. 
occidentalis). The published records of those occurring 
near New York City, as compiled by the Local Fauna Com- 
mittee of the Society, were read. 

May 9, 1899. — No quorum present. 

May 23, 1899. — The President in the chair. Five mem- 
bers and one visitor present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster presented a paper entitled " Remarks 
on the Derivation of Some Names Used in Zoology." It 
was preliminary in character, but pointed out some peculi- 
arities in our present nomenclature. 

The Warblers exhibited and discussed were Kirtland's 
Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandi), Pine Warbler (D. vigor sii), 
Palm Warbler (D. palmar um), Yellow Palm Warbler (D. 
p. hypochrysea), Prairie Warbler (D. discolor), and the 
Water-Thrushes {Genus Seiurus). 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., presented a paper entitled " Remarks 
upon Some of the April Birds of Georgia." During a re- 
cent visit to Thomasville, Georgia, extending from April 
5 to 22, 1899, he had observed about seventy species of 
birds. The country near Thomasville is rolling and cov- 
ered with pine forests. There are numerous small streams, 
but the region is a dry one with very few swamps. The 
unprecedented cold weather of the middle of February, 
with frost as far south as Miami, Florida, had stripped off 
all the foliage that ordinarily remains green during the 
winter, and in consequence new leaves were everywhere 
• sprouting in unusual abundance. The common species of 



birds to be expected at such a southern locality were pres- 
ent in considerable numbers, and all of them in full song. 
A large number of northern species that probably had win- 
tered were still lingering, and the following are of special 
interest because they were in the midst of their partial 
pre-nuptial moult, viz.: American Goldfinch {Astragali- 
nus tristis), Savanna Sparrow {Ammodramus sandwichen- 
sis savanna), Grasshopper Sparrow {A. savannarum pas- 
sertulis), White-throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia albicollis), 
Chipping Sparrow (Spizella socialis), Swamp Sparrow (Mel- 
ospiza georgiana), Palm Warbler (Dendroica palmar urn), 
and Myrtle Warbler (D. coronatd). A few Robins (Mer- 
ula migratorid) still remained, and Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) 
had begun to nest. 

Miss Grace B. Beach stated that she had identified six- 
ty-one species of birds at Dingman's Ferry, Penn., during 
the first week of May. 

October 10, 1899 — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and twenty-seven visitors present. 

Mr. J. L. Childs was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., exhibited three lantern slides of bird 
feathers, two being photographs showing feathers of the 
Bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus) at different stages of 
wear. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented a paper, illustrated by 
numerous lantern slides, entitled " Bird Studies with a 
Camera." [See Bird Studies with a Camera, i2mo., New 
York, 1900.] In the course of his remarks he stated that 
the Marsh Wren {Cistothorus palastris) had been seen by 
him to puncture the eggs of the Least Bittern (Ardetta 
exilis) the contents being subsequently swallowed by the 
Bittern on her return to the nest. 

October 24, 1899. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and seven visitors present. 

Mr. Edward W. Berry and Mr. Henry C. Carter were 
elected Resident Members of the Society. 



It was voted to omit the course of public lectures that 
have been given by the Society for several years at the 
American Museum. 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., presented a paper on the " Canadian 
Birds of August," illustrating his remarks, which were, to 
a considerable extent, on the moult of birds, by many bird- 
skins, the several plumages of the same species being 
shown. Visits during the past few years to eastern Canada 
and the maritime provinces (except Newfoundland) had 
given the speaker opportunities to observe birds there dur- 
ing every month in the year excepting January and April. 
August proved to be a specially interesting month, as it 
marks the end of the first song season and the beginning 
of moult in many species. Flocks of land birds begin to 
assemble early in July, but most species (except the Fly- 
catchers) do not migrate until the moult is virtually com- 
pleted. All of the Limicolce, however, appear to migrate 
before moulting. Large flocks of exceedingly shy adults 
collecting on the reefs much earlier than the tamer young 
birds, and departing southward earlier than they do. 

Mr. A. H. Helme stated that he had taken specimens of 
the Least Sandpiper {Tringa minutilld) on Long Island, in ' 
the autumn, which were moulting the quill feathers. 

The Secretary read a letter from Mr. John H. Sage, 
stating that he had seen five Tennessee Warblers (Helinin- 
thophila peregrind) at Portland, Conn., on May 17, 1899, 
all in full song; also that more than the usual number of 
Pigeon Hawks (Falco co lumbar ins) were passing on Octo- 
ber 9, 1899. 

Mr. William Dutcher announced that he had learned 
that the English Sparrow {Passer domes ticus) is now to be 
found in Manila, Philippine Islands. 

Mr. W. D. W. Miller reported the Alder Flycatcher 
(Empidonax trail lit alnorum) apparently summering at 
Plainfield, N. J., where he had seen a specimen on July 
19, 1899, an< 3 taken the bird, which he exhibited, on Au- 
gust 6th. 



5 

November 14, 1899. — The usual meeting was omitted, 
owing- to the absence of members at the Congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union at Philadelphia, Pa. 

November 28, 1899. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and sixteen visitors present. 

The chair announced that although the annual lecture 
course would be omitted, one lecture, volunteered by Mr 
F. M. Chapman, on " A Naturalist in Cuba," would be giv- 
en on January II, 1900. 

Mr. William Dutcher gave a talk on ' k Home Life of 
Birds Through a Camera," illustrated with many lantern 
slides, notably some of the breeding habits of the Clapper 
Rail {Rallies crepitans) taken on the eastern end of Long 
Island, and of Albatrosses [Diomedea immutabilis) on the 
Island of Laysan, Hawaiian Islands. 

December 12, 1899. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and twelve visitors present. 

Mr. C. W. Beebee was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Mr. Thomas Proctor presented a paper on " Our Che- 
wink and His Friends : a Story from an Aviary." He told 
about a young Che wink {Pipilo erytJiropJithalmus) which 
he had captured on Long Island, taken home, and reared. 
He mentioned several interesting facts concerning its de- 
velopment, the most remarkable of which related to its 
song. From the beginning of its captivity its only feath- 
ered companion was an Ortolan Bunting (Emberiza hortu- 
lana). The Chewink imitated not only the actions but the 
song of the Bunting, and this to a remarkable degree, the 
song natural to the Chewink being entirely absent. Other 
birds he had reared had always before begun with the song 
peculiar to their species 

December 26, 1899. — The President in the chair. Six 
members present. 

Mr. W. P. Lemmon presented a paper, " Notes on the 
Taking of a Duck Hawk's Nest on the Palisades," and ex- 
hibited five photographs of the locality. The nest was 



taken on April 23, 1899, and was reached by means of a 
long rope. 

January 9, 1900. — The President in the chair. Eleven 
members and twelve visitors present. 

The paper of the evening was by Drs. W. C. Rives and 
W. C. Braislin on " A Trip to the Eastern Shore of Vir- 
ginia." Two localities on the shore of Virginia were 
visited late in September, 1899, one being Chincoteague 
Island and the other Virginia Beach. Dr. Rives described 
the trip to Chincoteague Island, some of the birds observ- 
ed there being the following : Laughing Gull {Lams atri- 
cilla), Least Tern {Sterna antillarum), Semi-palmated 
Sandpiper {Ereunetes pusillns), Greater Yellow-legs {Tota- 
nus melanoleucus), Killdeer (JEgialitis vocijerd), Sparrow 
Hawk {Falco s parvenus), Bobolink {DolicJionyx oryziv- 
orus), Meadowlark {Sturnella magna), Long-billed Marsh 
Wren {Cistothorus palustris), and Olive-backed Thrush 
{Turdus ustnlatus swainsonii). A White-rumped Sand- 
piper {Tringa fuscicol 'lis) was secured, the first autumn rec- 
ord for Virginia. [Auk, Vol. XVIL, April, 1900, pp. 
172, 173.] Dr. Braislin described the trip to Virginia 
Beach, where the following birds were observed: Pied- 
billed Grebe {Podilymbus podiceps), Northern Phalarope 
{Phalaropus lobatus), Knot {Tringa canutus), Sanderling 
\Calidris arenaria), Turnstone {Arenaria inter pres), Bald 
Eagle (Halice'etus leucocepJialus), Boat-tailed Grackle (Quis- 
calus major), Pine Warbler {Dendroica vigor sii), Brown- 
headed Nuthatch (Sitta pusilla), Tufted Titmouse, {Parus 
bicolor), and Carolina Chickadee {Parus carolinensis). There 
was a notable scarcity of all species of Sparrows, and no 
Robins {Memla migrator id) were seen. 

January u, 1900. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History, by Mr. F. M. 
Chapman, entitled " A Naturalist in Cuba," with stereopti- 
con illustrations. 

January 23, 1900. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and nine visitors present. 



Mr. L. S. Quackenbush was elected a Resident Member 
of the Society. 

Upon motion of Mr. L. S. Foster, the chair appointed 
Dr. J. A. Allen and Mr. F. M. Chapman a committee to 
draft resolutions upon the death of Dr. Elliott Coues, an 
Honorary Member of the Society. 

Dr. W. C. Braislin reported having recently seen in 
Prospect Park, Brooklyn, a flock of thirty-four Crossbills 
(Loxia curvirostra minor). 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., presented a paper on " The Sequence 
of Moults and Plumages in the Ptarmigans." [Part of a 
paper on " The Moult of the North American Tetraonidce" 
(Quails, Partridges and Grouse.) Auk, Vol. XVII., Janu- 
ary and April, 1900. pp. 34-51 ; 143-166, pll. v. and vi.J 

February 13, 1900 — The President in the chair. Nine 
members and six visitors present. 

Dr. L. B. Bishop gave an extended talk on " A Summer 
in Alaska." His visit was made during the summer of 
1899, in company with two collectors from the Department 
of Agriculture. The party traveled from the Pacific Coast 
across the mountains to the head waters of the Yukon 
River, and thence down the Yukon to St. Michael's. Dr. 
Bishop's remarks, describing the localities visited and the 
species of birds observed, were illustrated by a series of 
photographs and several birdskins collected by him. 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., made some further remarks on the 
plumage of the Willow Ptarmigan, illustrated by Dr. 
Bishop's specimens. 

Dr. Bishop reported the capture of a Catbird (Galeoscop- 
tes carolinensis) at Guilford, Conn., on January 24, 1900. 

February 27, 1900. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and twelve visitors present. 

The following resolutions upon the recent death of Dr. 
Elliott Coues were adopted : 

"Resolved, That in the death of Elliott Coues, an Hon- 
orary Member of this Society, science has lost one of its 
most indefatigable promoters and ornithology an eminent 



8 



authority,, whose labors have had an important influence 
upon the advancement of our knowledge of North Ameri- 
can birds. His ' Key to North American Birds,' in its sev- 
eral editions, has been an incentive and an aid to thous- 
ands of American bird students, while his other contribu- 
tions to technical and popular ornithology and to the 
bibliography of ornithology have covered a wide field and 
been of inestimable service to his fellow-workers. In his 
death, many members of this Society recognize the loss of 
a personal friend and a valued associate. 

"Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the 
minutes of the Society, and that a copy be transmitted to 
the family of the deceased. 

" J. A. Allen, 

" Frank M. Chapman." 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., presented a paper on " The Wear of 
Feathers," illustrated by photographs and specimens. Two 
methods of wear in feathers were described, a chemical 
change and a mechanical destruction of their substance, — 
the latter being effected by contact with the grass, shrub- 
bery, etc., and by atrition of the feathers against each other. 
In the American Crossbill (Loxia curvirostra minor) and 
the Purple Finch \Carpodacus purpureas), the loss of the 
comparatively dull barbules results in a decided brighten- 
ing of the plumage as the redder barbs are laid bare. 

March 13, 1900. — Annual Meeting. The President in 
the chair. Six members present. 

The Secretary presented his Annual Report, as follows: 
" There have been held by the Society during the year 
thirteen meetings. The total attendance has been 221, of 
which 103 were members and 118 visitors, making an aver- 
age attendance of 17. The largest attendance at any one 
meeting was 37 — 10 members and 27 visitors. 

" Five Resident Members have been elected, three have 

resigned, and seven have been dropped. The Society has 

ost by death, the Honorable Charles P. Daly and Mr. 






Cornelius Vanderbilt, Resident Members, and Dr. Elliott 
Coues, an Honorary Member. The membership at pres- 
ent is, Resident, 154; Corresponding, 35 ; Honorary, 1 — a 
total of 190. 

" Seventeen papers have been presented before the So- 
ciety, on the following subjects : Fourteen on Ornithology, 
two on General Zoology, and one on Herpetology. 

" The usual annual lecture course was omitted and in its 
place one lecture was given by Mr. F. M. Chapman at the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

" The Society has issued ' Abstract of Proceedings No. 
1 1,' to which was appended 'The Turtles and Lizards of 
the Vicinity of New York City,' by Mr. Eugene Smith, and 
an index, making a pamphlet of thirty-six pages. Copies 
have been distributed to members and to the exchanges. 

44 The Library has been enriched by about 200 pamph- 
lets, chiefly exchanges." 

The Treasurer presented his Annual Report, showing a 
balance on hand of $582.94. 

The following officers were re-elected for the ensuing 
year : 

President, Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Vice-President, Mr. William Dutcher. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter W. Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

Mr. William Dutcher spoke briefly upon bird protection, 
dwelling particularly upon the Gulls and Terns of the 
Atlantic seaboard. 



INDEX. 



yEgialitis vocifera, 6. 

Alaska, 7. 

Albatross, 5. 

Allen. J. A., 7, 8. 

American Museum of Natural His- 
tory, 6, 9. 

Ammod ramus sandwichensis savan- 
na, 3. 
savannarum passercu- 
lis, 3. 

Ardetta exilis, 3. 

Arenaria interpres, 6. 

Astragalinus tristis, 3. 

Beach, Grace B., 3. 

Beebee, C. W., 5. 

Berry, Edward W., 3. 

Bishop, L. B., A Summer in Alaska, 

.7; 7- 

Bittern, Least, 3. 

Bluebird, 3. 

Bobolink, 3, 6. 

Braislin. W. C, A Trip to the East- 
ern Shore of Virginia (with W. C. 
Rives), 6 ; 7. 

Brooklyn, N. Y., 7. 

Bunting, Ortolan, 5. 

Calidris arenaria, 6. 

Canada, Eastern, 4. 

Carpodacus purpureus, 8. 

Carter, Henry C., 3. 

Catbird, 7. 

Chapman, F. M., Bird Studies with a 
Camera, 3 ; 5. Public Lecture, A 
Naturalist in Cuba, 6 ; 7, 8. 

Chewink, 5. 

Chickadee, Carolina, 6. 

Childs, J. L., 3. 

Chincoteague Island, 6. 

Cistothorus palustris, 3, 6. 

Connecticut, 4. 

Coues, Elliott, Resolutions on the 
death of, 7. 

Crossbill, 7. 

American, 8. 



Dendroica blackburniae, 2. 
- caerulea, 2. 
castanea, 2. 
chrysoparia, 2. 
coronata, 3. 
discolor, 2. 
dominica, 2 
graciae, 2. 
kirtlandi, 2. 
maculosa, 2. 
nigrescens, 2. 
occidentalis, 2. 
palmarum, 2, 3. 
palmarum hypochrysea 

2. 
pennsylvanica, 2. 
striata, 2. 
townsendi, 2. 
vigorsii, 2, 6. 
virens, 2. 
Dingman's Ferry, Penn., 3. 
Diomedea immutabilis, 5. 
Dolichonyx oryzivorus, 3, 6. 
Dutcher, William, 4, Home Life of 

Birds Through a Camera, 5; 9. 
Dwight, J., Jr., Remarks upon Some 
of the April Birds of Georgia. 2 ; 3. 
Canadian Birds of August, 4. The 
Sequence of Moults and Plumages 
in the Ptarmigns, 7. The Wear 
of Feathers, 8 ; 9. 

Eagle, Bald, 6. 
Emberiza hortulana, 5. 
Empidonax traillii alnorum, 4. 
Ereunetes pusillus, 6. 

Falco columbarius, 4. 
sparverius, 6. 

Finch, Purple, 8. 

Florida, 2. 

Flycatcher, Alder, 4. 

Flycatchers, 4. 

Foster, L. S., Suggestions Regarding 
the Study of Ornithological Litera- 
ture, 1. Remarks on the Deriva- 



tion of Some Names used in Zool- 
ogy, 2 ; 7, 9- 

Galeoscoptes, carolinensis, 7, 
Georgia, 2. 

Goldfinch, American, 3. 
Grackle, Boat-tailed, 6. 
Granger, Walter W., 9. 
Grebe, Pied-billed, 6. 
Guilford, Conn., 7. 
Gull, Laughing, 6. 

Halleetus leucocephalus, 6. 
Hawaiian Islands, 5. 
Hawk, Duck, 5. 

Pigeon, 4. 

Sparrow, 6. 
Helme, A. H., 4. 
Helminthophila peregrina, 4. 

Ingersoll, Ernest, Scenery and Life 
in British Columbia, I. 

Killdeer, 6. 
Knot, 6. 

Larus atricilla, 6. 

Laysan, Island of, H. I., 5. 

Lemmion, W. P., Notes on the Tak- 
ing of a Duck Hawk's Nest on the 
Palisades, 5. 

Library, 9. 

Limicola?, 4. 

Local Fauna, Committee on, 2. 

Long Island, N. Y., 4, 5, 7. 

Loxia curvirostra minor, 7, 8. 

Manila, P. I., 4. 
Meadowlark, 6. 
Melospiza georgiana, 3. 
Merula migratoria, 3, 6. 
Miami. Fla., 2. 
Miller, W. D. W., 4. 

Newfoundland, 4. 
New Jersey, 4. 
New York, 4. 5, 7. 
Nuthatch, Brown-headed, 6. 

Parus bicolor, 6. 

carolinensis, 6. 
Passer domesticus, 4. 
Pennsylvania, 3. 
Phalarope, Northern, 6. 
Phalaropus lobatus, 6. 
Philippine Islands, 4. 



Pipilo erythrophthalmus, 5. 

Plainfield, N. J., 4. 

Podilymbus podiceps, 6. 

Portland, Conn., 4. 

Proctor, Thomas, Our Chewink and 
His Friends : a Story from an Avi- 
ary, 5; 

Prospect Park, Brooklyn, N. Y., 7. 

Ptarmigan, Willow, 7. 

Public Lectures, 4, 5, 6, 9. 

QUACKENBUSH, L. S. , 7. 

Quiscalus major, 6. 

Rail, Clapper, 5. 

Rallus crepitans, 5. 

Rives, W. C, A Trip to the East- 
ern Shore of Virginia (with W. 
C. Braislin), (: . 

Robin, 3, 6. 

Sage, John H., 4. 
Saint Michael's, Alaska, 7. 
Sanderling, 6. 
Sandpiper, Least, 4. 

Semipalmated, 6. 
White-rumped, 6. 
Secretary, Report of, 8. 
'Seiurus, 2. 
Sialia sialis, 3. 
Sitta pusilla, 6. 
Sparrow, Chipping, 3. 

English, 4. 

Grasshopper, 3. 

Savanna, 3. 

Swam]), 3. 

White-throated, 3. 
Spizella socialis, 3. 
Sterna antillarum, 6. 
Sturnella magna, 6. 

Tern, Least, 6. 
Thomasville, Ga. , 2. 
Thrush, Olive-backed, 6. 
Titmouse, Tufted, 6. 
Totanus melanoleucus, 6. 
Treasurer, Report of, 9. 
Tringa canutus, 6. 

fuscicollis, 6. 

minutilla, 4. 
Turdus ustulatus swainsonii, 6. 
Turnstone, 6. 

Virginia, 6. 

Virginia Beach, Va., 6. 



Warbler, Cerulean, 2. 

Chestnut-sided, 2. 
Bay-breasted, 2. 
Blackburnian, 2. 
Blackpoll, 2. 
Black-throated Gray, 2. 
Black-throated Green, 2. 
Golden cheeked, 2. 
Grace's, 2. 
Hermit, 2. 
Kirtland's, 2. 
Magnolia, 2. 
Myrtle, 3. 
Palm, 2, 3. 



Pine, 2, 6. 

Prairie, 2. 

Tennessee, 4. 

Townsend's, 2. 

Yellow Palm, 2. 

Yellow-throated, 
Water- Thrushes, 2. 
Wren, Long-billed Marsh, 6. 
Marsh, 3. 

Yellow-legs, Greater, 6. 
Yukon River, Alaska, 7. 

Zonotrichia albicollis, 3.. 



Officers of the Linnaean Society 

OF NEW YORK. 

1900-1901. 

President, Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 

Vice-President, William Dutcher, 

Secretary, ...... Walter W. Granger, 

Treasurer, L. S. Foster. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YORK. 

MARCH, 1900. 



HONORARY. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R S. E. 



CORRESPONDING. 



C. C. Abbott, M.D. 
G S. Agersborg. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 
B. H Dutcher M.D. 
A. K. Fisher, M D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M D. 
E S Gilbert. 
C L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 
F W. Langdon, M.D. 
Mrs F. E. B. Latham. 



Wm. K. Lente. 

Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

C. Hart Merriam, M.D. 

James C. lVJerrill, M.D. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

C. J Pennock. 

Thomas S Roberts, M.D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H Sage. 

R. W. Shufeldt, M.D. 

Ernest Seton Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, M.D. 

B. H. Warren, M.D. 

S W.Williston,M.D.,Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wilson. 



Resident Members of the Liimsean Society of New York, 



Clinton G. Abbott. 
John Akhurst. 
J. A. Allen, Ph.D. 

C. K. AVERILL. 

Samuel P. Avery. 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
George Strong Baxter, Jr. 
Miss Grace B. Beach. 
Daniel C. Beard. 
C. W. Beebee. 
Gerard Beekman. 
M. H Beers. 
August Belmont. 
Charles M. Berrian. 
Edward W. Berry. 
M. Langdon Bird. 
Louis B. Bishop, M.D. 
Eli W. Blake. 
Frank S. Bond. 



Samuel A. French. 
Theodore K. Gibbs. 
Louis B. Gillet. 
E. L. Godkin. 



Edgar A. Mearns, M D. 
Mrs. Olive Thorne Millei 
Waldron D. W. Miller. 
A. G. Mills. 



Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. Robert T. Morris, M.D. 



Walter W. Granger. 

Isaac J. Greenwood. 

Alexander Hadden, M.D. 

William C. Harris. 

J; Camoreau Hatie. 

H. O. Havemeyer, Jr. 

John C Havemeyer. 

A. E. Haynes. 

R. G. Hazard. 

Harold Herrick. 

Mrs. Esther Herrman. 

E. R. Holden. 

Henry Holt. 

Thomas H Hubbard. 



William C. Braislin, M.D. B. Talbot B. Hyde. 



Jno. I. D. Bristol. 
H. C. Burton. 
William J. Cassard. 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Henry C Carter. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
J. L. Childs. 
S. H. Chubb. 
Charles C. Clarke. 
Frederick Clarkson. 
Charles F. Cox. 

S. D. COYKENDALL. 

Thomas Craig. 
George A. Crocker. 
Theodore L. DeVinne. 
Charles F. Dieterich. 
Raymond L Ditmars. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
O. B. Douglas, M.D. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
William Dutcher. 



E. Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E Hyde, Jr. 
John B. Ireland. 

John Irving. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Frank Edgar Johnson. 
S. Nicholson Kane. 
Rev. A. B. Kendig. 
Rudolph Keppler, 
William Kevan. 
Bancel LaFarge 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 

F. Lange, M.D. 
J. D. Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B Lawrence. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles A. LealE, M.D. 
William P Lemmon. 

H. C. A. Leutloff. 



Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. Walter S. Logan. 
Robert W. Eastman, M.D. Benjamin Lord, M.D. 
Newbold Edgar. 
William Ellsworth. 
Miss E. A. Foster, 
L. S. Foster. 



Seth Low, LL.D. 
Rev. Haslett McKim. 
A. J. Macdonald. 
Robert L. Maitland 



Mrs. Parker Morrison. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc. D. 
William C. Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips. 
Louis H. Porter. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
l. s. quackenbush. 
Mrs. Henry Read. 
Edward S. Renwick, 
C. B. Riker. 

William C Rives, M.D. 
J. Hampden Robb. 
S. H. Robbins. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
William F. Sebert. 
T. G. Sellew. 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
William L. Sherwood. 
Charles Sill. 
S. T. Skidmore. 
Rev. Cornelius B. Smith, 
James Baker Smith. 
Edward R, Squibb, M.D. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H Stevens. 
George T. Stevens, M.D 
Mason A. Stone. 
William E. Tefft. 
Samuel Thorne. 
H. L. Utter. 
Clifford W. Vaughan. 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
William Wicke. 
D. O Wickham. 
John T. Willets. 
Robert R. Willets. 
Mrs. Cynthia A Wood. 
Lewis B. Woodruff. 
Mrs. James O. Wright. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Louis A. Zerega. M.D. 



L. S. Foster, Printer, New York. 






1900-1902 Nos. 13-14 



ABSTRACT 



OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 



LINN^EAN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK 
For the Year ending March 12, 1901 

. AND 

For the Year ending March 11, 1902 

Containing 

Notes on the Mammals of Long Island, N. Y., By Arthur H. Helme 

The Mammals of Westchester County, N. Y., . By John Rowley 

Some Food Birds of the Eskimos of North- 
western Greenland By J. D. Figgins 



The Society meets on the second and fourth Tuesday evenings 
of each month at the American Museum of Natural History, 
77 th Street and 8th Avenue, New York City. 






PUBLICATIONS 



OF 



The Linnaean Society of New York 



TRANSACTIONS. 

Volume I, 1882, Royal Octavo, 168 pages. Price in paper, $2.00 ; cloth $3.00. 

Contents : 

Frontispiece. — Portrait of Linnaeus. 

The Vertebrates of the Adirondack Region, Northeastern 
New York. First Instalment. By CLINTON HART MERRIAH* M. D. 

Is not the Fish Crow {Corvus ossifragus Wilson) a Winter as 
well as a Summer Resident at the Northern Limit of its 
RANGE? By WILLIAI1 DUTCHER. 

A Review of the Summer Birds of a Part of the Catskill 
Mountains, with Prefatory Remarks on the Faunal and 
Floral Features of the Region. By EUGENE PINTARD BICKNELL. 



Volume II, 1884, Royal Octavo, 233 pages. Price in paper, $2.00 ; cloth $3.00. 

Contents : 

Frontispiece. — Plate of Benlire's Shrew. 

The Vertebrates of the Adirondack Region, Northeastern 
New York. Second Instalment, concluding the Mammalia. 

By CLINTON HART MERRIAH, M. D. 

A New Genus and Species of the Soricid^e. {Atophyrax Bendirii 
Merriam.) By CLINTON HART MERRIAfl, M. D. 



ABSTRACT OF PROCEEDINGS. 



Octavo, paper covers. 



for the year ending March 1, 1S89 

" 7, 1890 
u 



No. 1, 
No. 2, 
No. 3, 
No. 4, 
No. 5, 
No. 6, 
No. 7, 
No. 8, 
No. 9, 
No. 10, 
No. n, 
No. 12, 
No. 13, 
No. 14, 
Free to Members of the Society at the date of issue 



9 pages, 25 cents. 



6, 1891. 

2, 1892, 8 

1, 1893, 4i 

27, 1894, 103 

26, 1895, 4i 

24, 1896, 27 

9> 1897, 56 

8, 1898, 27 

14, 1899, 32 

13, 1900, 9 

12, i9oi,i 

11, 1902, s' 



25 

25 
25 

So 
75 
50 
So 
So 
50 
50 
25 

50 



For any information concerning the publications, address the Secretary of 
The Linnvean Society of New York, care of American Museum of Natural 
History, New York City. 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK, 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH 12, 1901. 



This is the thirteenth in jthe series of " Abstracts " pub- 
lished by the Linnsean Society of New York, and, like the 
preceding issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of the 
work of the Society during the year closing with the date 
indicated above. Papers presented before the Society, but 
published elsewhere are given by title only, with proper refer- 
ence to place of publication. 

March 27, 1900. — The President in the chair. Ten mem- 
bers and twenty-one visitors present. 

Upon motion of Mr. Wm. Dutcher the Committee appointed 
by the Chair to draft resolutions on the death of Dr. Elliott 
Coues was retained and empowered to draw up resolutions 
on the death of Mr. Geo. B. Sennett, a Corresponding Mem- 
ber of the Society. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper entitled "The Care 
of Captive Snakes." He spoke of his early experience with 
snakes and of the private collection which he owned previous 
to his taking charge of the Reptile House at the Bronx 



Zoological Park. Since then he had had exceptional 
opportunities for studying live snakes and he mentioned 
many interesting facts concerning those now in the Park 
collection, chiefly in regard to their food habits. He placed 
on exhibition the following species, speaking briefly on each, 
— a King Snake (Lampropeltis getulus) remarkable as being 
immune to the poisons of other snakes; a Pine Snake 
(Pituophis melanoleueus) which feeds on duck's eggs swal- 
lowed entire and broken afterward by bending the body ; a 
Corn Snake (Callopeltis guttatus), whose food consists prin- 
cipally of gray rats; a Gopher Snake (Comprosoma corals) 
which is omnivorous ; a Black-banded Rattlesnake ( Crotalus 
horridus) from Biltmore, North Carolina; and a young Boa 
Constrictor, one of a brood of sixty-four born at the Washing- 
ton Zoological Garden, which feeds on trapped mice and 
sparrows. 

April 10, 1900. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and five visitors present. 

The following resolutions upon the death of Mr. Geo. B. 
Sennett were adopted : 

" Resolved, That this Society has learned, with deep regret, 
of the death of Mr. Geo. B. Sennett, at Youngstown, Ohio, 
on the 18th of March, 1900. From 1887 to 1889 Mr. 
Sennett was President of this Society and for a number of 
years, while he resided in this city, was one of its most earnest 
supporters, contributing greatly to its scientific activity. He 
was an enthusiastic ornithologist and his work on Texas birds, 
both in the field and in museum, resulted in greatly advancing 
our knowledge of the ornithology of that state. His genial 
temperament, his conscientious devotion to duty and his keen 
interest in the welfare of this Society render his loss one to 
be deeply regretted, not only as that of a personal friend to 
many of the members but as a loss to ornithology to which 
he was fondly expecting to devote much of his time in future 
years. 



" Resolved, That this minute be spread upon the records 
of the Society and a copy be transmitted to his widow, who 
was'always his devoted companion and deeply interested in 
his scientific work. 

J. A. Allen, 

Frank M. Chapman." 

Mr. Arthur H. Helme presented " Notes on the Mammals 
of Long Island, New York." [Published in full at p. 19 this 
Abstract.] Mr. William Dutcher stated that he had not found 
the Pine Mouse (Microtus pinetorum) at Montauk Point but 
had seen the Harbor Seal (Plioca vitulina) in the ocean near 
there. 

Dr. J. Dwight, Jr., spoke of the schools of White Porpoises 
QDelphinapterus leucas) he had seen in the Gulf of St. 
Lawrence and of the porpoise oil industry. 

Mr. Thomas Proctor told of the destruction of young birds 
and birds' eggs in Prospect Park, Brooklyn, by the Gray 
Squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis leucotis'). 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher made extended remarks concerning bird 
protection ; speaking of the recently passed New York law, 
the persecution of gulls and terns and the efforts by the 
committees of the American Ornithologists' Union and of 
the Audubon Societies. 

April 24, 1900. — The President in the chair. Five mem- 
bers and five visitors present. 

Mr. L. S. Foster reported that the resolutions on the death 
of Mr. Geo. B. Sennett had been transmitted to the widow of 
the deceased. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented " Notes on Some Local Fishes 
and Batrachians." The notes consisted of a list, with anno- 
tations, of ten species of batrachians and fishes either new 
to the vicinity of New York or before reported as of doubt- 
ful occurrence. 

May 8, 1900. — No meeting. Through a misunderstanding 
no room for the evening was available at the Museum. 



May 22, 1900. — The President in the chair. Six members 
and twelve visitors present. 

Miss E. G. Foster read a paper entitled "The Birds of 
Tennyson's Poems." She said that there were mentioned in 
Tennyson's works sixty-three species of which she had identi- 
fied fifty-one. These were enumerated and several quotations 
referring to birds were read. 

Mr. Geo. K. Cherrie presented " Notes on Bird Life along 
the Orinoco River." Arriving at the mouth of the river in 
September, 1897, Mr. Cherrie spent eighteen months in col- 
lecting birds and studying bird life at various points between 
the mouth and head waters. The following species of North 
American birds were observed there as winter visitors, Greater 
Yellow-legs (Totanus melanoleucus), Yellow-legs (Totanus 
flavipes), Solitary Sandpiper (Totanus solitarius), Whip-poor- 
will (Antrostomus vociferus), Nighthawk (Chordeiles virgin- 
ianus), Black-billed Cuckoo (Coccyzus erythrophthalmus), 
Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia hypogcea), American 
Redstart {Setopliaga ruticilla), Black-poll Warbler (Dendroica 
striata), Yellow Warbler (Dendroica ozstiva) and Summer 
Tanager (Piranga rubra). 

October 9, 1900. — The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers and thirty-two visitors present. 

Mr. F. M. Chapman presented "Bird Studies with a 
Camera." Illustrated by lantern slides. 

October 23, 1900. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and six visitors present. 

Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., presented a paper entitled " The 
Moult of the North American Shore Birds (Limicolai)^ 
[Published in Auk, Vol. XVII, 1900, pp. 368-385.] 

Dr. L. B. Bishop gave some of his experiences with the 
Limicolos in the West and showed that the Killdeer (^gialitis 
vocifera) began to moult on its breeding ground as shown by 
the condition of the primaries of a specimen exhibited. He 
also spoke of the spring migration of 1900 at New Haven, 



Conn., as being remarkable for the great numbers of birds 
passing. At one epoch a strong north wind had retarded the 
movement. He reported the capture of Lincoln's Sparrow 
(Melospiza lincolnii) on May 18, 1900. His experience had 
led him to conclude that some two hundred and fifty pairs of 
the Blue-winged Warbler (Helminthophila pinus) had bred in 
the spring of 1900 near New Haven. He exhibited a speci- 
men of Lawrence's Warbler (H. lawrencei) taken in the spring 
which is probably unique as showing, in very marked degree, 
the characters of both H. pinus and H. chrysoptera. His 
remarks on the fall migration at New Haven were interesting ; 
the hawks, it seems, fly due west; of the smaller birds, 
Robins, thrushes and Flickers fly northwest and the spar- 
rows, warblers, etc., due north. 

November 13,1900. — The regular meeting was omitted 
owing to the absence of many members at the Eighteenth 
Congress of the American Ornithologists' Union at Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

November 27, 1900. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and seventeen visitors present. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher read a paper entitled " With the Sea- 
birds on the Maine Coast," illustrated with lantern slides. 
The paper gave many facts concerning bird protection, mainly 
those connected with the expenditures of the Thayer Fund 
for the protection of gulls. Excellent lantern slides of coast 
scenery and sea-bird life were shown. 

December 11, 1900. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and four visitors present. 

Mr. W. S. Wallace was elected a Resident Member of the 
Society. 

Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr., presented a paper entitled " The 
Sequence of Moults and Plumages of the Laridce (Gulls and 
Terns)." [Published in Auk, Vol. XVIII, 1901, pp. 49-63.] 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher spoke of the extremely early stage at 
which young Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) are able to fly. 



Dr. L. B. Bishop recorded the capture, Dec. 3, 1900, of a 

European Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) at New Haven, Conn., 
the first record of this species for Connecticut. 

December 25, 1900. — The usual meeting was omitted on 
account of its being Christmas night. 

January 8, 1900. — The President in the chair. Five 
members and two visitors present. 

Dr. L. B. Bishop exhibited the folio whig interesting bird- 
skins ; three specimens of the Greater Redpoll (Acanthis 
linaria rostrata) from the collection of Dr. Wm. H. Hotch- 
kiss, New Haven, Conn., taken at that place, Dec. 12, 1878, 
a new record for the State; an English Sparrow {Passer 
domestieus), £, juv. taken at New Haven, Conn., Dec. 10, 
1900, with the lower mandible destroyed in some manner so 
that the upper had abnormally developed, due to the peculiar 
scraping movement employed by the bird in its efforts to 
obtain food ; and an albinistic specimen of the Junco (Junco 
hyemalis), juv., New Haven, Conn., Dec. 21, 1900. 

He also spoke of a brood of young Red-shouldered Hawks 
(Buteo lineatus) taken from a nest near New Haven when a 
few days old and kept for some time in captivity. They 
were fed entirely upon fresh meat, without bone, and in each 
one an unmistakable case of rachitis or " rickets " was devel- 
oped, resulting in their death. Photographs taken at various 
stages of their growth, were shown, also a deformed humerus 
of one of the birds. Dr. Bishop thought that the disease was 
caused by the absence of lime salts in the food given them. 

January 22, 1901. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and four visitors present. 

It was voted to give a course of two lectures the coming 
season, the entire cost not to exceed $60. The matter of 
lectures, dates and subjects was referred to the Lecture Com- 
mittee and the Secretary instructed to notify the Chairman of 
that Committee of the action taken. 

Dr. J. A. Allen presented " The Musk-Oxen of Arctic 



America and Greenland." [Published in Bull. Am. Mus. 
Nat, Hist., Vol. XIV, 1901, pp. 69-86, pll. xii-xvii and figg. 
in text.] He exhibited skulls of two distinct species of 
Musk-Oxen ; one, the common species from the Hudson Bay 
country ; the other from western Greenland, collected by one 
of the Peary expeditions and representing a new species. 

February 12, 1902. — The President in the chair. Eight 
members and fourteen visitors present. 

The Lecture Committee reported that the committee had 
arranged for two illustrated lectures to be given at the 
American Museum: one on Feb. 21st., 1901, by Prof. C. L. 
Bristol; the other on Feb. 28th, 1901, by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper entitled " Collecting 
Snakes in South Carolina." Mr. Ditmar's talk treated of a 
collecting trip made to South Carolina during the summer of 
1900 in the interests of the New York Zoological Society. 
He spoke of the different species of snakes met with, of their 
habits and of the various methods employed in their capture. 
He exhibited specimens of thirteen of the species obtained. 

February 21, 1901. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History, by Prof. C. L. 
Bristol, entitled " The Sea-gardens of Bermuda," with stere- 
opticon illustrations. 

February 26, 1901. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and four visitors present. 

Prof. Herman C. Bum pus was elected a Resident Member 
of the Society. 

Mr. John Rowley presented a paper entitled " The Mam- 
mals of West Chester County, New York." [Published in 
full at p. 31, this Abstract]. 

February 28, 1901. — Public lecture in the lecture hall of 
the American Museum of Natural History by Dr. C. Hart 
Merriam, entitled " A Naturalist on the Coast of Alaska," 
with stereopticon illustrations. 



March 12, 1901. — Annual meeting. The President in the 
chair. Ten members and seven visitors present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report, as follows: 
" The Society has held during the year ending this date thir- 
teen meetings. On May 8th no meeting was held through 
the failure of the Museum authorities to provide a meeting 
place ; the first meeting in November was abandoned on 
account of conflicting with the American Ornithologists' 
Union Congress at Cambridge, Mass., and the second meeting 
in December was also abandoned, falling as it did upon 
Christmas night. 

The total attendance at the meetings has been 206, of which 
103 were members and 118 visitors, — an average attendance 
at each meeting of 16. The largest attendance was on Oct. 
9th, when 7 members and 32 visitors were present. 

Two resident members have been elected and one has 
resigned. The Society has lost by death Mr. Frederick Clark- 
son, Mr. James M. Constable, Mr. John C. King and Mr. 
Edward B. Squibb, all resident members, also Mr. Geo. B. 
Sennett, a corresponding member. The membership at 
present stands, Resident, 150 ; Corresponding, 34 ; Hon- 
orary, 1 — a total of 185. 

There have been fourteen papers presented before the Soci- 
ety, one half of these being upon ornithology, the others upon 
herpetology, mammalogy and ichthyology. 

The annual lecture course comprised two lectures given at 
the American Museum of Natural History in February. 
Both were well attended. 

Abstract of Proceedings No. 12 has been issued by the Soci- 
ety and copies distributed to members and exchanges. 

The Library has been enriched by 200 pamphlets, mostly 
exchanges. 

The Treasurer presented his annual report showing a 
balance on hand of $846.91. 

The Chair appointed as a committee to audit the Treasurer's 
report, Dr. J. A. Allen and Mr. F. M. Chapman. 



The following officers were re-elected for the ensuing year : 

President, Dr. Jonathan Dwight, Jr. 

Vice-President, Mr. William Dutcher. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. L. S. Foster. 

The Chair appointed the following standing committees for 
the ensuing year : 

Publication, J. A. Allen ; Walter Granger. 

Finance, William Dutcher; J. A. Allen; L. S. Foster; 
H. C. Bumpus. 

Nominations, F. M. Chapman; William Dutcher; L. S. 
Foster; Walter Granger. 

Papers, Walter Granger ; C. W. Beebe ; R. L. Ditmars ; 
L. H. Chubb; W. D. W. Miller. 

Lectures, F. M. Chapman ; J. A. Allen ; L. S. Foster. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented an extended paper entitled 
" The Making and Care of Aquaria." 



ABSTRACT 

OF THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE 

LINN^AN SOCIETY 

OF 

NEW YORK, 

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MARCH n, 1902. 



This is the fourteenth in the series of " Abstracts " pub- 
lished by the Linnsean Society of New York, and, like the 
preceding issues, is prepared mainly as a brief review of the 
work of the Society during the year closing with the date 
indicated above. Papers presented before the Society, but 
published elsewhere are given by title only, with proper 
reference to place of publication. 

March 26, 1901. — The President in the chair. Six mem- 
bers and one visitor present. 

Owing to the small attendance, the announced paper, " A 
Summer's Study in Nova Scotian Biology" by Mr. C. W. 
Beebe was postponed. Mr. Beebe gave, however, a short 
informal talk on the birds met with in Nova Scotia. 

Dr. L. B. Bishop gave the following records of birds taken 
very late in the season in Connecticut ; White-throated Spar- 
row (Zonotrichia albieollis) at Guilford, Dec. 19, 1900 ; Whi- 
ter Wren (Troglodytes hiemalis) at Guilford, Jan. 4, 1901 ; 
Field Sparrow (Spizella pusilla) at New Haven, Jan. 26, 
1901. 



II 

April 9, 1901. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and seventeen visitors present. 

Dr. C. Hart Merriam was elected an Honorary Member and 
Mr. Millet F. Thompson was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

The paper of the evening entitled " A Summer's Study in 
Nova Scotian Biology," was read by Mr. C. W. Beebe. His 
observations, made in the Bay of Fundy region, covered a 
period of two or three seasons and related to marine as Avell 
as bird and mammal life. He exhibited a large number of 
fine lantern slides illustrating his work. 

Mr. William Dutcher called attention to the cruel 
slaughter of pigeons at the recent trap shooting matches in 
the vicinity of New York and offered the following resolu- 
tion. 

" Resolved ; that the Linnsean Society of New York pro- 
tests in the most vigorous and emphatic manner against the 
cruel and degrading so-called sport of trap shooting at 
pigeons and appeals most earnestly to His Excellency, Gov. 
Odell to take the most active measures to have some drastic 
legislation enacted before the close of the present session of 
the Legislature to repeal the present law permitting such 
shooting." 

The resolution was adopted by unanimous vote and the 
Chair was requested to forward it immediately, by telegraph, 
to Gov. Odell: 

April 23, 1901. — The Vice-President in the chair. Six 
members and four visitors present. 

The Chair announced that strenuous efforts made to pass 
the bill to prevent the shooting of live pigeons at traps in 
New York state, had failed, but the matter was to be taken 
up again at the next session of the legislature. 

The President later assumed the chair and Dr. L. B. 
Bishop presented two papers, " The Summer Birds of Warren, 
Connecticut," and a The Winter Birds of Pea Island, North 



12 

Carolina." [Published in Auk, Vol. XVIII, 1901, pp. 260- 
268.] 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher reported a Summer Tanager (Piranga 
rubra) taken in Long Island in April, 1901. 

Dr. Bishop had found in New Haven, Conn., a nest con- 
taining three eggs of the Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo 
lineatus) and one egg of the Barred Owl (Syrnium nebulosum). 

May 14, 1901. — The Vice-President in the chair. Five 
members and five visitors present. 

Mr. J. D. Figgins presented " Some Food Birds of the 
Eskimos of Northwestern Greenland." [Published in full 
at p. 61 this Abstract.] 

Mr. W. S. Wallace presented a paper entitled " Notes on 
the Snakes of Rockland County, N. Y." His list comprised 
fifteen species, included in fourteen genera. A notable 
record was that of the capture of two Brown Snakes 
(Storeria dekayi) on May 11, 1901, one of them being 
exhibited. The Rattlesnake QCrotalus horridus) he considers 
rather uncommon along the West Shore R. R., and New 
Jersey and New York R. R., but the Copperhead (Agkistro- 
don eontortrix) is still abundant. 

May 28, 1901. The Vice-President in the chair. Eight 
members and twenty visitors present. 

Mr. Frank M. Chapman presented "Methods in Bird 
Photography with an Exhibition of Apparatus and Lantern 
Slides." After describing several cameras and their con- 
struction and manipulation he spoke at length of lenses, tri- 
pods, shutters, exposures and telephoto work. A novel 
method of making a bird take his own picture when alighting 
was shown. This was accomplished by a moving twig, 
a system of falling weights, and an electric battery acting 
upon the shutter. Several braces to steady the front of the 
camera, especially in telephoto work, were shown. 

After the exhibition, by Mr. Chapman, of some thirty lan- 
tern slides illustrating the homes and haunts of birds, Mr. 



13 

Fincke described and exhibited several new cameras particu- 
larly adapted to animal photography. 

October 8, 1901. — No quorum present. 

October 22, 1901.— The President in the chair. Six 
members and ten visitors present. 

Mr. Wm. Dutcher presented a paper entitled " Some Bird 
Studies in Maine." It gave the results of a trip among the 
water-birds of the Maine coast during the month of June, 
1901, and was illustrated by sixty lantern slides. Eight 
days were spent at Great Duck Island and a large number 
of the views were of the Herring Gull (Larus argentatus 
smithsonianus) colony, of about 3500 individuals, which he 
found breeding there. [See Auk, XIX, 1902, p. 44.] 

November 12, 1901. — The regular meeting was omitted, the 
date conflicting with that of the Nineteenth Congress of the 
American Ornithologists' Union held at the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York. 

November 26, 1901. — The President in the chair. 

Mr. Guilbert Ollive Miller' was elected a Resident Mem- 
ber of the Society. 

The resignation of Mr. L. S. Foster as Treasurer of the 
Society was read and accepted, and the Secretary was elected 
acting Treasurer for the unexpired term. 

On motion of Mr. Wm. Dutcher a committee consisting of 
Dr. Dwight and Mr. Chapman was appointed to report upon 
a lunch fund which had been collected and expended in 
entertaining the American Ornithologists' Union without 
the official recognition of the Society. 

Mr. C. W. Beebe presented " Notes on Birds in the Bronx 
Zoological Park." Mr. Beebe gave an account of the habits 
of many species of birds recently in captivity at the Zoological 
Park and his notes on the breeding of some of them were espe- 
cially interesting. In all, fourteen species had successfully bred 
during the past year, while several more had made attempts at 
nest-building and incubation. He spoke of the capture, alive, 



H 

at the Park of several visiting species of wild birds, includ- 
ing the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis), Briinnich's Murre 
( Uria lomvia), and the Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycti- 
corax nycticorax nwvius). 

December 10, 1901. — No quorum present. 

December 24, 1901. — This being Christmas Eve the usual 
meeting was omitted. 

January 14, 1902. — No quorum present. Dr. W. D. 
Matthew, however, read before an interested audience his 
announced paper on " Climate and Evolution." 

January 28, 1902. — The President in the chair. Seven 
members and six visitors present. 

A letter was read from the Secretary of the American 
Ornithologists' Union thanking the Linnaean Society for 
hospitalities extended to the Union during its last Congress. 

The Chairman of the Lunch Fund Committee reported that 
the members of the Society had responded in a most liberal 
manner to the call for subscriptions and that after all bills 
had been paid a balance of 1157.20 remained. He recom- 
mended that this balance be placed in a savings bank as a 
special lunch fund for future use, and such disposition was 
made of it by a vote of the Society. 

Mr. F. William Hyde was elected a Resident Member of 
the Society. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars read a paper entitled " The Care of Sick 
Animals in the Bronx Zoological Park." He gave a very 
interesting account of the various diseases from which the 
animals in the Park have suffered and of the remedies which 
have been tried. An obscure disease which resulted in the 
death of all but one of the Orang-outans, last summer, was 
finally traced to the large Galapagos Turtles which were the 
hosts of an amoeba harmless to them but fatal to the Orangs 
who became infected, doubtless, by playing with the turtles 
through the bars. Mr. Ditmars also described several surgi- 
cal operations, with the use of chloroform, one on the face 



r 5 

of a Spicier Monkey and another on the foot of a large 
Alligator, both operations proving highly successful. 

February 11, 1902. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and four visitors present. 

Mr. C. W. Beebe presented " Review of the Birds of the 
Celibes by Meyer and "Wiggles worth." 

February 26, 1902. — The President in the chair. Six 
members and three visitors present. 

Mr. Win. Dutcher called the attention of the Society to 
a bill which had been introduced into the Assembly at 
Albany recently, allowing the killing, on the premises, of 
Robins (Merula migrator ia) by owners or lessees of vineyards 
in Ulster County, N. Y., from Sept. 16th to Oct. 31st, and. 
moved, that the President of the Society write a letter to the 
Chairman of the Forest, Fish and Game Committee protest- 
ing against the passage of this bill. The motion was carried. 

Mr. Dutcher reported the passage at the present session 
of the legislature of the bill forbidding pigeon shooting and 
presented the following preamble and resolution : 

" Whereas : The great Commonwealth of New York having 
had for many years upon its statute books a law permitting 
the cruel and barbarous practice of shooting pigeons from 
traps, and 

" Whereas : For two years the Hon. Samuel Scott Slater, 
Senator from the 19th Senatorial District, and the Hon. Wm. 
S. Bennett, Assemblyman from the 21st Assembly District 
have made a determined and aggressive fight for the repeal 
of the said law in response to the sentiment of a majority of 
the citizens of the State, and 

" Whereas : Success has finally crowned their labors, 

" Be it resolved — That the Linnsean Society of New York 
does hereby express to Senator Slater and Assemblyman 
Bennett its sincere and earnest thanks for the magnificent 
results they have accomplished, the influence of which will 
not only be felt in the Commonwealth they so ably repre- 



i6 

sent but will also influence humane sentiment in many other 
localities." 

The resolution was accepted by the Society and the Sec- 
retary instructed to forward neatly engrossed copies to Sena- 
tor Slater and Assemblyman Bennett. 

Upon motion of Mr. Dutcher it was voted to appoint a 
committee of two, of which the chair be one, to confer with 
a like committee from the Audubon Society for the purpose 
of formulating some plan to interest and instruct school teach- 
ers in birds and bird life. The Chair appointed as the other 
member of this committee, Mr. C. W. Beebe. 

Mr. Eugene Smith presented a paper entitled " Some Wild 
Life in the vicinity of New York City." It was an account 
of some of the inhabitants of a stretch of marshy ground, 
perhaps a hundred acres in extent, at the foot of Bergen Hill, 
New Jersey, not over three miles from the New York City 
Hall. This ground, owing to its very swampy and treacher- 
ous nature has not been occupied by buildings although it 
is surrounded by a dense population. The vegetation con- 
sisted of swamp grass and cat-tails. Mr. Smith mentioned the 
following species which had come under his observation: 
Muskrat (Fiber zibethicus), not uncommon and their houses 
built much lower than usual in order, no doubt, to make 
them less conspicuous ; Common Rat (Mus decumanus) ; 
Common Mouse (Mus musculus) ; Pied-billed Grebe (Podi- 
lymbus podiceps), observed several times; Clapper Rail (Rad- 
ius crepitans) ; Coot (Fulica americand) ; also seven species of 
reptiles and batrachians. 

Mr. Dutcher suggested that the Coots may have been 
wounded birds as they are not known to breed in this locality. 
He mentioned a similar locality in Long Island City where, 
only a few years ago, the Virginia Rail (Rallus virginianus), 
Swamp Sparrow (Melospiza georgiana), and Least Bittern 
(Ardetta exilis) were to be found breeding and where in the 
fall visitors like the English Snipe (G-allinago delicatd) and 
Horned Lark (Otocoris alpestris) were abundant. 



i7 

Dr. Dwight spoke of a section of marsh within the resi- 
dence limits of Boston where twenty-five years ago many 
pairs of Savannah Sparrows (Ammodramus sandivichensis 
savanna') used to breed annually. 

Mr. C. G. Abbott stated that he had seen in January, 1902, 
fully fifty European Goldfinches QCarduelis carduelis) in the 
grounds of Columbia University at 116th st., New York City. 

March 11, 1902. — The President in the chair. Eight mem- 
bers present. 

The Secretary presented his annual report as follows : 

The Society has held during the year eleven meetings. 
Two meetings, the first hi November and the second in Decem- 
ber, were omitted, and on three occasions no meetings were 
held through failure to secure a quorum, possibly due to the 
discontinuance of the special card notices to members. 

The average attendance has been about the same as for the 
year previous. Total attendance 161, of which number 71 
were members and 87 were visitors. Largest attendance at 
any one meeting was 27 members and visitors. 

" Four members have been elected during the year, six 
have resigned and two have died. The total membership at 
present is Resident 146, Corresponding 34, Honorary 2, — a 
total of 182. 

"Eleven papers have been presented before the Society 
three being upon miscellaneous subjects, one on herpetology 
and seven on ornithology. 

" The usual lecture course was abandoned for the year. 

"The annual Abstract of Proceedings, No. 13, was not 
issued at the usual time but will be published under the same 
cover with No. 14. 

" The usual number of exchange publications, some 250, 
have been received and added to the Library. 

The Acting Treasurer presented his report showing a bal- 
ance on hand of 1561.24. 

Officers for the ensuing year were elected as follows : 



i8 

President, Dr. Jonathan D wight, Jr. 

Vic e-P resident, Mr. William Dutcher. 

Secretary, Mr. Walter Granger. 

Treasurer, Mr. Lewis B. Woodruff. 

The Chair appointed the following standing committees 
for the ensuing year : 

Publication, J . A. Allen ; Walter Granger. 

Finance, William Dutcher- J. A. Allen; H. C. Bumpus. 

Nominations, F. M. Chapman ; William Dutcher ; Walter 
Granger. 

Papers, Walter Granger; C. W. Beebe; E. L. Ditmars ; 
L. H. Chubb ; W. D. W. Miller. 

Lectures, F. M. Chapman ; J. A. Allen. 

Mr. R. L. Ditmars presented a paper entitled " New Obser- 
vations on Reptiles in the Bronx Zoological Park." 



i-9 



Notes on the Mammals of Long Island, 
New York. 

By Arthur H. Helme. 

(Revised to July 15, 1902.) 

The Mammalian fauna of Long Island is of especial inter- 
est to students of the geographical distribution, individual 
variation and development of local forms, the separation of 
the island from the mainland preventing any influx of new 
breeding stock from distant localities. The size of the island 
is such that it is doubtful if new local forms would develop 
except through a long period of interbreeding of individuals 
from the same parent stock. The chances of this are largely 
reduced as the field of the, species' wanderings is increased 
.and vice versa. This is well illustrated in the case of the 
Common Meadow Mouse and that of the Gull Island Mouse, 
the latter being a local form of which the Common Meadow 
Mouse was doubtless the parent stock. Long Island lying 
as it does at about the border line between the Upper 
Austral or Carolinian Fauna and that of the Transitional or 
Alleghanian, presents in certain mammals forms that are 
intermediate between those of the southern Atlantic coast 
and those of the northeastern sections. Here certain birds 
of the Alleghanian Fauna find the southern limit of their 
breeding range on the coast, for instance the Black-throated 
Green Warbler (Dendroica virens) and the Saw-whet Owl 
(Nyctala acadica) both of which have been found breeding 
on Long Island. Here, too, the Acadian Flycatcher (Empi- 
donax virescens), Carolina Wren (Tliryoihorus ludovicianus) 
and other Carolinian species find their northern breeding 
limit on the coast. 



20 

Didelphis virginana Kerr. Opossum. 

One of the most prominent and characteristic mammals 
now found on the island is a southern importation. In the 
early " eighties " reports began to accumulate of the capture 
of Opossums in various parts of Long Island. In a few 
years the animal became very common and of general distri- 
bution from Brooklyn to Montauk Point, and continues to 
hold its ground in spite of the fact that' several towns pay a 
bounty for its destruction. Although a species finding more 
congenial environment in the Southern States, it has well 
established its ability to withstand our coldest and most 
severe winters. Its tracks are often noticed in the snow 
during severe weather, but like the Raccoon it much prefers 
to lie curled up in some warm burrow during rough stormy 
weather, unless driven forth by the pangs of hunger. It is 
doubtful to whom the questionable honor of its introduction 
to the mammalian fauna of Long Island, is to be accredited. 
There are several instances reported of the escape and releas- 
ing of Opossums on Long Island, about the year 1880, and 
earlier. 

Tursiops tursio (Fabricius). Bottlexosed Porpoise. 
Delphinus delphis {Linn.). Common Dolphin, Sea 
Porpoise. 
Phocaena phocaena (Linn.). Harbor Porpoise, 
Herring Hog. 
These three species of Porpoises occur more or less com- 
monly in the waters adjacent to Long Island. As to the 
comparative abundance of each species, I am unable to speak 
with any degree of certainty. Porpoises (either T. tursio or 
D. delphis) are met with occasionally as early as April and 
as late as December. From June until late in October they 
are plentiful in Long Island Sound. For several years one 
of a creamy white color was noticed in the Sound near Miller 
Place, returning each year to the same feeding grounds. 



21 

I know of no actual instance of the capture of the Gray 
Grampus ( G-rampus griseus Cuv.) on the coast of Long Island, 
but there is little doubt that it does occur more or less fre- 
quently along the south side, as it has been taken occasionally 
on the coasts of Massachusetts and New Jersey. 

Globicephalus melas (Traill). Blackfish. 

The Blackfish has been frequently reported off the eastern 
shores of Long Island. 

Orca orca (Linn.). Killer. 

As to the comparative frequency of occurrence of this and 
the preceding species, I am uncertain. Both go in schools, 
and bear a general resemblance to giant Porpoises in their 
actions. They rarely enter the Sound except at the extreme 
eastern end. Fishermen occasionally report seemg schools 
of "Black Whales" and " Fin-Backs," off the eastern end 
of Long Island. The Killer is frequently called " Fin- 
ner," and I think is the species referred to as " Fin Back," 
although the same name is applied to the Fin-backed Whale 
QSibbaldius tectirostris Cope), a species whose occasional 
occurrence off the Long Island coast is quite probable. 

Hyperoodon rostratus (Chemnitz). Bottle-nosed Whale. 

The only instance of the occurrence of this Whale in Long 
Island waters that I know of, is the record by DeKay of one 
taken in the lower bay of New York Harbor in 1822. 

Physeter macrocephalus Linn. Sperm Whale. 

Of the presence of this species I have no knowledge, 
although it may occur occasionally as a rare straggler. It is 
said to have been abundant formerly on our coast. 

Balsena cisarctica Cope. Right Whale. 
This whale is not rare off the southeastern coast of Long 



22 

Island, and few years pass that one or more are not reported, 
usually in winter. 

Two other Whales {Balcena physalus Linn, and Agaphalus 
gibbosus Erxleben) may occur occasionally. 

Odocoileus americanus {Erxleben). Virginian Deer. 

Formerly abundant throughout the island but it is now 
restricted to an area about six miles long by four or five in 
width, situated in the southeastern portion of Islip township 
and the southwestern part of Brook Haven township. 
There it is still plentiful, but doubtless would have long 
since become only a memory of the past, but for the protection 
afforded on the game preserves of " The Southsicle Sports- 
man's Association," and those of a few private estates. Deer 
are, however, steadily decreasing in numbers, notwithstand- 
ing assertions to the contrary, and unless the laws are more 
rigidly enforced to prevent reckless and indiscriminate 
slaughter, both in and out of season, these beautiful 
creatures will soon cease to grace our woodlands. The deer 
now at large on Long Island have, I think, become more or 
less mixed with those that have been introduced from a more 
southern latitude. 

Sciurus carolinencis leucotis {Gapper). Northern Gray 

Squirrel. 

This form of the Gray Squirrel is the variety found on 
Long Island. It is common in most sections where suit- 
able timber and other requisites for its protection and food 
exist. Specimens have been taken showing slight traces of a 
rusty and grizzled appearance on the under parts of the body, 
but they are of rare occurrence. 

The Fox Squirrel {Sciurus ludovicianus vicinus Bangs) 
and Red Squirrel {S. hudsonicus loquax Bangs) are not found 
on the island and a young Western Fox Squirrel (S. ludovici- 
ayius), taken at Miller Place in 1898, is undoubtedly one 
that had escaped from confinement. 



2 3 

Tamias striatus (Linn.). Chipmunk. 

The Chipmunk is common in most parts of Long Island. 
While not perfectly typical striatus it is nearer this form than 
it is to lysteri. 

Arctomys monax (Linn.). Woodchuck. 

Common in suitable localities throughout the island, sev- 
eral of the towns paying a bounty for their destruction, as a 
result of which they have become greatly reduced in numbers 
in many localities. 

Sciuropterus volans (Linn.). Flying Squirrel. 

Although seldom seen except by those familiar with its 
haunts, it is common in suitable localities throughout the 
island. Unlike its larger relatives — the true squirrels — it 
seldom ventures abroad during the day, unless disturbed and 
driven from its home, which is usually in some hole or cavity, 
often the deserted nest of a woodpecker, in which it has 
built its own nest of dry leaves and shreds of bark. Some- 
times it builds a nest in the branches of a tree, preferably an 
evergreen, again the deserted nest of a bird or a Gray Squirrel 
may form its home, after being remodeled to suit its tastes. 
Its family of young, two to five in number are reared in such 
situations. I have on several occasions found evidence to 
cause me to believe that it not infrequently destroys the eggs 
of birds. 

Mus musculus Linn. House Mouse. 

Mus decumanus Pallas. House Rat. 

The House Mouse and the Rat are both abundant in all 
parts of Long Island. 

Mus rattus Linn. Black Rat. 

The Black Rat has long been extinct on Long Island. 
Many years ago some specimens were caught in a stable in 
the city of Brooklyn. 



2 4 



Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fischer). North- 
eastern White-footed Mouse. 

Abundant and generally distributed throughout the island, 
making its squirrel-like nest of dry grasses, slivers of bark, 
feathers, etc. Sometimes it builds its nest in a clump of 
briers, or in the branches of trees, usually utilizing some 
deserted bird's nest for a base, but more frequently the nest 
is placed in some hole or crevice in a stump or tree, often 
under a pile of wood, a log or a stump, and even an old oil- 
can may do service as a shelter. In fact any cavity is chosen 
that will afford shelter and protection. In winter it is com- 
mon to find several occupying the same nest, and on two 
occasions I have found as many as sixteen in one nest. 
There is considerable variation among the White-footed Mice 
found on Long Island ; but in most cases they can be safely 
referred to the variety noveboracensis. 

Microtus pennsylvanicus (Orel). Meadow Mouse. 

Abundant in the open upland fields as well as around the 
borders of swamps and wet meadows. It is a noticeable fact 
that the largest specimens I have met with have been taken 
in dry upland fields. The Gull Island Mouse (Microtus neso- 
fliilus Bailey) is apparently extinct, as I could find no signs 
of them on the island in 1898. 

Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides (And. and Bach.). 
Northern Pine Mouse. 

This mouse is one of the most abundant in dry upland fields 
and woods. I have never met with it around wet meadows 
or marshes where the Common Meadow Mouse is so fond of 
making its home. Its nest of dry grass is generally built 
beneath the surface of the ground, where the young, two to 
four in number are reared. I have never heard of a nest con- 
taining more than four young. 



25 

Fiber zibethicus (JOinn.). Muskrat. 
Common in all suitable localities throughout the island. 

Zapus hudsonius ( Zimmermann). Meadow or Long-tailed 
Jumping Mouse. 

While not rare, and in some localities quite plentiful, it is 
the least numerous of any of the mice found on Long Island. 
Although a species that is supposed to hibernate, it is occa- 
sionally found abroad in mid-winter, when its tracks have 
been noticed in the snow. 

Lepus floridanus mallurus (Thomas). Southeastern 
Cottontail or Rabbit. 

The Cottontail or Rabbit is abundant hi most parts of Long 
Island, mallurus appearing to be the form that prevails, 
although some specimens appear to closely approach transi- 
tiojialis. 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber). Gray Fox. 

The Gray Fox appears to be nearly extinct on Long 
Island. Formerly it was fairly common, although never as 
numerous as its red relative. I am not aware of any recent 
instance of its capture, but it is not improbable that a few 
stragglers still remain on the island. On two or three occa- 
sions within the past four or five years I have heard of the 
capture of a gray fox, but, in each instance it proved, upon 
investigation, to be the Red Fox. 

The latest records that have come to my knowledge are, 
one taken near Bridgehampton and two or three at Setauket. 

DeKay in 1842, writes of it as " very abundant on Long 
Island," and states that it is frequently known under the 
name of " Plain or Grass Fox." 

Vulpes fulvus (Desmarest). Red Fox. 

Very common throughout Suffolk and portions of Nassau 
Counties. The usual number of young I have found to be 



26 

six or seven, nine being the largest and three the least num- 
ber I have met with in a litter. 



Lutra canadensis (Sc/weber). Northeastekx Ottee. 

DeKay in 1812 writes of the Otter as extinct on Long 
Island at that time. There is hi the collection of the Long 
Island Historical Society a fine mounted specimen, presented 
by the late William J. Weeks of Yaphank. It was killed 
by George Albin of Bay shore and there is no data to 
indicate when it was taken, but it must have been some time 
prior to the year 1880, as it was hi the collection at that time. 
There was a specimen taken near Yaphank, somewhere about 
the year 1875, and possibly this may be the specimen now 
owned by the Society. 

Mr. A. B. Gerard of Brook Haven, Long Island, kindly 
writes me, " The last Otter killed hi this section was in Car- 
mans River by Edward Bartran, station agent at Brook 
Haven in 1898. The one before that by George Albin of 
Bay shore and sold to Wm. J. Weeks of Yaphank and pre- 
sented by Mr. Weeks to the Long Island Historical Society." 

I was very much surprised to learn of the recent capture of 
Otters on Long Island. During the latter part of the 
winter of 1900-1901, Mr. J. Harrison Hulse of Calvert on, 
caught a large Otter in the river near there and I am 
informed that evidence of the presence of others has been 
noticed since the one mentioned was caught. Recently in 
the "Port Jefferson Times," appeared an item reporting 
the capture of an Otter at Patchague stating that Mr. Edwin 
Bailey, Jr., had purchased the animal and was havhig it 
mounted. I at once wrote to Mr. Bailey, and he has kindly 
furnished me with the following details. "The Otter was 
captured Nov. 29, 1901, by John Gregory of this village, 
about two miles north of here. It weighed 20 lbs. and 
measured four feet in length. It is quite black, except the 



2 7 

under parts which are brown. I am having him mounted at 
Wm. Harts, 12th St., New York." It would be interesting 
to know where these Otters came from, as it is hardly prob- 
able that they could have existed on the island all of this 
time and eluded capture. It would seem to be more prob- 
able that they occasionally stray to the island from the main- 
land. 

Mephitis mephitica ( Shaw) . Eastern Skunk. 

The Eastern Skunk is common on Long Island but far 
less numerous than formerly. This decrease in numbers I 
am unable to account for, unless it be due to the poison used 
in the potato fields to destroy the " potato bug." It is notice- 
able that a decrease in their numbers appears to coincide with 
the appearance of the Colorado Beetle or potato bug. The 
food of the Skunk consists largely of beetles, and the potato 
bug forms no insignificant item in its bill of fare. This 
opinion as to the cause of their diminished numbers is still 
further strengthened by the fact that the Skunk is as abun- 
dant as ever at Montauk Point, where little or no farming is 
done. 

Putorius vison lutreocephalus (Harlan). Southeastern 

Mink. 

The Mink is fairly common on Long Island wherever there 
are suitable surroundings for its existence. They appear to 
vary greatly in numbers from time to time, and they are 
extensive wanderers, so that they may be here to-day and 
to-morrow miles away. This disposition to wander appears to 
be more noticeable in winter and early sprmg. 

Putorius cicognanii (Bonaparte). Bonaparte's Weasel. 

Of the presence of this species on Long Island, I have no 
personal knowledge. DeKay in his Mammals of New York, 
describes a small weasel under the name of Mustela fusca, 



28 

evidently from Bachman's description of a specimen said to 
have been "taken in May in Suffolk Co." Mr. Outram 
Bangs in his paper on the "Weasels of Eastern North 
America " published in the " Proceedings of the Biological 
Society of Washington" cites Mustelafusca as a synonym of 
P. cicognanii, and gives the distribution of this species as 
" Northeastern N. A. from Long Island and Conn, north to 
Labrador " etc., but makes no reference to show his grounds 
for including it as a mammal of Long Island, probably 
basing it on Bachman's and DeKay's account. Mr. Gerrit S. 
Miller, Jr., in his list of the mammals of N. Y. published in 
" Bulletin No. 29 of the New York State Museum," quotes 
Mr. Bangs as authority for its occurrence on Long Island. 
If there are any specimens in existence of undoubted Long 
Island origin, it would be of interest; and anyone having 
knowledge of the presence of this species on the island 
would do well to make known the fact. 

Putorius noveboracensis (Emmons). New York Weasel. 

This Weasel is common in most parts of Long Island. It 
is an indefatigable hunter and as an exterminator of rats 
and mice has few equals. I once found a family of young 
Weasels under a pile of wood, where lying all around were 
remains of moles and mice. Of the former there were three 
or four which were untouched, while most of the mice were 
partially eaten. The tenacity with which a Weasel will 
hold on to an object it has seized is remarkable, but no less 
so than the agility with which it can avoid a threatened blow. 
It shows no hesitation in attacking animals many times its 
size, sometimes to its sorrow. In one instance it attacked 
a Raccoon with a fatal result for the Weasel. Rabbits often 
fall victims to Weasels, who can follow them by scent for 
long distances. That it is able to climb trees is shown by 
an instance that came under my observation, one being shot 
from a squirrel's nest about twenty feet from the ground in a 



2 9 

cedar tree. On several occasions I have found dead Weasels 
and upon examination in most cases I found they had been 
bitten through the body, as shown by fine teeth marks, 
evidently inflicted by a cat or possibly by some member of 
their own species. I have frequently examined specimens 
taken in mid-winter, but have never found any in the white 
winter pelage that characterizes this and other species of the 
genus taken inland and in more northern localities. 

Procyon lotor (Linn.). Raccoon. 
The Raccoon is common in most parts of Long Island. 

Phoca vitulina Linn. Harbor Seal. 

The Harbor Seal or " Sea Dog " as it is more commonly 
called is met with occasionally in Long Island Sound, and is 
of not uncommon occurrence in winter around the eastern 
end of the island. 

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben) . Hooded Seal. 

The only record of this seal in Long Island waters is that 
given by DeKay of "An adult male captured near East- 
chester about 15 miles from the city." 

Sorex personatus Geoffroy St. Hilaire. Masked Shrew. 

Although rarely seen the Masked Shrew is not rare in most 
parts of Long Island, and is abundant on Montauk Point. 
It makes a small spherical nest of dry grass and leaves, placed 
under an old log or piece of drift wood. Usually only one 
Shrew will be found in a nest, but on one occasion I found 
six which, as they were immature, belonged no doubt to one 
family. 

Blarina brevicauda (Say). Short-tailed Shrew. 
Abundant in the woodlands. 



3° 
Scalops aquaticus (Linn). Ground Mole. 
Common throughout the island. 

Condylura cristata {Linn.). Star-nosed Mole. 

DeKay gives the Star-nosed Mole as " abundant through- 
out the state." The only evidence of the presence of this 
species on Long Island that has come to my knowledge is that 
of a half-grown specimen that I found lying dead in the street 
at Miller Place. I have searched for it in various parts of the 
island but have been unable to find any other evidence of 
its presence, and I have been inclined to think that the one 
mentioned may have been dropped by a hawk, that perhaps 
brought it from the Connecticut mainland. 

Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte). Silvery Bat. 

Some years this Bat is very plentiful especially in late 
summer and early autumn, out-numbering even the Red Bat, 
which is usually the most abundant species on Long Island. 
For the past two or three years very few Silvery Bats have 
been noticed. 

Vespertilio fuscus Beauvois. Brown Bat. 

Rare on Long Island. A smaller brown bat is of occa- 
sional but rare occurrence but whether Myotis lucifugus or 
subulatus I am unable to say. 

Lasiurus cinereus Beauvois. Hoary Bat. 
A rather rare late summer and autumn visitor. 

Lasiurus borealis (Midler). Red Bat. 
Very common. The most abundant Bat on Long Island. 



3 1 



The Mammals of Westchester County, 
New York. 

By John Rowley. 

(Revised to July 15, 1902.) 

Westchester County lies north of New York City, its 
boundary line extending from Spuyten Duyvil Creek up the 
east bank of the Hudson River to Highland Station, thence 
to the Connecticut State line, and thence south, striking 
Long Island Sound at Port Chester. This area contains 
about 525 square miles. The surface of the country is rough 
and broken. A number of irregular ridges running chiefly 
north and south divide it into a series of hills and well- 
watered valleys, the hills, for the most part, being rocky and 
wooded, mainly with a growth of deciduous forest trees and 
underbrush. Some of the ridges rise to an elevation of 1000 
feet above tide water. The southeastern portion of the 
county, adjacent to Long Island Sound, is much natter and 
bordered by salt marshes. 

At the advent of the white settlers this region must have 
been a perfect paradise for game and fur-bearing animals. 
Indeed, the question of game at that period entered so largely 
into the economy of the inhabitants as to form a part of the 
consideration in the transfer of real estate. Many of the 
early deeds contain a clause conferring the right of " Ffishing, 
hunting and fowling." But the innate desire in man to kill 
— hi colonial times for profit and in later years for mere 
sport — has gradually done its work and the game has been 
slowly but surely Aviped out. When one considers the close 
proximity of a great city with its numberless sportsmen, and 
the persecution to which wild animals are subjected in a 
district so well populated as this, it is surprising that any 



3 2 

are left out of the great numbers and variety that formerly 
existed here. 

In this paper, I have aimed to present a list of the mam- 
mals which have inhabited Westchester County within his- 
toric times, with a few notes on their habits and history. 
The list so far as it pertains to the species now found here, 
was prepared chiefly from observations made at Hastings- 
upon-Hudson, about fifteen miles north of New York City, 
on the east bank of the river; the observations extending 
over a period of about eighteen years. The nomenclature 
followed is that adopted in a list of New York mammals by 
Mr. Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 10 * 

Several species which are known formerly to have existed 
in the State have been excluded from the list as there are no 
actual records from Westchester County. The Moose (Alees 
americanus) was very common in the Adirondack region of 
New York during recent times, but the last one of which 
there is a positive record was killed at Raquet Lake during 
the summer of 1861 (Merriam 9 , Vol. II, p. 42). The 
Wapiti or Elk QCervus canadensis) was also probably numer- 
ous in the county at one time, as it is known to have existed 
in the Adirondack region, in northwestern Pennsylvania and 
in the adjoining counties of New York State (DeKay 5 ). ' In 
Pennsylvania the animal was not exterminated till within the 
past 40 years ' (Miller 10 , p. 301). That it also existed in the 
western part of this State as late as 1804, the following pas- 
sage from a description of the Genesee Country by Robert 
Munro may be offered as evidence : ' Of wild animals, the 
most remarkable are bears, wolves, and deer, which abound 
most in the hilly parts; also elks, a large species of deer 
weighing five or six hundred pounds, and a few panthers ' 
(Docum. Hist. 12 Vol. II, p. 1175). Remains of the Wapiti 
have been found in a shell heap at Throgg's Neck, this 
County, by Mr. M. R. Harrington. 

* The small numbers refer to papers cited at the end of the present paper. 



33 

A few years since, in excavating for a ship canal through 
Spuyten Duyvil Creek, a portion of a tusk of a Mastodon 
(Mastodon americanus) was unearthed. This fragment is now 
in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History, 
New York City. 

The Porcupine, Varying Hare, Fisher and Sable were prob- 
ably not uncommon in this region in early times, but have 
since been exterminated. There are other species now found 
in comities adjoining Westchester, some of which will prob- 
ably be recorded from here, but these have been excluded 
from the list. Among them are the Short-tailed Weasel, 
Brewer's Mole, Red-backed Mouse, and Cave Rat (Mearns 7 ). 

Didelphis virginiana Kerr. Opossum. 

The Opossum is an animal whose range has been greatly 
extended of late years. I recently received from Mr. C. A. 
Deyo a specimen which was taken in Schoharie, N. Y., and 
have since heard from him .that several others have been 
taken there. 

On Sept. 1, 1899, I found a freshly killed Opossum on the 
beach at Hastings. This specimen is now in the collection 
of the American Museum. 

Under date of February 20, 1901, Mr. J. H. Quinby of 
Armonk, Westchester County, writes me, 'about seven of 
them have been caught near here inside of two years.' 

Although heretofore unrecorded from the east bank of the 
lower Hudson River, it is quite common on the west bank. 

Dr. E. A. Mearns 7 (p. 330), speaking of this animal says, 
'In the Highlands, the Opossum has always been fairly 
common since my boyhood and hence long before its too 
" successful " introduction on Long Island, N. Y.' 

Tursiops tursio (Fabricius). Porpoise. 

It is probable that this species of porpoise occurs within 
the county limits in the waters of Long Island Sound, as it 



34 

has been recorded from both coasts of Long Island (Miller 10 ), 
bnt I have never met with a specimen. 

Phocaena phocaena {Linnmus). Harbor Porpoise. 

This Porpoise is very common during the summer months 
in the waters of Long Island Sound, where almost any clear 
day schools may be seen disporting themselves. 

I have seen Porpoises hi the Hudson River opposite Hast- 
ings, but not for the past five or six years. The species has 
been recorded as far up the river as Sing Sing (Fisher 6 , p. 
200). 

Odocoileus americanus {Boddcert). Virginia Deer. 

Deer were incredibly numerous in this region in early 
colonial times, Van der Donck, the historian, writing about 
the middle of the 17 th century says : ' The land abounded 
with them everywhere, and their numbers appear to remain 
undiminished; we seldom pass through the fields without 
seeing deer more or less, and we frequently see them in herds 
(Bolton 4 ).' 

From DeKay 5 , writing in 1842, I quote (Vol. I, p. 114) : 
' This well known animal is still found hi every part of the 
State, where there is sufficient forest to afford them food and 
cover. From the mountainous regions of Orange, Rockland, 
and Delaware, the City Market is supplied hi great abundance 
during the winter.' 

Though still very numerous in the Adirondacks, this spe- 
cies has long since been extirpated in Westchester County. 
The last one killed in this locality, so far as I have been able 
to ascertain, is recorded by Dr. Fisher 8 , who says, " The last 
deer killed near Sing Sing was a doe shot by Mr. Chas. 
Acker on December 10, 1861. It had been seen on several 
occasions, at various places, and was finally secured in a tract 
known as Bacon's woods.' 

In some isolated districts on Long Island, where they are 



35 

no longer subjected to the ravages of the wolf and are pro- 
tected by the enforcement of rigid game laws, the Deer is 
still to be found in considerable numbers in a wild state. 

Tradition says that, ' Thirty Deers' Ridge,' a rough, rocky 
and still uninhabited ridge in the lower part of the county, 
received its name from the presence of a band of deer which 
once ranged there. 

Sciurus hudsonicus loquax Bangs. Southeastern Red 

Squirrel. 

This mischievous little rodent is the most abundant of the 
squirrels of the county; and his quaint, jerky motions, 
together with his bold and saucy manner, render him per- 
haps the best known of our smaller mammals. The Red 
Squirrel is found wherever sufficient timber exists to afford 
him an opportunity of exercising his climbing propensities, 
but he is perhaps more at home in the neighborhood of ever- 
green growths. He is more, carnivorous in his diet than is 
generally supposed, as birds' eggs and even young birds at 
times enter into his bill-of-fare. He is wonderfully fond of 
the seeds of pears, and much damage is sometimes done to 
the fruit grower by the inroads he makes upon this fruit, for 
not content with cutting enough to satisfy his immediate 
appetite, he seems to take great delight in wantonly cutting 
off the growing fruit and allowing it to fall to the ground, 
where it remains untouched. 

The Red Squirrel is found abroad at all times of the year, 
even during severe winter weather. At this season I have 
observed them in greater abundance in the vicinity of hem- 
lock groves, and they then largely subsist upon the hearts of 
the cones of this tree. The appearance of the Red Squirrel 
during the coldest weather would seem to indicate that this 
species does not, as is frequently asserted, lay up a store of 
food for use during the winter ; but if so, the process is not so 
.systematically carried out as by the Chipmunk. 



36 

The Red and the Gray Squirrels are sworn enemies. The 
former is very pugnacious and will generally drive away his 
larger adversary. This fact, coupled with the emasculated 
condition in which the males of the larger species are some- 
times found, has given rise to the popular fallacy that the 
Red Squirrel castrates the Gray. Although this may hap- 
pen in very rare instances, it is a well known fact that the 
emasculation is performed by the grub of a bot-fly, the 
Guterebra emasculator, of Fitch (N. Y. Rep. \ p. 478). 

Sciurus carolinensis leucotis (Gapper). Northern Gray 

Squirrel. 

This beautiful squirrel, though not nearly so common as 
the preceding species, is found in considerable numbers in 
suitable situations throughout the county, where it is still 
sought as game by sportsmen, half a dozen being considered 
a good day's bag. 

I quote from a description of the Genesee Country by 
Robert Munro, published in 1804, to show their great abun- 
dance there at that time (Doc. Hist 12 , p. 1175). 'Squirrels 
are so numerous some years as considerably to injure corn ; 
and upwards of two thousand of them have sometimes been 
killed in a day, which is occasionally appointed for that pur- 
pose by the inhabitants.' 

In some localities two phases of the Gray Squirrel occur, 
a gray and a black. Both may be found in the same nest 
and belonging to the same litter, as in the case of the gray 
and the red phases of the common Screech Owl (Megascops 
asio). I have never seen a black squirrel that was taken in 
Westchester County. 

In this locality the young are born about the middle of 
March or the first of April, generally in a nest of sticks and 
leaves built high up in a convenient fork of some large tree. 
I have also known the young to be brought forth in a hollow 
tree. When born they are in an exceedingly helpless condi- 



37 

tion, with the eyes closed, and devoid of hair. The}' remain 
in the nest for at least two months. A second litter is 
sometimes brought forth in July or August. 

Instead of systematically storing a supply of food for win- 
ter use as is generally supposed, the gray squirrel will hi the 
autumn bury quantities of nuts and acorns under the leaves, 
and in the winter numerous holes in the snow will be found 
where they have dug down after the buried treasure. In 
searching upon the snow-covered ground for hidden nuts, a 
squirrel moves slowly with the head held close to the snow, 
and then suddenly starts digging, and rarely without success. 
The sense of smell in these creatures is exceedingly acute 
and they probably locate the concealed nut by smell, and not 
by remembering the precise spot where each nut was buried. 

During very severe weather this species is rarely seen 
abroad, as they confine themselves to their snug retreats 
in hollow trees, venturing forth only durmg mild spells and 
generally just before a storm. 

If unmolested, the Gray Squirrel soon becomes very tame 
and will even seek the habitation of man hi preference to 
making his home at a distance. Recently a brood was raised 
in a large chestnut tree within twenty feet of the door of my 
house. In Central Park, New York City, they have become 
semi-domesticated and have grown so tame that if offered a 
peanut or other dainty morsel, some individuals will make so 
bold as to take the proffered food from the fingers. It may 
be of interest to note that the eating of roasted peanuts is an 
acquired habit with the " city squirrels." During the winter 
of 1899 and 1900, I fastened a small box without a cover to 
the body of a tree near my house and kept it supplied with 
various kinds of nuts. The squirrels readily ate chestnuts, 
walnuts, and other nuts, but would not touch roasted pea- 
nuts, preferring rather to hunt for other food in the snow. 



38 

Sciurus ludovicianus vicinus Bangs. Northeastern 
Fox Squirrel. 

This Fox Squirrel was probably a common inhabitant of 
Westchester County in former times but is now extinct here. 

Dr. Merriam 9 , quoting Dr. J. Bachman, who wrote in 
1839, speaks thus of it, 'In the northern part of New York 
it is exceedingly rare, as I only saw two pairs during fifteen 
years of close observation. In the lower part of that state, 
however, it appears to be more common, as I recently 
received several specimens procured hi the County of 
Orange.' DeKay 5 , 1842, states that its habits and distri- 
bution are the same as those of S. c. leueotis. 

I have never seen a specimen of this Squirrel from this 
vicinity and the only record I can find is one given by Dr. 
Fisher 6 in his list of Sing Sing mammals (p. 197) who says, 
' Mr. Gilbert C. Merritt once informed me that he had killed 
several Fox Squirrels in the Chappaqua hills about the }^ear 
1850. Of late none have been heard of even in that wild 
region.' 

Tamias striatus (Linnceus). Southeastern Chipmunk. 

This familiar little rodent is everywhere common in the 
county, but its numbers are subject to great periodical 
fluctuations. For a number of years they may be fairly 
numerous and then for a period of several years few if any 
Chipmunks will be seen. 

The Chipmunk is less arboreal in its habits than any of 
the other squirrels found here, and constructs an under- 
ground burrow in which it spends the greater part of its 
time. It is in this species that we find the industrious habit 
of storing up a winter's supply of nuts- most fully developed 
and by means of the cheek pouches with which it is provided, 
it is better adapted for collecting its winter hoard of eatables. 
Chipmunks continue to collect food until cold weather has 
set in, when they retire to then burrows, where they pass the 



39 

winter in a state of semi-hibernation. They take nourish- 
ment and do not become torpid like the Woodchucks, but 
they never come out except in long-continued mild weather. 
I have excavated a number of Chipmunk burrows and find 
they are all made on the same general plan. The nest, com- 
posed of broken dry leaves, is placed in the central apart- 
ment or living room which may be eighteen inches long by 
twelve in diameter. Opening into this are several other 
chambers or pockets which are used as store-rooms for food 
and one of them is generally used for shucks or shells and 
excrement. The original entrance to the burrow, rendered 
conspicuous by more or less loose dirt about it, is generally 
closed when the burrow is completed and the permanent 
entrance, situated at some distance from the first opening, is 
a clean round hole. A burrow which I dug out on the 10th 
of May, contained five young ones more than one-half grown. 
They sat up and ate chestnuts greedily, although their eyes 
were not yet open. The pockets of this burrow contained 
about a peck of chestnuts, cherry-pits, and dog-wood berries. 
The berries were fresh and sweet, but the chestnuts showed 
signs of sprouting. 

Arctomys monax {Linnceus). Woobchuck. 

I find no early historical records for this rodent, the largest 
now inhabiting Westchester Comity ; but this is not surpris- 
ing as the Woodchuck has probably always been regarded as 
vermin and of no practical economic value. In the extreme 
lower part of the County, now quite thickly settled, the 
animal is becoming rare. 

The Woodchuck makes his home chiefly in the neighbor- 
hood of open meadows, where he constructs a burrow. The 
mounds of earth at the entrance to a " Woodchuck hole " are 
familiar objects to almost everybody. Being rather shy and 
having a wholesome fear of the house dog, the Woodchuck 
seldom ventures far from his burrow, which he immediately 



4 o 

seeks upon the first intimation of danger. He spends the 
greater part of the day within the confines of the burrow and 
ventures forth to feed chiefly in the early hours of the morn- 
ing and in the evening, and thus becomes excessively fat. I 
know of a Woodchuck skin from an individual killed during 
the latter part of summer, which was so thickly coated with 
fat that when tacked to the side of a barn it dripped oil on 
warm days, two years later. The tendency to development 
of excessive fatness in the Woodchuck is however a part of 
Nature's programme in fitting the animal for existence during 
the winter, and the fat is really a supply of fuel for future use. 
About the middle of September at the first indication of 
frost, the Woodchuck retires to the depths of his burrow and 
promptly enters into his long winter's sleep, not again to 
awaken until spring has come and Nature once more bids 
adieu to cold weather. 

Sciuropterus volans (Linn.). Southern Flying 
Squirrel. 

The Flying Squirrel is the most strictly nocturnal of our 
squirrels, rarely leaving its nest in the hollow tree until the 
dusk of evening. For this reason comparatively few of them 
are seen ; although their presence is made known, especially 
on still autumn nights, by their oft-repeated squeaks. The 
flaps of loose skin extending along the sides of the body from 
the front to the hind paws, together with its extreme propor- 
tionate lightness, and flat tail, enable this little rodent to per- 
form its prodigious parachute-like leaps from the top of one 
tree to the base of another at some distance. He will proceed 
in this way in preference to leaping from bough to bough like 
other squirrels. He is more or less carnivorous, and I have 
known him to gnaw the edges of meat hung from the rafters 
of an out-house. Like his relatives the true squirrels, the 
Flying Squirrel, if unmolested, will take up his residence 
near the habitation of man ; and a box that I have tacked 



4i 

upon the side of a barn for the accommodation of the House 
Wren (Troglodytes aedori), is occasionally taken possession 
of by this species. 

Castor canadensis KuhL American Beaver. 

The abundance of vegetation, and the presence of great 
numbers of swiftly running streams with which almost the 
entire county is intersected, formerly offered most desirable 
conditions for the existence of the Beaver, — once so abun- 
dant here and now completely extirpated, not only in this 
comity but probably in the entire state. Frequent mention 
is made of Beavers in works relating to the early settlement 
of these parts. They were in great numbers, and so steady 
and reliable an article of commerce were their pelts that a 
recognized price or value existed, and they formed a medium 
of exchange in trade. As late as 1674 beaver pelts were 
sometimes mentioned as the consideration in the transfer of a 
tract of land instead of money (Doc. Hist. 12 p. 608) ; and in 
every sense were treated as " currency — a proceeding that 
would lead to no little inconvenience with the present state of 
affairs in Wall-st. 

As testimony of the incredible numbers of Beavers that 
formerly lived here, I quote at second hand Van der Donck, 
the Patroon of Yonkers, who, writing in 1656, says (Bolton 4 , 
pp. 29 and 30) : 'This timid animal always constructed its 
dwellings over running streams, having apertures in the lower 
stories which communicated with the water from which they 
could more easily retreat under water to places of safety which 
they have always prepared near their houses ; these consist of 
a hollow or hole entwining under water from the side of the 
stream whereon their house was erected, and adjoining under 
the bank into which they retreat on the approach of danger. 
* * * Eighty thousand beavers were killed annually during 
his residence of nine years in the New Netherlands.' As a 
last record of the existence of a Beaver in this county, I quote 



4 2 

the following from Bolton 4 : Between two and three miles 
northwest of the village of South Salem lies Lake Wacabuck 
(Long Pond) a beautiful sheet of water covering over two 
hundred and twelve acres of ground. * * * Lake Wacabuck 
was once famous for the abundance of its beavers. It is 
upwards of fifteen years since, that the last solitary hermit was 
observed upon the edge of the lake. This animal had been 
noticed at different intervals throughout the summer of 1832. 
In the fall of that year a laboring man (residing near the lake) 
determined upon securing it if possible. For this purpose he 
took his station early one morning in the vicinity of one of 
the Beaver's haunts. It soon made its appearance, and com- 
menced felling a small tree, which it drew to the water's edge ; 
but the man, who had refrained from firing in order to watch 
the motions of the animal, making a slight noise, it became 
alarmed, and suddenly plunged into the water. It is said 
that the same animal was observed in the fall of 1837.' 

Mus musculus Linn. House Mouse. 

Like the two preceding species and the English Sparrow 
(Passer domesticus), this is another importation for which the 
nation has no reason to feel proud. Its depredations about 
the house and in the fields are too well known to require 
further comment. 

Mus decumanus Pallas. House Rat. 

This is the common rat of the county and seems to have 
been introduced here from Europe during the Revolutionary 
War (DeKay 6 ). It has since spread with wonderful rapidity, 
adapting itself to circumstances wherever found, be it in the 
house or in the fields. 

Mus rattus Linn. Black Rat. 

The Black Rat, now probably extinct in Westchester 
County, was the first to be introduced here from Europe and 



43 

at one time was very abundant. It was established here 
about 1544 (Baird 2 , p. 440), and has since been driven out 
by the preceding species. I quote from Mr. Miller's 10 list, 
(pp. 314-315) : ' I have never seen the black rat in New 
York. Many of the older inhabitants at Peterboro, Madi- 
son County, have told me of the immense numbers in which 
the ' blue rats ' or ' barn rats ' once occurred. To judge from 
these accounts, which I consider trustworthy, this animal 
must have been more abundant than its successor, the house 
rat. Mr. Hiram Wilson of Oneida, Madison Co., writes me, 
under date of February 3, 1898, that he first saw the brown 
rat (Mus decumanus) when his family moved to Oneida 
Valley in 1837. Previously the Wilsons had lived near 
Peterboro (about 12 miles distant) where only the black rat 
occurred.' DeKay 5 , writing in 1842, says : ' It is now exceed- 
ingly rare.' Two specimens of the Black Rat were taken 
in All Souls Church, 66th-st. and Madison-ave., New York 
city, on April 11, 1893, and are now in the collection of 
the American Museum of Natural History. I have never 
met with a specimen from Westchester Co. 

Peromyscus leucopus noveboracensis (Fischer) . Noeth- 
easterx White-footed Mouse. 

The White-footed Mouse, or " Deer Mouse " as it is some- 
times called in this neighborhood, is one of the most abundant 
mammals of the county. It inhabits woods and thickets 
and is rarely found far from them, but it sometimes enters 
houses after the manner of the House Mouse and, being an 
expert climber, helps itself to the best the house affords. 

Microtus pennsylvanicus (Ord). Common Meadow 

Mouse. 

The Meadow Mouse, as its name implies, is found most 
commonly throughout the county in low wet meadows 
along the borders of streams. It is probably much more 



44 

common now than in early times, by reason of the clearing 
away of the forests. In the fall these mice seek the cornfields 
in great numbers and there do considerable damage to the 
shocks of corn, especially if they are left standing for a long 
time. As these mice move about by day as well as by night 
they are the prey both of hawks and of owls, vast numbers 
of them being killed. 

Microtus pinetorum scalopsoides (And. and Bach.). 
Northern Pine Mouse. 

The Pme Mouse is occasionally found here and lives 
chiefly on dry hillsides overgrown with long grass and cedars. 
Its habits are probably very much the same as those of the 
preceding species. On May 10, 1898, 1 received a female and 
nest of four young from a farmer who unearthed them while 
ploughing. I have frequently taken them from the house 
cat, but have never caught one in a trap. 

Fiber zibethicus (Linn.). Muskrat. 

The periodical persecution by trapping to which this for- 
merly abundant animal is subjected, is beginning to tell upon 
its numbers in the lower part of the county. Here the 
Muskrat no longer builds houses except where unmolested 
and in very retired situations, but lives almost entirely hi the 
burrows which it constructs in the banks of streams and ponds. 

In the upper parts of the county, this small beaver-like 
rodent is still found in considerable numbers and is exten- 
sively trapped for its fur, and a prime pelt is worth at the 
present time about fifteen cents. 

The usual method of trapping is with a steel trap, placed 
in the margin of the water at the entrance to the burrow or 
landing place of the animal. The chain attached to the trap 
is of sufficient length to permit the entrapped animal to 
flounder off into deep water, where it soon drowns, but unless 



45 

there is sufficient depth of water to permit of complete sub- 
mersion, the Muskrat if caught by a fore foot, will almost 
invariably break loose, leaving only its foot remaining in the 
trap. 

The Muskrat is frequently seen swimming about by day but 
is essentially nocturnal in habit. 

The name " Muskrat" is obviously applied to the animal 
because of the musky oil which the glands secrete ; and this 
secretion so strongly permeates the entire anatomy that a 
piece of flesh cut from any part of the body will be found to 
savor strongly of this essential oil. The flesh is eaten by 
some people, but unless very much disguised in the cook- 
ing, the musky flavor is so strong as to be extremely disagree- 
able. I am informed that a " professional " Muskrat trapper 
who fed his fowls during the whiter largely upon the carcasses 
of Muskrats, the following spring found that the eggs were 
so strongly impregnated with the musk as to be unmarketable. 

Zapus hudsonius (Zimmermann). Meadow Jumping Mouse. 

The Jumping Mouse is by no means common in the lower 
portions of the county, and I have never taken a specimen 
farther south than White Plains. I have made repeated 
inquiry among farmers and others in the neighborhood of 
Hastings concerning this species, but they confound it with 
the White-footed Mouse so that data gained in this way has 
always proven unreliable. 

Dr. Fisher 6 reports them as ' tolerably common ' at Sing 
Sing. 

Lepus floridanus mallurus (Thomas). Southeastern 
Cottontail. Rabbit. 

Two races of Cottontails are said to occur in eastern New 
York — a northeastern form, transitionalis ranging from 
southern New York, northward and a southeastern form, 
n.allurus from southern New York, southward (Bangs 3 ). In 



46 

this district intermediates prevail. Two specimens from 
Hastings which were examined by Mr. Bangs were pro- 
nounced by him to be intermediates, but trending toward 
mallurus. Mr. Miller, in his list of New York mammals 
quotes Dr. Fisher (who records ' L. sylvaticus, — common') 
as having taken both forms at Sing Sing. The status of the 
Westchester Cottontail is therefore in doubt, with the weight 
of present evidence in favor of mallurus. 

When one considers the persecution to which this timid 
animal is subjected by its numerous enemies and the compara- 
tively long period of time for which the helpless young lie 
exposed in the nest trusting only to concealment for safety, 
it is surprising that this creature should be so common as it 
now is, even in the lower part of the county. Mention of 
some of its enemies in this section will perhaps more fully 
emphasize the truth of the above assertion. By day and by 
night, and at all seasons of the year, the Rabbit must exercise 
constant vigilance, for at least four species of hawks, two of 
owls, two species of foxes, the skunk, mink, weasel, dog, cat, 
and — last, but not least — the blood-thirsty ferret manip- 
ulated by the sportsman. Besides these enemies the young 
are subject to the attacks of snakes and many are killed acci- 
dentally by the mowing machine or the scythe. To make up 
for the numbers yearly slain, nature has rendered them 
extremely prolific, two and sometimes three litters being 
brought forth each year, the number in a litter varying from 
four to nine. 

The Cottontail is the only hare now inhabiting this comity. 
It is probable that the Varying Hare (Lepus americanus virgin- 
ianus (Harlan)) formerly existed here, but it has disappeared 
with the clearing away of the heavy forest. In Sullivan 
County where much of the evergreen timber has been removed 
to furnish bark for the tanneries, the Cottontail has gradually 
taken the place of the Varying Hare and where twenty-five 
years ago the former was unknown it is now very abundant, 
while the latter has become correspondingly scarce. 



47 

Felis oregonensis hippolestes (Merriam). Northeastern 

Panther. 

In early times, the Panther was probably as numerous here 
as it was anywhere within its range ; the vast herds of deer at 
that time forming a never-failing supply of food for this great 
cat. 

De Kay 5 states, p. 48 : ' The Cougar or Painter (a corrup- 
tion of the word Panther) is now rarely seen in the southern 
parts of the State ; though the writer remembers when a boy, 
the consternation occasioned by the appearance of one of 
these animals in Westchester Co., not more than twenty-five 
miles from New York.' The Panther has long since been 
extirpated in Westchester Co. 

Dr. Merriam 9 , writing of their occurrence in the Adirondack 
region, in 1882, says (Vol. I, p. 30) : 'A few still remain, and 
some years may yet elapse before the last panther disappears 
from the dense evergreen swamps and high rocky ledges of 
this wilderness.' The last Panther killed in the State, of 
which I find a record, was taken in the Town of Day, Sara- 
toga County, Jan. 6, 1890, by A. P. Flansburgh (Miller 10 , p. 
338). 

Lynx ruffus (Gueldenstaedt). Wildcat. Bay Lynx. 

The Wildcat was formerly a very abundant inhabitant of 
this district. A steep, rocky bluff on the Tuckahoe road in 
the town of Yonkers is still known as the ' Cat Rocks,' and 
received its name from the numbers of these animals which 
formerly resorted to it. (Bolton 4 , p. 490.) 

Van der Donck assures us ' these animals had skins resem- 
bling that of a lioness and not unlike them in form, with the 
exception of short tails like a rabbit or hare.' Dr. Mearns 7 
(p. 351) states that in the early seventies, Wildcats, by their 
depredations, caused so much loss to the residents of Putnam 
Co. (adjoining Westchester on the North) that bounties were 



4 8 

privately subscribed by landowners amounting to #25.00 for 
every one killed in that neighborhood. 

The last record for the county seems to be that given by 
Dr. Fisher 6 in his list of Sing Sing mammals, who says : l The 
last one killed in the neighborhood, as far as we know, was 
shot by a Mr. Reynolds at Katonah, in March, 1880.' 

It is possible that a few individuals still linger in the 
northern parts of the county. 

It may be that in early times the Northern Lynx {Lynx 
canadensis (Kerr.)), occasionally came down into the north- 
ern portions of Westchester Co., for Dr. Mearns 8 (p. 351) 
has recorded it as late as 1878, from the vicinity of Rhine- 
beck on the Hudson River. 

Urocyon cinereoargenteus (Schreber). Gray Fox. 

The Gray Fox (in this district sometimes erroneously 
called the 'Silver Gray') is about as common as the Red 
Fox in the southern portion of the county. It generally 
selects a rocky, timbered ridge for its haunts. It is not so 
fleet of foot nor so sagacious as the Red Fox and will never 
lead the hounds upon so long a chase. It frequently makes 
but a few short circles and then retreats to its den in the 
rocks, after the habit of the Cottontail. 

It has been asserted that the Gray Fox will sometimes 
climb trees when hard pressed by the dogs. I know of but 
one instance of the occurrence of this feat and then the tree 
climbed was one partially fallen which had lodged in the fork 
of an adjoining one, so that the trunk was lying at an angle. 
This fox is an expert mouse catcher and I have frequently 
started one from the long grass of a meadow where he had 
been quietly mousing during the day. 

He sometimes shows little fear of man, as I have occasion- 
ally started one in the long grass only to have him run off a 
short distance, quietly turn round and survey me for several 
moments and then finally make off. 



49 

In the fall of 1892, while quail hunting in a place known 
as "Meadow Hollow" in the neighborhood of Kensico, I 
shot several quail as they rose hi succession. Afterwards in 
searching for the fallen birds, I observed an animal dodging 
through the tall grass, which I at first took to be one of my 
dogs. But following it with my eyes I saw it finally emerge 
on the edge of the swamp and to my surprise it proved to be 
a Gray Fox and hi his mouth a quail, which was probably one 
of my dead birds. 

Vulpes fulvus Desmarest. Red Fox. 

The reputation which the fox has possessed from time 
immemorial is perhaps a sufficient apology for his presence 
among us at the present day. Behig fleet of foot, chiefly 
nocturnal hi habit, and exhibiting great sagacity when pursued 
by hounds or when an attempt is made to trap him, the Red 
Fox will probably exist in the comity for many years to come. 
At the present date he continues his noctivigations even 
within the limits of the city of New York. In the central 
portion of the comity the Red Fox is still probably as abun- 
dant as anywhere within the state, and keeps up his reputa- 
tion as a thief by varying his usual diet of mice, rabbits, etc., 
with an occasional fowl stolen from the poultry yard. This 
propensity for robbing the hen roost seems to be greater in 
this species than in the preceding and prevails chiefly when 
the young are being raised. At this period the entrance to 
the fox burrow presents somewhat the appearance of an open- 
air burial ground for birds and mammals. I have seen the 
remains of numbers of ducks, chickens, hares, woodchucks, 
and even skunks collected for the consumption of the young 
foxes. 

I have never met with the black phase of this fox in West- 
chester County. 



5° 
Canis occidentalis (Hicha?*d$o?i) . Timber Wolf. 

During colonial times wolves were so abundant in the 
county and became so great an enemy of the stock raiser that 
rigid laws and bounties were provided for their destruction. 
Thus we find among Acts of Colonial Assembly of N. Y., 
p. 47 (Bolton 4 , p. 121) the Provincial Assembly compelled to 
issue the following order, entitled, 'An act for destroying 
wolves within this colony: Forasmuch as divers inhabi- 
tants of this colony have suffered many grievous losses in 
their stock, both of sheep and neat cattle, for the prevention 
of which and encouragement of those who shall destroy 
wolves in the said colony, and that the breed of wolves 
within the colony may be wholly rooted out and extin- 
guished, be it enacted etc., that in the County of Westchester 
there be paid twenty shillings for a grown wolf killed by a 
Christian, ten shillings for such a wolf killed by an Indian, 
and half that sum respectively for a whelp.' In this State, 
the wolf is noAv confined to the Adirondack region where a 
few still remain. The last ones killed there of which I have 
any knowledge were four taken in Lewis Co. and two in St. 
Lawrence Co., hi 1897, by George Muir (Miller 10 , pp. 144- 
145). 

In Westchester County the Wolf was exterminated in the 
early part of the past century. The last record so far as I 
have been able to ascertain, was that of a single individual 
which was killed in 1806, in ' Wolf Swamp,' at the source 
of the west branch of the Sprain River, a once famous resort 
for these animals. (Bolton 4 , p. 490.) 

Ursus americanus .Pallas. Black Bear. 

I have been unable to find any published record of the 
occurrence of the Bear in this county, but there is no doubt 
that during early times they were very common. 

De Kay 5 says : 'The Bear, once so numerous in this state, 



5i 

is now chief!}' to be found in the mountains and thinly 
inhabited districts.' 

It still occurs hi the Catskills, and hi the Adirondack 
region they are quite common. 

I have seen a portion of the lower jaw of a bear which was 
excavated from a shell heap at Throgg's Neck, this County, 
by Mr. M. R. Harrington of the American Museum. 

Lutra canadensis (Schreber). Northeastern Otter. 

Being an exceedingly shy animal and disappearing rapidly 
from inhabited districts, the Otter, once so common in every 
part of the county, is now probably extinct here. As evi- 
dence of their former abundance, I quote at second hand 
from Wassanaer's Historie van Europa Amsterdam, 1621-32 
(Doc. Hist. 1 " 2 Vol. III. p. 37) a passage from the ' Description 
and First Settlement of New Netherland ' : 'As regards the 
prosperity of New Netherland, we learn from the arrival 
of the ship whereof Jan May of Hoorn was skipper, that 
everything there was hi good condition. * * * The fur or other 
trade remains in the West India Company, others being for- 
bidden to trade there. Rich beavers, otters, martins, and 
foxes are found there. This cargo consists of five hundred 
otter skins and fifteen hundred beavers. * * * The tribes are in 
the habit of clothing themselves with them ; the fur or hair 
inside, the smooth side without, which, however, they paint 
so beautifully that, at a distance, it resembles lace.' 

Mr. Samuel Rowley informed me that when trout fishing 
he saw an Otter on several occasions in 1858, on the Sprain 
River hi the lower part of the county. The great numbers 
of trout with which this stream abounded probably offered a 
special inducement to the Otters to linger there. The Otter 
is still found in the Highlands on the west bank of the 
Hudson and I have recently received a specimen killed at 
Poplopen Pond in that region, by Mr. John Redner. The 
last date of which I have any knowledge of the capture of an 



52 

individual in this comity was at Pound Ridge during the 
winter of 1890, when Mr. George Isaacs secured a specimen 
and stated that others were occasionally caught there. 

Mephitis mephitica (Shaw). Skunk. 

The Skunk is one of the most common mammals of the 
comity. It is probably much more so now than formerly, 
since the forest land has been converted into farms. In the 
Province of New Brunswick, Canada, I found the Skunk not 
micommon about the settlements, but never met with it in 
the deep forests. It seems to prefer to take up its residence 
somewhere near the abode of man, where a convenient hen- 
house or garbage barrel affords him a variety of dainty morsels 
with which to vary his usual diet of insects, grubs, and birds' 
eggs. 

The Skunk is much trapped for its fur hi this district. 
There is wide variation in the color pattern and skins range 
in value from 40 cents to #1.25, according to the extent of 
the white stripes, the black skunk being the most valuable. 

Skunks, although capable of excavating entire burrows 
usually frequent in this neighborhood old and deserted Wood- 
chuck holes ; hi some cases remodeling the interior to suit 
their individual fancy. 

They propagate rapidly in captivity and I recently read of 
a " skunk farm " which was located in Livingston Co., N. Y., 
where they were raised exclusively for their pelts (Warner u ). 

Putorius vison lutreocephalus (Harlan). Southeastern 

Mink. 

The Mink is still common hi the county in suitable situa- 
tions and is extensively trapped for its fur, which is one of 
the most valuable now harvested here. A prime mink skin 
taken here is now worth from 50 cents to $1.50, according to 
size and color, but the price is subject to periodical fluctuation. 
This is not owing to any variation in the supply of mink fur, 



53 

but to the changes in the fashions of women's garments. 
Although the Mink is essentially a nocturnal animal, it is fre- 
quently seen abroad by day. In common with the Skunk 
and Weasel this species is equipped with scent sacs at the 
root of the tail and when much irritated by its enemies emits 
a most intolerable and penetrating odor. 

Futorius noveboracensis Emmons. Neav York Weasel. 

This Weasel is probably as common in the county now as 
it ever was. Like its distant relative the Skunk, the Weasel 
prefers to live in the neighborhood of the farm ; where mice 
and stone walls affording highways to and from foraging 
expeditions, offer special inducements. They occasionally 
take up their residence under a barn or outbuilding, and no 
greater mistake can be made by the proprietor than to 
destroy them ; for the continued presence of a Weasel on the 
premises is evidence that numbers of mice and rats are slain 
daily. 

I have taken a few winter specimens white in color, but 
they commonly remain brown throughout the year in this 
district. 

I have never seen nor heard of a specimen of the smaller 
weasel (Putorius cicognani) from Westchester Co., although 
Dr. Mearns has recorded it from the Highlands, and it has 
been taken on Long Island (Miller 10 , p. 352). 

Procyon lotor Linn. Raccoon. 

The Raccoon is one of the most common of the larger 
mammals of the comity ; and there is scarcely a stream of 
any great length, even in the thickly populated districts, 
upon the shallows and sand-bars of which tracks of these 
animals may not be seen at the proper season. The strictly 
nocturnal habits and sagacity of the ' coon ' probably stand 
between it and extermination for many years to come. From 
the habit which these animals possess of traveling in shallow 



54 

water and invariably taking to a stream if leading in the 
direction in which they wish to go, they are not likely to be 
tracked to their hiding places by dogs. So well aware of 
this fact do the ' coons ' seem to be that I know of one that 
actually brought forth and raised a litter of young between 
the roof and ceiling of an outhouse, which was built over a 
stream leading away to the woods, in the village of Dobbs 
Ferry, within a few rods of the mam road, Broadway. 

Like the bear, the Raccoon passes the depths of winter in a 
state of hibernation and emerges from his retreat about the 
middle of March in this locality, well rid of the good store of 
fat with which nature had supplied him. 

The Raccoon is still hunted and trapped quite extensively 
in the county, both for sport and for its skin. The hunting 
is usually done at night with the aid of one or more dogs. 
The dogs are permitted to range through the swamps until 
their excited barkmgs announce to the hunters that the ' coon 
is treed.' He is usually shaken from the tree to be killed 
by the dogs below, or is dispatched with a gun shot. In 
trapping, a steel-trap is set under water in shallow places in a 
brook or ditch, and unless the trap is so placed few if any of 
the animals will be taken. In populous districts where they 
are much persecuted by the combined efforts of dog and man, 
they adapt themselves to circumstances and take up their 
abode permanently in " blind drains " i. e. covered ditches, 
where they are free from attack. They even pass the winter 
there hi preference to risking themselves hi the usual hollow 
tree. 

Fhoca vitulina Linn. Haeboe Seal. 

During the winter of 1889, when the river was full of 
floating ice, I remember having seen a seal in the Hudson 
River opposite Hastings, but have neither seen nor heard of 
any since. Dr. Fisher 6 , writing in 1896 (p. 200) says: 
1 Almost every spring one or more seals are seen about the 



ss 

time the ice is breaking up in the river. On March 11, 
1884, an adult male was secured in the Cove.' 

In Long Island Sound this Seal is occasionally seen dur- 
ing the winter. I have seen the skin of one that was shot 
near Rye Beach during the winter of 1897 by Mr. John 
Farrel, who then resided at Hastings. In winter I have 
seen numbers of seals in Lower New York bay, where they 
are called ' Sea Dogs.' It is probable that in early times they 
regularly ascended the Hudson River and were common 
every winter. 

Cystophora cristata (Erxleben). Hooded Seal. 

I quote the following from Mr. Miller 10 (p. 357): 'The 
hooded seal has been taken in New York on one occasion 
only. It is a mere straggler to the coast of the United 
States, though it has been known to wander as far south as 
Chesapeake Bay.' DeKay 5 says (p. 56) : 'This description 
was taken from an adult male captured near Eastchester 
about fifteen miles from the city.' 

Sorex personatus I. Geoffray St. Hilaire. Masked Shrew. 

Personally, I have never met with the Masked Shreiv in 
Westchester Co., and include it in my list on the strength of 
Dr. Fisher's 6 Sing Sing records. He says (p. 194): ' The 
common shrew is rather rare and is the only one of the long- 
tailed species found in the neighborhood. Its scarcity, how- 
ever, may be only apparent, and due wholly or in part to our 
lack of skill in former days, in trapping it successfully. The 
majority of specimens were secured from birds of prey. On 
one occasion, April 18, 1885, two were found in the stomach 
of a red-tailed hawk.' 

Blarina brevicauda {Say). Short-tailed Shrew. 

This is the common shrew of Westchester Comity found 
both in the woods and in the fields. They breed exclusively 



56 

in burrows constructed under ground, and the nest is in many 
cases placed underneath a decayed stump. I have excavated 
a number of burrows and have found in some instances a 
nicely constructed nest of broken up leaves. Numbers of 
snail shells were found in some of the burrows, the bottoms 
of the shells having been eaten away and the tenant missing, 
presumably devoured by the shrews. They probably breed 
quite late in the season, or else have several litters, as two 
females which I opened on May 27, 1898, contained half- 
grown embryos. 

Scalops aquaticus {Linn.). Naked-tailed Mole. Common 
Mole. Ground Mole. 

This quiet subterranean dweller is abundant in all parts of 
the county and makes his presence known by his ' hills ' or 
' tracks ' which are thrown up in the gardens and lawns. The 
mole displays his greatest activity during the early hours of 
morning and evening or soon after a shower succeeding a 
prolonged draught. Although he is strictly insectivorous 
in his diet and therefore a friend to the agriculturist, the 
methods he uses to procure his food render him a pest, and 
as such his life is generally sought for by the gardner. 

A female which I opened on April 24, 1898, contained 
four half-grown embryos. 

Condylura cristata {Linn.). Star-nosed Mole. 

This species of mole is not nearly so common in the county 
as the preceding and is confined chiefly to low swampy situa- 
tions. 

I have never taken a specimen in the neighborhood of 
Hastings, but have seen several from the vicinity of the Fair 
Grounds near White Plains, where the land is flat and damp. 



57 

Myotis lucifugus (Le Conte). Little Brown Bat. 

I have never met with this bat from Westchester County, 
and record it on the strength of one specimen taken at Sing 
Sing, N. Y., by Dr. Fisher 6 , who says (p. 195) : < Out of the 
hundreds of bats collected only one of this species was ever 
secured, which was on June 9, 1884.' 

Myotis subulatus (Say). Say's Bat. 

I have never taken Say's Bat at Hastings, but on June 
11, 1893, a number of both young and old were found hang- 
ing to the rafters of the railroad station at Elmsford, this 
county, and are now in the collection of the American 
Museum, where they have been identified by Dr. J. A. Allen 
as being of this species. 

Lasionycteris noctivagans (Le Conte). Silvery Bat. 

The Silvery Bat is tolerably common in the county and I 
have found them flying about in openings in the woods just 
before dusk. All the specimens I have ever secured have 
been taken in such situations* 

Pipistrellus subflavus (F. Ouvier). Georgia Bat. 

The Georgia Bat is common in the vicinity of Hastings 
and is found chiefly flying about over the water at night. 
Dr. Fisher 6 states that this is the commonest bat at Sing 
Sing. There is one specimen in the collection of the Ameri- 
can Museum labeled " Hastings, Westchester Co., N. Y., May 
22, 1893. 

Vespertilio fuscus Beauvois. Brown Bat. 

The big Brown Bat is found at Hastings but is not nearly 
so common as the Georgia Bat. 



5» 

Lasiurus cinereus (Beauvois) . Hoary Bat. 

I have never taken the Hoary Bat in Westchester Co. 

Mr. E. B. Southwick of New York City showed me two 
specimens which he secured in Central Park. 

Mr. Eugene P. Bicknell has recorded it from Riverdale, 
this county, where he took one which was hanging from a 
branch, on Sept. 30, 1878. (Merriam 9 , Vol. II, p. 81.) 

Lasiurus b or ealis {Muller). Red Bat. 

This is by far the commonest bat at Hastings, and may be 
observed during summer evenings flying back and forth in 
search of insects, along lanes or in open spaces between rows 
of trees or patches of timber. 



A. — List of species found in Westchester County 

FOR WHICH THERE ARE ACTUAL RECENT RECORDS. 



DlDELPHIS VIRGINIANA. 

Phoc^ena PHOCJENA. 
TURSIOPS TURSIO. 
SCIURUS HUDSONICUS LOQUAX. 
SdURUS CAROLINENSIS LEUCOTIS. 
Tamias STRIATUS STRIATUS. 

Arctomys monax. 
sciuropterus volans. 

Mus MUSCULUS. 

MlTS DECUMANUS. 

Peromyscus LEUCOPUS NOVEBORACENSIS. 

mlcrotus pennsylvanicus. 

mlcrotus pinetorum scalopsoides. 

Fiber zibethicus. 

Zapus hudsonius. 

Lepus floridanus mallurus. 

Lynx ruffus. 

Urocyon CINEREOARGENTEUS. 
VULPES FULVUS. 



Opossum. 
Harbor Porpoise. 
Porpoise. 
Red Squirrel. 
Gray Squirrel. 
Chipmunk. 
Woodchuck. 
Flying Squirrel. 
House Mouse. 
House Rat. 
White-footed Mouse. 
Meadow Mouse. 
Pine Mouse. 
Muskrat. 
Jumping Mouse. 
Cotton-tail or Rabbit. 
Wildcat. 
Gray Fox. 
Red Fox. 



59 

LlJTRA CANADENSIS. 

Mephitis mephitica. 
putorius vison lutreocephalus. 
putorius noveboracensis. 
Procyon LOTOR. 
Phoca VITULINA. 
SOREX PERSONATUS. 
Blarina BREVICAUDA. 
SCALOPS AQUATICUS. 
CoNDYLURA CRISTATA. 
Myotis LUCIFUGUS. 
Myotis subulatus. 
Lasionycteris noctivagans. 
plpistrellus subflavus. 
Vespertilio ftjscus. 
lasiurus c1nereus. 
Lasiurus borealis. 



Otter. 
Skunk. 
Mink. 
Weasel. 
Raccoon. 
Harbor Seal. 
Masked Shrew. 
Short-tailed Shrew. 
Common Mole. 
Star-nosed Mole. 
Little Brown Bat. 
Say's Bat. 
Silvery Bat. 
Georgia Bat. 
Brown Bat. 
Hoary Bat. 
Red Bat. 



Total number of species noiv found — 36. 



B. — Species recorded within historic times which have 

SINCE BEEN EXTIRPATED. 



Odocoileus AMERICANUS. 
sciurus ludovicianus vicinus. 
Castor canadensis. 
mus rattus. 

Felis OREGONENSIS hippolestes. 
Canis occidentalis. 
ursus americanus. 
cystophora cristata. 



Virginia Deer. 
Fox Squirrel. 
American Beaver. 
Black Rat. 
Panther. 
Timber Wolf. 
Black Bear. 
Hooded Seal. 



Total number of species extirpated — 8. 

C. — Fossil species recorded. 



Mastodon americanus. 
Cervus canadensis. 

Total number of fossil species — 2. 



Mastodon. 
Elk or Wapiti. 



6o 

References. 

1. New York State Reports on the Noxious, Beneficial and other 
Insects. Rep. 1-5, 1856. 

2. Baird, S. F. 'Pacific R. R. Reports.' Mammals, Vol. VIII, 1857. 

3. Bangs, O. The Geographical Distribution of the Eastern Races of the 
Cottontail (Lepus sylvaticus Bach.) etc. — Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 
XXVI, 1895. 

4. Bolton. History of the County of Westchester. Vol. I, 1848. 

5. De Kay, J. E. Natural History of New York, Pt. 1, Vol. I, Mammalia, 
New York, 1842. 

6. Fisher, A. K. The Mammals of Sing Sing, New York. — Observer 
(Portland, Conn.), Vol. VII, 1896, pp. 193-200. 

7. Mearns, E. A. A Study of the Vertebrate Fauna of the Hudson High- 
lands, with observations on the Mollusca, Crustacea, Lepidoptera, and the 
Flora of the Region.— Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Vol. X, 1898, pp. 303- 
352. 

8. Mearns, E. A. Mammals of Catskill Mountains, New York. — Proc. 
U. S. Nat. Museum, Vol. XXI, 1898, pp. 341-360. 

9. Merriam, C. H. The Vertebrates of the Adirondack Region, North- 
eastern New York.— Trans. Linnsean Soc. N. Y., Vol. I, 1882, pp. 5-106, 
Vol. II, 1884, pp. 5-214. 

10. Miller, G. S. Preliminary List of the Mammals of New York. — Bull. 
N. Y. State Museum, Vol. 6, No. 29, Oct. 1899, pp. 273-390. 

11. Warner, A. D. A Western New York Skunk Farm — Rural New 
Yorker, Vol. II, No. 2194, Feb. 13, 1892. 

12. Documentary History of New York, Vol. II, 1849 ; III, 1849. 



6i 



Some Food Birds of the Eskimos of North- 
western Greenland. 

By J. D. Figgins. 

Possibly at no other place on the globe are birds so 
extensively used for food and clothing, as they are in north 
Greenland. A portion of this bleak and barren coast is 
inhabited by a small tribe of Eskimo, commonly known as 
the Arctic Highlanders, consisting of abont 250 individuals, 
and divided into seven or eight settlements. Through force 
of circumstances these natives are strictly carnivorous and a 
large supply of meat is required, not only for their personal 
use, but for their numerous packs of sledge dogs. Seals and 
Walruses are the animals most hunted in order to obtain 
food, but they are not to be depended upon entirely, as it is 
impossible hi some years, to secure the necessary numbers. 
Caribou are not common, and are very hard to obtain. 
Narwhals are taken during the early spring, but usually in 
very limited numbers and they make only a slight change in 
the usual bill of fare. Whenever there is a shortage of Seals 
and Walruses, — and this occurs often — the natives depend 
almost entirely upon birds. Seals and Walruses often desert 
a locality for a year or two, and to be prepared for this the 
natives locate their villages as near bird rookeries as possible, 
regardless of unfavorable conditions. The stupidity of the 
birds renders them an easy prey for the hunters whose meth- 
ods of capture are very simple. As soon as the birds arrive 
in the sprmg the harvest beghis, and ceases only when an 
abundance of other game is assured. 

While at Cape York during the summer of 1896, I was 
invited by a party of native hunters to accompany them on an 
expedition to the great rookery of Dovekies (Alle alle) near 



62 

that place, and being greatly interested I gladly accepted their 
invitation. It was a strictly business affair with them, and 
they requested me to leave my gun behind and take along a 
net, which, of course, I did. A half hour's row brought us 
to the foot of a high cliff, the base of which was piled to the 
height of about two hundred feet with boulders, detached 
from it by the action of the elements. This mass of loose 
and treacherous rock — entering the water at an angle of 
about 45 degrees — was the breeding ground of the Dove- 
kies, and here they were to be captured. 

These birds deposit their eggs well down in the crevices 
among the smaller stones and at the time of my visit the 
y oung birds were nearly ready to leave the nests. A curious 
subdued murmur, made by the plaintive call of the young 
birds, formed a kind of back-ground of sound for the louder 
notes of the adults, whose incessant chatter gave abundant 
proof of the countless thousands breeding at the rookery. 
Climbing to an altitude of about one hundred and fifty feet 
we reached the flight zone of the Dovekies, where there was 
a continuous movement of large flocks, whose sole employ- 
ment appeared to be flying round and round in circles which 
extended from within a few feet of the cliff to well out over 
the water. Consequently to come within striking distance 
of the birds, it was only necessary to watch a flock, and while 
they were away on their circuit, to take a position screened 
from view behind a large rock in their line of flight. 

A curiously constructed net is used at present for capturing 
the birds. It consists of a hoop about two feet in diameter 
across which a net, slightly bagging, is constructed. The 
hoop is secured at the end of a light pole about ten feet in 
length, and when in use the nets remind one very much of 
lawn-tennis racquets on a large scale, being swept forward 
with similar strokes. The hunter places the net on the 
rocks in the opposite direction from which the birds are 
expected, and on their approach raises it to meet them with 



63 

considerable force, which stuns or entangles them in its 
meshes. The net is. quickly drawn to the hunter and the 
victims secured. A firm, quick pressure under the wings 
usually causes almost instant death, but to make their cap- 
ture doubly sure, the wings are crossed on the back which pre- 
vents flight in case they survive the deadly pressure. Again 
the net is placed in position ready for a new strike. The 
escaping birds of the flock invariably dart aside in unison 
when the strike is made, but they apparently forget all dan- 
ger by the time they have again completed their circuit, for 
they repeat the movement time and time again until their 
diminished numbers make the casting of the net a labor that 
is practically without result. A new flock is then selected 
and the work continued until a sufficient number of birds is 
secured. 

Before the advent of the white man, from whom materials 
for net making are obtained, a more primitive method was 
employed, namely, throwing stones, and it is still carried on 
by the younger generation, with considerable success. Dove- 
kies display great curiosity, and if the hunter sits quietly in 
full view, he will soon have an audience of them near him, all 
bent on occupying one rock, regardless of its size or of their 
numbers. A compact flock of birds soon results, and a well 
directed stone thrown into their midst does great execution. 
Stones may be thrown a number of times at the same flock 
before they decide to adjourn. I experimented with both 
methods, but found the latter most successful, as I was either 
too late or too soon with the net, much to the amusement of 
the natives. 

On Saunders Island the method of bird catching is not 
quite the same, as the birds and conditions are different. 
The net is used, however, to advantage. At this rookery 
Briinnich's Murre ( Uria lomvia) is the principal species taken, 
although when a very large supply of birds is needed, Kitti- 
wake Gulls (Rissa tridaetyla) are also hunted. The rookery 



64 

is on a perpendicular cliff, rising from the water to a height 
of several hundred feet, the birds occupying a space about 
half a mile in length, and from a few feet above high tide to 
the very top, and every projection of rock is covered with 
birds, so that standing room appears to be at a premium. 
Hunting at this rookery is little short of murder, for the 
stupid birds can be clubbed from their insecure perches or 
netted by the hundreds. Approaching the cliff in his kayak, 
the hunter gently presses his net against bird after bird that 
in its struggles to escape thrusts its head into the meshes of 
the net which entraps it. Each bird is quickly drawn to the 
hunter and dispatched, those remaining not being at all dis- 
turbed and the space made vacant by one is immediately 
occupied by another. When the sea is smooth the natives 
often climb upon the ledges of rock and club the Murres, 
hundreds being killed in this way in a very short time. The 
hunters frequently meet with accidents at this rookery for 
the perpendicular cliff and a heavy swell make ' kayaking ' 
dangerous. 

Puffins (Fratercula arctiea glacialis) and Eider Ducks 
(Somateria mollissima borealis and S. spectabilis) are much 
prized by the natives and are killed by spearing from the 
kayak. The spear is simply a sharpened rod of iron set mto 
the end of a light shaft. At fifteen or twenty yards the 
hunter seldom misses his mark. Ptarmigans (Lagojjus lago- 
pus) are also taken, but in very limited numbers as they are 
not common. Dovekie and Murre skins are used throughout 
the tribe for making clothing, and hundreds of them are pre- 
served each year for this purpose. In removing the skin, the 
wings are cut off near the body, and the skins are cut loose 
at the base of the neck and stripped over the body. The 
Eskimo's simple, but effective method for removing all fat 
and making the skins soft and pliable, is to give them a 
thorough chewing. 

It would be impossible to estimate the number of birds 



65 

taken by this tribe each year, even when other game is plenti- 
ful, but it must be enormous. Still the birds do not appear 
to be on the decrease, for the outer edges of the rookery have 
a new appearance that leads me to believe the breeding area 
is being extended. A few years ago an epidemic caused the 
death of a large percentage of the Eskimos and as the food 
demand was consequently less, the extension of the rookery 
may have resulted. This, of course, is merely a conjecture, 
but it seems plausible. 

From an economic standpoint the birds of this cheerless 
Arctic region are in the superlative degree a necessity to the 
Eskimo, and without them they would long since have 
perished by famine. That the natives can never exterminate 
the birds seems assured, for the greater portion of them are 
inaccessible ; and if the great herds of Seals and Walruses 
become extinct, and even the natives themselves cease to 
exist, the birds will probably still continue to rear their young 
among these desolate and rocky surroundings. 



INDEX. 



Abbott, C. G , 17. 

Acanthis linaria rostrata, 6. 

iEgialitis vocifera, 4. 

Agkistrodon contortrix, 12. 

Agaphalus gibbosus, 22. 

Alces ainericanus, 32. 

Allealle,61. 

Allen, J. A., Musk-Oxen of Arctic 
America and Greenland, 6. 

Alligator, 15. 

Ammodramus sandwichensis sa- 
vanna, 17. 

Antrostomus vociferus, 4. 

Arctomys monax, 23, 39, 58. 

Ardetta exilis, 16. 

Bal^ena cisarctica, 21. 

physalus, 22. 
Bat, Brown, 30, 57, 59. 
Georgia, 57, 59. 
Hoary, 30, 58, 59. 
Little Brown, 57, 59. 
Bed, 30, 58, 59. 
Say's, 57, 59. 
Silvery, 30, 57, 59. 
Bear, Black, 50, 59. 
Beaver, 41, 59. 

Beebe, C. W., A Summer's Study in 
Nova Scotian Biology, 11 ; Notes 
on Birds in the Bronx Zoological 
Park, 13; Review of Meyer and 
Wigglesworth's Birds of Celibes, 
15. 
Beetle, Colorado, 27. 
Bishop, L. B„ 4, 6, 10, Summer 
Birds of Warren, Conn., 11; Win- 
ter Birds of Pea Island, N. C., 11 ; 
12. 
Bittern, Least, 16. 
Blackfish, 21. 

Blarina brevicauda, 29, 55, 59. 
Boa Constrictor, 2. 
Branta canadensis, 14. 
Bristol, C. L., Sea-gardens of Ber- 
muda, 7. 
Buteo lineatus, 6, 12. 

Callopeltis guttatus, 2. 
Canis occidentalis, 50, 59. 



Carduelis carduelis, 17. 

Caribou, 61. 

Castor canadensis, 41. 

Cervus canadensis, 32, 59. 

Chapman, P. M., Bird Studies with 

a Camera, 4 ; Methods in Bird 

Photography, 12. 
Cherrie, G. K, Notes on Bird Life 

along the Orinoco Biver, 4. 
Chipmunk, 22, 35, 38, 58. 
Chordeiles virginianus, 4. 
Coccyzus erythrophthalmus, 4. 
Committees, 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 

16, 18. 
Comprosoma corais, 2. 
Condylura cristata, 30, 56, 59. 
Coot, 16. 

Cottontail, 25, 45, 58. 
Cougar, 47. 

Crotalus horridus, 2, 12. 
Cuckoo, Black-billed, 4. 
Cuterebra emasculator, 36. 
Cystop'iora cristata, 29, 55, 59. 

Deer, Virginia, 22, 34, 59. 

Delphinapterus leucas, 2. 

Delphinus delphis, 20. 

Dendroica ?estiva, 4. 
striata, 4. 
virens, 19. 

Didelphis virginana, 20, 33, 58. 

Ditmars, R. L., Care of Captive 
Snakes, 1 ; Collecting Snakes in 
South Carolina, 7 ; Care of Sick 
Animals in the Bronx Zoological 
Park, 14; New Observations on 
Reptiles in the Bronx Zoological 
Park, 18. 

Dog, Sea, 29, 55. 

Dolphin, 20. 

Dovekie, 61, 64. 

Duck, Eider, 64. 

Dutcher W., With Sea-birds on the 
Maine Coast, 5 ; 11, 12; Some Bird 
Studies in Maine, 13 ; 15, 16. 

Dwight, J. Jr., Moult of the North 
American Shore Birds, 4 ; Se- 
quence of Moults and Plumages 
of the Laridse, 5. 



68 



Elk, 32, 59. 
Empidonax virescens, 19. 

Felis oregonensis hippolestes, 47, 59. 
Fiber zibethicus, 16, 25, 44, 58. 
Figgins, J. D., Food Birds of Eskimos 

of Greenland, 12, 61-65. 
Fisher, 33. 

Flycatcher, Acadian, 19. 
Foster, E. G., Birds of Tennyson's 

Poems, 4. 
Fox, Gray, 25, 48, 58. 
Red, 25, 49, 58. 
Fratercula arctica glacialis, 64. 
Fulica americana, 16. 

Gallinago delicata, 16. 
Globicephalus melas, 21. 
Goldfinch, European, 17. 
Goose, Canada, 14. 
Grampus griseus, 21. 
Grebe, Pied-billed, 16. 
Gull, Herring, 13. 

Kittiwake, 63. 

Hare, Varying, 33, 46. 
Hawk, Bed-shouldered, 6, 12. 
Helme, A. H., Notes on Mammals of 

Long Island, 3, 19-30. 
Helminthophila lawrencei, 5. 

pinus, 5. 
Heron, Night, 14. 
Herring Hog, 20. 
Hyperoodon rostratus, 21. 

Junco hyemalis, 6. 

KlLLDEER, 4. 

Killer, 21. 

Lagopus, lagopus, 64. 

Lampropeltis getulus, 2. 

Lark, Horned, 16. 

Larus argentatus smithsonianus, 13. 

Lasionycteris noctivagans, 30, 57, 59. 

Lasiurus borealis, 30, 58, 59. 

cinereus, 30, 58, 59. 
Lectures, 6, 7. 
Lepus americanus virginianus, 46. 

floridanus mallurus, 25, 45, 58. 

floridanus transitionalis, 25, 45. 
Lutra canadensis, 26, 51, 59. 
Lynx canadensis, 48. 

ruff us, 47, 58. 
Lynx, Bay, 47. 

Northern, 48. 

Mastodon americanus, 33, 59. 



Matthew, W. D., Climate and Evo- 
lution, 14. 
Megascops asio, 36. 
Melospiza lincolnii, 5. 

georgiana, 16. 
Membership, 8, 17. 
Mephitis mephitica, 27, 52, 59. 
Merriam, C. H., A Naturalist on the 

Coast of Alaska, 7. 
Merula migratoria, 15. 
Microtus nesophilus, 24. 

pennsylvanicus, 24, 43, 58. 

pinetorum scalopsoides, 3, 24, 
44, 58. 
Migration, 5. 
Mink, 27, 52, 59. 
Mole, Brewer's, 33. 

Common, 30, 56, 59. 

Ground, 30. 

Star- nosed, 30, 56, 59. 
Monkey, Spider, 15. 
Moose, 32. 
Mouse, Common, 16. 

Deer, 43. 

Gull Island, 19, 24. 

House, 23, 42, 58. 

Jumping, 25, 45, 58. 

Meadow, 19, 24, 43, 58. 

Pine, 3, 24, 44, 58. 

Red-backed, 33. 

White-footed, 24, 43, 58. 
Murre, Briinnich's, 14, 63, 64. 
Mus decumanus, 16, 23, 42, 43, 58. 

musculus, 16, 23, 42, 58. 

rattus, 23, 42, 59. 
Musk-Ox, 6. 
Muskrat, 16, 25, 44, 58. 
Mustela fusca, 27. 
Myotis lucifugus, 30, 57, 59. 

subulatus, 30, 57, 59. 

Narwhal, 61. 

Nighthawk, 4. 

Nyctala acadica, 19. 

Nycticorax nycticorax naevius, 14. 

Odocoileus americanus, 22, 34, 59. 
Officers of the Society, 9, 18. 
Opossum, 20, 33, 58. 
Orang-outans, 14. 
Orca orca, 21. 
Otocoris alpestris 16. 
Otter, 26, 51, 59. 
Owl, Barred, 12. 

Burrowing, 4. 

Saw-whet, 19. 

Screech, 36. 



6 9 



Painter, 47. 

Panther, 47, 59. 

Passer domesticus, 6, 42. 

Peromyscus leucopus noveboracen- 

sis, 24, 43, 58. 
Phoca vitulina, 3, 29, 54, 59. 
Phocsena phocsena, 20, 34, 58. 
Physeter macrocephalus, 21. 
Pipistrellus subflavus, 57, 59. 
Piranga rubra, 4, 12. 
Pituophis inelanoleucus, 2. 
Podilymbus podiceps, 16. 
Porcupine, 33. 
Porpoise, 20, 33, 58. 

Bottlenosed, 20. 

Harbor, 20, 34, 58. 

Sea, 20. 

White, 3. 
Proctor, T., 3. 
Procyon lotor, 29, 53, 59. 
Ptarmigan, 64. 
Puffin, 64. 

Putorius vison lutreocephalus, 27, 
52, 59. 

cicognanii, 27, 53. 

noveboracensis, 28, 53, 59. 

Rabbit, 25, 28, 45, 58. 
Raccoon, 28, 29, 53, 59. 
Rail, Clapper, 16. 

Virginia, 16. 
Rallus crepitans, 16. 

virginianus, 16. 
Rat, Black, 23, 42, 59. 

Cave, 33. 

Common, 16. 

House, 23, 42, 58. 
Rattlesnake, 2, 12. 
Redpoll, Greater, 6. 
Redstart, 4. 
Rissa tridactyla, 63. 
Robin, 15. 

Rowley, J., Mammals of West 
Chester County, 7, 31-60. 

Sable, 33. 

Sandpiper, Solitar5 T , 4. 
Scalops aquaticus, 30, 56, 59. 
Sciuropterus volans, 23, 40, 58. 
Sciurus carolinensis leucotis, 3, 22, 
36, 58. 

hudsonicus loquax, 22, 35, 58. 

ludovicianus, 22. 

ludovicianus vicinus, 22, 38, 
59. 
Seal, 61, 65. 

Harbor, 3, 29, 54, 59. 



Sea, Hooded, 29, 55, 59. 
Secretary, annual reports of, 8, 17. 
Setophaga ruticilla, 4. 
Sennett, G. B., resolutions upon the 

death of , 2. 
Shrew, Masked, 29, 55, 59. 

Short-tailed, 29, 55, 59. 
Sibaldius tectirostris, 21. 
Skunk, 27, 52, 59. 

Smith, E., Notes on Some Local 
Fishes and Batrachians, 3; Mak- 
ing and Care of Aquaria, 9; Some 
Wild Life in the vicinity of New 
York City, 16. 
Snake, Brown, 12. 

Copperhead, 12. 

Corn, 2. 

Gopher, 2. 

King, 2. 

Pine, 2. 
Snipe, English, 16. 
Somateria mollissima borealis, 64. 

spectabilis, 64. 
Sorex personatus, 29, 55, 59. 
Sparrow, English, 6. 

Field, 10. 

Lincoln's, 5. 

Savanna, 17. 

Swamp, 16. 

White- throated, 10. 
Speotyto cunicularia hypogsea, 4. 
Spizella pusilla, 10. 
Squirrel, Flying, 23, 40, 58. 

Fox, 22, 38, 59. 

Gray, 3, 22, 36, 58. 

Red, 22, 35, 58. 

Western Fox, 22. 
Starling, European, 6. 
Sterna hirundo, 5. 
Storeria dekayi, 12. 
Sturnus vulgaris, 6. 
Syrnium nebulosum, 12. 

Tamias striatus, 23, 38, 58. 
Tanager, Summer, 4, 12. 
Tern, Common, 5. 
Thryothorus ludovicianus, 19. 
Totanus, flavipes, 4. 

melanoleucus, 4. 

solitarius, 4, 
Treasurer, annual reports of, 8, 17. 
Troglodytes aedon, 41. 

hiemalis, 10. 
Tursiops tursio, 20, 33, 58. 
Turtle, Galapagos, 14. 

Uria lomvia, 14, 63. 



7° 



Urocyon cinereoargenteus, 25, 48, 58. 
Ursus americanus, 50, 59. 

Vespertilio fuscus, 30, 57, 59. 
Vulpes fulvus, 25 49, 58. 

Wallace, W. S., Snakes of Rock- 
land County, N. Y., 12. 
Walrus, 61, 65. 
Wapiti, 32, 59. 
Warbler, Black- poll. 4. 

Black-throated Green, 19. 

Blue-winged, 5. 

Lawrence's, 5. 

Yellow, 4. 
Weasel, Bonaparte's, 27. 

New York, 28, 53, 59. 

Short-tailed, 33. 



Whale, Black, 21. 

Bottle-nosed, 21. 

Fin-backed, 21. 

Right, 21. 

Sperm, 21. 
Whip poor-will, 4. 
Wildcat, 47, 58. 
Wolf, Timber, 50, 59. 
Woodchuck, 23, 39, 58. 
Wren, Winter, 10. 

Carolina, 19. 



Yellow-legs, 4. 
Greater, 4. 



Zapus hudsonius, 25, 45, 58. 
Zonotrichia albicollis, 10. 






Officers of the Linnaean Society 

OF NEW YORK. 

1901-1902. 

President, Jonathan Dwight, Jr., 

Vice-President, William Dutcher, 

Secretary, ....... Walter Granger, 

Ireasurer, L. B. WOODRUFF. 



Members of the Linnaean Society 



OF NEW YORK. 

MARCH, 1902. 



Honorary Hembers. 

Daniel G. Elliot, F. R. S. E. C. Hart Merriam, M. D. 



Corresponding flembers. 



C. C. Abbott, M. D. 
G. S. Agersborg. 
Franklin Benner. 
John Burroughs. 
Charles B. Cory. 
Philip Cox. 
Charles Dury. 

B. H. Dutcher, M.D. 
A. K. Fisher, M.D. 
Wm. H. Fox, M.D. . 

E. S. Gilbert. 

C. L. Herrick. 
Charles F. Holder. 
Arthur H. Howell. 
A. M. Ingersoll. 

F. W. Langdon, M.D. 
Mrs, F. E. B. Latham. 



Wm. K. Lente. 

Leverett M. Loomis. 

Alfred Marshall. 

Theo. L. Mead. 

James C. Merrill, M.D. 

Harry C. Oberholser. 

C. J. Pennock. 

Thomas S. Roberts, M. D. 

Theodore Roosevelt. 

John H. Sage. 

R. W. Shufeldt, M. D. 

Ernest Seton Thompson. 

Spencer Trotter, M. D. 

B. H. Warren, M. D. 

S. W. Williston, M.D., Ph.D. 

Thomas W. Wilson. 



Resident Members. 



Clinton G. Abbott. 
J. A. Allen, Ph.D. 
Samuel P. Avery. 
Mrs. Samuel P. Avery. 
George Strong Baxter, Jr. 
Miss Grace B. Beach. 
Daniel C. Beard. 
C. W. Beebee. 
Gerard Beekman. 
M. H. Beers. 
August Belmont. 
Charles M. Berrian. 
Edward W. Berry. 
M. La-ngdon Bird. 
Louis B. Bishop, M. D. 
Eli W. Blake. 
Frank S. Bond. 
William C. Braislin, M.D. 
Jno. I. D. Bristol. 
Hermon C. Bumpus. 
William J. Cassard. 
H. A. Cassebeer, Jr. 
Henry C Carter. 
Frank M. Chapman. 
J. L. Childs. 
S. H. Chubb. 
Charles C. Clarke. 
Charles F. Cox. 

S. D. COYKENDALL. 

Charles F. Dieterich. 
Raymond L. Ditmars. 
Cleveland H. Dodge. 
William E. Dodge. 
Andrew E. Douglass. 
William Dutcher. 
Jonathan Dwight, Jr., M.D. 
Robert W. Eastman, M.D. 
William Ellsworth. 
Miss E. A. Foster. 
Samuel A. French. 
Theodore K. Gibbs. 
Edwin A. Goodridge, M.D. 
V a lter Granger. 



Isaac J. Greenwood. 
Alexander Hadden, M.D. 
William C. Harris. 
J. Camoreau Hatie. 
H. O. Havemeyer, Jr. 

A. E. Haynes. 
R. G. Hazard. 
Harold Herrick. 
E. R. Holden. 
Henry Holt. 
Thomas H. Hubbard. 

B. Talbot B. Hyde. 

E. Francis Hyde. 
Frederick E. Hyde, M.D. 
Frederick E. Hyde, Jr. 

F. W. Hyde. 
John B. Ireland. 
John Irving. 
David B. Ivison. 
Mortimer Jesurun, M.D. 
Frank Edgar Johnson. 
Walter A. Johnson. 

S. Nicholson Kane. 
Rev. A. B. Kendig. 
Rudolph Keppler. 
William Kevan. 
Bancel LaFarge. 
Woodbury G. Langdon. 
J. D. Lange. 

G. Langmann, M.D. 
John B. Lawrence. 
Newbold T. Lawrence. 
Charles A. Leale, M.D. 
William P. Lemmon. 

H. C. A. Leutloff. 
Walter S. Logan. 
Seth Low, LL.D. 
Rev. Haslett McKim. 
A. J. Macdonald. 
Robert L. Maitland. 
Edgar A. Mearns, M.D. 
Waldron D. W. Miller. 
Guilbert O. Miller. 



A. G. Mills. 
Robert T. Morris, M. 
Mrs. Parker Morrison. 
Henry F. Osborn, Sc.D. 
William C. Osborn. 
A. G. Paine, Jr. 
A. H. Phillips. 
Louis H. Porter. 
Joseph M. Pray. 
l. s. quackenbush. 
Mrs. Henry Read. 
Edward S. Renwick. 

C. B. Riker. 
William C. Rives, M.D. 
J. Hampden Robb. 

S. H. Robbins. 
John Rowley. 
Clarence A. Rundall. 
Bernard Sachs, M.D. 
T. G. Sellew. 
W. P. Shannon, Jr. 
William L. Sherwood. 
Charles Sill. 
S. T. Skidmore. 
Benjamin Stern. 
Alexander H. Stevens. 
George T. Stevens, M.D. 
Mason A. Stone. 
William E. Tefft. 
Samuel Thorne. 
Millet F. Thompson. 
Henry F. Walker, M.D. 
W. S. Wallace. 
William Wicke. 

D. O. Wickham. 
John T. Willets. 
Robert R. Willets. 
Mrs. Cynthia A. Wood. 
Lewis B. Woodruff. 
Curtis C. Young. 
Louis A. Zerega, M.D.